Social marketing


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  • Start our discussion by showing you an advertising example from a long running Ad Council campaign. Issue is still important in US and probably here, many other countries Show FDLFDD ad How does that make you feel? Good ad or bad ad? Why? What is the message? Who is the ad for? Memorable? At the time social norm was one for the road, legislation was weak, Now, new organizations, MADD, SADD, RADD work on issue – designated driver 40% decrease in # of alcohol related fatalities Near universal recognition of FDLFDD
  • Okay, let’s take a step back and begin to look at some definitions we can agree on. This is a definition I like from MSN Encarta Products or services – what’s product, service? Get examples – probe companies, countries, etc. – leads to behavior Potential customers – what makes someone potential – likely to buy, already buying (reinforcement) Make them eager to buy – change their behavior (do something new or different) Pricing – why is this important? Packaging – why is this important? Creation of demand – make them want it, change behavior What is difference between advertising and sales campaigns?
  • Ok, let’s go to your homework. Some of you mentioned campaigns in your surveys. I’ll ask a few of you to discuss the campaigns. These are the questions I want you to answer – 5W’s: Who – as we will see, good campaigns are very targeted, there’s a specific audience that is reached – may be demographic, geographic, psychographics What – are they trying to tell you When – is it new, old Where – on TV, radio, billboard, newspaper, on the street, etc. Why is it memorable? Probe: relevance, entertainment value, rational or emotional (or both), educational, persuasive, etc. List these on board.
  • Ok, now let’s look at a definition of social marketing from the text we’re using: Marketing principle and techniques – same as previous Influence a target audience – focus on specific group, change thinking Voluntarily accept, reject or modify a behavior – volunteer, not getting paid, do something, don’t do something, or change what you do regularly Benefit of individuals, groups, or society as whole – individual – can be you or other(s) ore even our whole society I.e., take vitamin benefits me, recycle my cans benefits me (money) and society (less pollution, reuse of materials)
  • In both commercial marketing, where we’re selling a product or service, and social marketing, we are trying to change a behavior or attitude. In commercial marketing what are attitudes or behavior we are trying to change – buy something, think positively about a product, give it a try, buy more of something, I.e., car – come in for a test drive. What are attitudes or behavior we might try to influence using social marketing? Both focus on a target audience, a group of individuals with certain characteristics that are likely to change their behavior Both use same kind of tactics, a large part being communications. Customer focus, exchange theory, market research, measurable results. This includes the 4 P’s of marketing – refer to examples given by students
  • Commercial marketing – primary aim is financial gain. Consumers may benefit as well, but marketer is the one who gets the profit. Social marketing – individual or society gains. Often, we get some pleasure from products we buy – food, clothes, car, music, phone, etc. often in social marketing, we are asked to make some sacrifice – save energy, don’t smoke, give money, etc. Product – typically goods or services in commercial marketing, behavior change for social marketer. Competition – typically commercial marketers have competitors – i.e.. Coke vs., Ford vs., IBM vs.… In social marketing, competition is often viewed as doing nothing different or keeping the same behavior. Budgets – commercial marketers usually have multi-million dollar budgets (get some of these) to spend on marketing activities and advertising. Typically, social marketers use funding from NGO’s and government, which tend to be financially limited. Will show example of well-funded campaign – truth. But social marketers can utilize same techniques. Other thoughts on differences?
  • PASS Out Handouts; Put these UP ON BOARDS for Dots This is list of issues that social marketing is often used to address in the US and other countries Ask student to read out, explain ones they don’t understand. Other issues they think face the country Come back to these later
  • Governments have responsibility for the health and welfare of their people NGO’s cover where government (and biz) may not. May also be advocates for specific legislation, etc. Corporations – may use social marketing to help improve image in community, benefit customers or help brand identity. Also know as Cause RELATED Marketing or CORPORATE Responsibility Marketing Insurance company – bike helmets, fire alarm battery reminder Pharmaceutical co – may promote donations to Aids NGO, remind parents about immunizations Electronics manufacturer promotes energy saving Energy company – use less electricity; gas Sports team members volunteering time for young people Media companies – to promote their talent, donate air and space to causes, promote volunteer activities, etc.
