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Uncinariasis: Necator americanus y Ancylostoma duodenale

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HELMINTOS: NEMATODOS

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Uncinariasis: Necator americanus y Ancylostoma duodenale

  1. 1. Llamada también anquilostomiasis. Distribución geográfica: regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Reservorio: Hombre enfermo. Vía de infección: Penetración activa transcutánea (Piel). Hospedero: Humanos y animales.
  2. 2. Endodermo Pseduocele Mesodermo Pared del cuerpo
  3. 3.  Presenta 3 formas larvarias, 2 son aerobias (facultativas u obligadas), ciclo de Krebs y citocromos. La forma adulta es anaerobia. Reproducción sexual y fecundación interna. Se alimentan por ASPIRACIÓN de la sangre del hospedero.
  4. 4. Factores de virulencia Proteasas aspárticas Aminopeptidasa Cisteinproteasa Hipobiosis
  5. 5. Huevos en heces Larvas rabditoides (L1) Larvas filariformes (L2) L2 ingresan por la piel
  6. 6. EN ELHOMBRE EN EL MEDIO AMBIENTE Salen larvas del huevo Larvas rabditoides (L1) Larvas filariformes (L2) Gusanos adultos (L3) Pulmones Pasa a circulación Tráquea Faringe Es tragado Intestino delgado Penetra la piel Huevos con 4 blastómeros Fase Dx Fase infectiva
  7. 7.  Malas condiciones sanitarias.  Fecalismo.  No usar de calzado cerrado.  Bajo estrato socioeconómico.  Áreas rurales en zonas tropicales y subtropicales
  8. 8. Necator americanus
  9. 9. Brasil, Estados Unidos (Texas), India, China, Islas del Pacífico y continente Africano. Endémico en México. Raza blanca. Cultivos de cacao, café, plátano, otros
  10. 10. Género: Necator Especie: americanus Nombre vulgar: Hookworms americano o american killer.
  11. 11. 2 pares de placas cortantes. Penetra solo por piel. Necesariamente pasa por pulmón. Causan anemia mas grave que Ancylostoma duodenale
  12. 12.  Miden de 7-9mm  Aparato reproductor se llama espícula y posee una bursa que le ayuda para copular. • Miden de 9-11 mm. • Su aparato reproductor se encuentra en el centro de su cuerpo y se llama vulva; ponen hasta 7.000 huevos por día.
  13. 13. Ancylostoma duodenale
  14. 14. Género: Ancylostoma. Especie: duodenale. Nombre vulgar: Hookworm o Gusano gancho.
  15. 15. EE.UU., China, Islas de Caribe, Continente Sudamericano y Africano. Muy común en Europa. Microclimas en minas
  16. 16. 2 pares de dientes afilados.  Puede ingresar penetrando la piel o por vía oral. No necesariamente pasa por pulmón. Puede vivir hasta 1 año en nuestro cuerpo
  17. 17. • Miden de 10-13 mm. • Su aparato reproductor ocupa 1/3 de su cuerpo; ponen entre 10.000- 30.000 huevos por día.  Miden de 8-11mm  Aparato reproductor: espícula + bursa copuladora.
  18. 18. Pulmonar • Sx de Loeffler (Eosinofília) Neumonía. • Migración larvaria, hiperinfección. Gastrointestinal • Dolor y distensión abdominales, diarrea, melena, hiporexia. • Fijación de gusanos adultos, daño local a mucosa de intestino delgado, enzimas.
  19. 19. Hematológica •Anemia hipocrómica, microcítica (ferropriva), eosinofilia, hipoalbuminemia, con edema, disnea, soplos funcionales, cianosis. •Consumo (expoliación) de sangre (0.004 - 0.05 ml/ gusano/día), cantidad variable, mayor en uncinariasis por Ancylostoma duodenale.
  20. 20. Dérmica • Eritema, prurito, vesiculación "sabañones". Cicatriz residual. Infección bacteriana secundaria. • Invasión y migración de larvas. Larvas en reposo en tejidos: Ancylostoma duodenale.
  21. 21. LARVA RABDITOIDE Ancylostoma caninum. Ancylostoma braziliense
  22. 22. General • *Desnutrición previa. Pérdida de peso, retraso estatura y déficit cognitivo (niños) • *Anemia y signos asociados, disnea, cianosis, fatiga. • *Carga parasitaria; contribuyen la edad del hospedero, cronicidad, embarazo.
  23. 23. Técnica de Faust. Técnica de Stoll. Cultivo: Harada Mori.
  24. 24. Nº Huevos/gr fecal Cálculo Nº uncinarias Estadio infección Mx Clínicas 1.600 50 Leve Asintomática. 3.300 100 Moderada Oligosintomática 16.500 500 Intensa Anemia leve. 33.000 1.000 Muy intensa Muy sintomática, anemia moderada. 100.000 3.000 Extrema Grave, mortal, anemia severa.
  25. 25. Mebendazol, oral100 mg/12 horas./1 día.  Albendazol, 200 mg/12 horas./1 día. Pirantel, 20 mg/kg/día/3 días. Sulfato ferroso. Dieta equilibrada, rica en proteínas, hierro y vitaminas.

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