Breathing

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igcse breathing chapter

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Breathing

  1. 1. BREATHING
  2. 2. CURRICULUM CONTENT  8.3 Gas exchange  Core  • List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals  • Identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and  associated capillaries  • State the differences in composition between inspired and expired air  • Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air
  3. 3.  • Investigate and describe the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing  Supplement  • Describe the role of the ribs, the internal and external intercostal muscles and the  diaphragm in producing volume and pressure changes leading to the ventilation of the lungs  • Explain the role of mucus and cilia in protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles  • Explain the link between physical activity and rate and depth of breathing in terms of  changes in the rate at which tissues respire and therefore of carbon dioxide concentration  and pH in tissues and in the blood
  4. 4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  5. 5.  Trachea:  Secretes mucous,traps dust particles and bacteria  Cells lining trachea have special hair like structure called cilia,microscopic  Cilia beat in upward direction and move mucous towards pharynx  Mucous is either swallowed or spit out
  6. 6. TRACHEA
  7. 7. INSPIRATION VS EXPIRATION
  8. 8. INSPIRATION  Taking in air  External intercostal muscles contract .this causes ribs to swing up and out increasing volume of thorax .front to back  The muscles of diaphragm contract ,pulling it flat further increasing the volume of thorax .this time top to bottom  Resulting increase in volume of thorax decreases its pressure
  9. 9. EXPIRATION  Breathing out air  The external intercostal muscles relax .the ribs swing down and in  The diaphragm muscle relax and the diaphragm domes upward again  These actions decrease the volume of thoracic cavity
  10. 10. ADAPTATION OF ALVEOLI  Millions of alveoli provide large surface area for gaseous exchange  Walls of alveoli are covered with layer of water to dissolve gases  The walls are only one cell thick for quick and easy diffusion of gases in solution  Richly supplied with capillaries for rapid transport of gases
  11. 11. ALVEOLI
  12. 12. ALVEOLI

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