  • Now we’ll spend some time looking at the the 4P’s of social marketing
  • There are three levels of product we are looking at. Start in the middle – desired behavior – that is what we want people to do, don’t drink and drive, lose weight etc. think about Position – how we want people to position this behavior in their head. If you want people to accept a behavior –make it fun, easy or popular (I.e. volunteering). If you want them to reject it, position it in terms of consequences. (quit smoking) Benefit target audience will receive when they do the desired behavior – I.e, won’t get arrested for driving drunk, injure someone or will look and feel better if they exercise, etc. Outside ring is other products or services that can augment or help product, I.e, free taxi rides for drunk people, or pedometer to measure walking, etc. Should be well BRANDED (term – a name, term, sign symbol, design or logo to identify the product and to differentiate it) Use of research can help you better understand benefits and augmented products Education and counseling a key part of augmented services
  • Monetary costs – usually related to augmented objects and services; non-monetary; I.e, there may be medical test needed for cancer screening that costs money Energy saving light bulbs Sunscreen condoms Non-monetary costs – time, effort or energy needed (I.e. volunteer), some feeling of taking a risk (doing something new); physical discomfort (breast cancer screening, etc.) Sort garbage – recycle Use public transportation vs. driving Find an ashtray or receptacle for cigarettes Talk to family member about alcohol or drug abuse Take fewer showers (save water) Keep house at cooler temp in winter Remember exchange theory – what we offer (benefits) has to be equal or greater than what they will have to give (cost) Cost comparisons – appeal to pocketbook I.e, get green; make people feel good about giving up something.
  • Place in commercial world – retail – stores, online, via phone, Make it easy for people to do Closer – I.e, donate blood in mobile bloodmobile Extend hours – use the web, or call-line, 24 hours, personal, private, etc. Make the location more appealing – mammogram at shopping mall, markets Be there at point of decision making – drugs at nightclubs, bag for pets poopoo at parks, condoms in bar rest rooms. Smoking lunges
  • Ensure that target audience knows about the offer, believes that they will experience the stated benefits and are inspired to act. Think of an ad not as what you put into it, but what the consumer takes out of it Development of creative brief: Target audience Key message What do we want them to think, feel, do? Benefit Support Position Tone Rational, emotional, nonverbal or moral Emotions – positive (pride, humor, love; joy), negative (fear, shame, guilt) Moral – what is right and proper, patriotic. Nonverbal – can be very powerful
  • In addition to social marketing, there are other ways to influence behavior. Can be used or promoted as part of social marketing campaign: Technology: cars – some safety belts wrap around automatically, breathalyzer to start car. Economics - pressures and incentives like taxes on cigarettes, gas, fines for littering, offer lower electrical rates during non-peak hours Education – works as part of promotion, I.e, teaching about AIDS prevention, etc. Legal – laws on blood alcohol limits for driving, recycling, booster seats, safety belts.
  • Look at campaigns that have been done previously in the country and in others – I.e.. Ad council, other countries; research on the issues, etc. Low hanging fruit – terms. I.e.. Drunk driving campaign, don’t start with alcoholics. I.e.. Blood donation – much easier to get someone who has donated previously Simple, easy to remember – i.e.. Smokey bear. People see hundreds of ads a day. Need to break through the clutter (terms) I.e.. Condoms, give up smoking class. Something you can brand that seems like a commercial product.
  • I.e.. Truth – showed how their brand was better than smoking We are all very busy with our lives – need to make our request easy to do – via internet, while shopping (Komen), at times when people are free Ads have to break through the clutter and get people to take action Internet is very hot for teens – Truth – use of games, opportunities to meet with others Example of radio host asking people to turn off and unplug lights and appliances as city’s electric company let people know of change
  • Fulfillment – terms – make it easy to call or log on. Make volunteer experience good, easy,etc. if you’re going to organize a race or something like that. You can create great messages, but if you don’t get the word out, the campaign won’t go anywhere. Production can be expensive – can you get nonprofit rates? Media need to have reach and frequency – terms. Need to see a message a few times before it often sinks in. can you get media space donated? You cannot create a good campaign without knowing the audience very well. You have something to offer – it has to meet their needs. Research helps you find the sweet spot. Identify audience, understand their barriers to participation, etc. Want to see how your efforts are doing over time. Sometimes you change objectives – i.e. Smokey – forest fire to wildfire; or you have reached awareness goals and then want to switch to action, etc.
  • Now let’s move on to some issues that we may take for granted in our lives or just don’t think about changing.
  • Still staying on the issue of smoking, let’s look at how one city, my city, has approached this issue and has made inroads in actually reducing smoking rates among existing smokers. We all know how addictive smoking is and how hard it is to quit. How many of you are smokers? I understand that rates of smoking have actually been increasing in Russia over the last 20 years. I believe the rates for Russian men are over 60%. By comparison, rates in New York City have dropped from about 22% down to 17% at last tally. How did we make this happen? Let’s take a look at the ad for this campaign.
  • I think it’s a good ad. Emotionally engaging and a classic negative consequence approach. But what I applaud about this campaign is the holistic program that the NYC government developed around this issue, using other tools than just social marketing and advertising. For one, NY City and NY State levied higher taxes on sales of cigarettes. Cigarettes now cost about $9 a pack in New York. They also enacted laws to prevent smoking in public places as well as in bars and restaurants. With fewer places to smoke, smokers have become social outcasts among their friends, families and colleagues. And the city has developed programs to provide smokers with free nicotine patches and other smoking cessation resources to make it easier to quit.
  • This chart shows how these different interventions have been helping to reduce the smoking rate since 2002. In 2008, the rate declined to under 16%. So the message here is to really think about all aspects of a target audience’s lifestyle and how some behaviors might be more influenced to change by economic or environmental factors than just marketing and communications efforts alone.
  • CRC
  • In fact, the Ad Council has recently been rethinking its logic model for effective communication to include engagement. As this diagram shows, the first part of any social marketing campaign is exposure, making sure that your audience actually sees the creative that has been developed for the campaign. The second circle, Recognition, focuses on how the messages register with your audience once they’ve seen it and can ideally remember it. This is the awareness building phase that is so critical for any social advertising effort. Then we come to the area of Engagement, the idea that people are interested enough in your issue that they will call a toll free number for more information, visit a website, join a social networking community, or just start talking about the issue with friends, schoolmates, colleagues or family members. The last piece of the model is Impact. Did the campaign actually change the desired attitudes and behaviors and what kind of overall effect did that have on the issue being advertised. What I especially like about this model is that you can measure the effectiveness of a campaign at each of these successive phases.
  • Thank you very much for your time and attention. I’m happy to take your questions now or continue the dialogue in the future.
  • Social marketing

    1. 1. An Introduction to Social Marketing and Communications Campaigns George Perlov
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Background on Social Marketing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a Public Education Communications Campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies/Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Applying these concepts to your needs </li></ul>
    3. 3. Commercial Break
    4. 4. What is Social Marketing?
    5. 5. What is marketing? <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The business activity of presenting products or services to potential customers in such a way as to make them eager to buy. Marketing includes such matters as the pricing and packaging of the product and the creation of demand by advertising and sales campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MSN, Encarta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Examples of Marketing Campaigns <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a campaign that has influenced you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the target audience? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the key message? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When did it run? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where did you hear about it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it memorable? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is social marketing? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject or modify a behavior for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kotler, Roberto and Lee, Social Marketing:Improving the Quality of Life (2002) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Similarities Among Commercial Marketing and Social Marketing <ul><li>Influencing a behavior or attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Uses similar interventions or tactics, including communications </li></ul>
    9. 9. Key Differences Between Commercial Marketing and Social Marketing <ul><li>Who benefits? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure or sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the product? </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul>
    10. 10. What Issues does Social Marketing Best Address? <ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Community engagement </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Groups Use Social Marketing? <ul><li>Government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofit groups (NGOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Companies </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The 4P’s of (Social) Marketing <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul>
    13. 13. Product <ul><li>Our product is what we are selling, the desired behavior and the associated benefits of that behavior </li></ul>benefit desired behavior Objects and services… to support behavior change
    14. 14. Price <ul><li>The price of a social marketing product is the cost that the target audience associates with adopting the new behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monetary costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-monetary costs </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Place <ul><li>Place is where and when the target market will perform the desired behavior, acquire any related tangible objects, and receive any associated services . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make access to the social marketing product easy and convenient </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Promotion <ul><li>Persuasive communications designed and delivered to highlight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pricing strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ease of access (place) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to say it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placing messages (media) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Other Ways to Influence Behavior <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Legal/Political/Policy Making </li></ul>
    18. 18. Best Practices in Social Marketing <ul><li>Take advantage of what is known and has been done before </li></ul><ul><li>Start with target markets that are most ready for action </li></ul><ul><li>Promote a single doable behavior explained in simple, clear terms </li></ul><ul><li>Consider incorporating a tangible object or service to support the target behavior </li></ul>
    19. 19. Best Practices in Social Marketing (cont.) <ul><li>Understand and address perceived benefits and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Make access easy </li></ul><ul><li>Develop attention-getting and motivational messages </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate media and exploit opportunities for audience participation </li></ul>
    20. 20. Best Practices in Social Marketing (cont.) <ul><li>Make it easy and convenient for inspired audiences to act on recommended behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate appropriate resources for media and outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate adequate resources for research </li></ul><ul><li>Track results and make adjustments </li></ul>
    21. 21. Changing an Everyday Behavior
    22. 23. NYC Smoking Prevention TV
    23. 25. Planning a Public Education Campaign
    24. 26. Public Education Campaign Process Creative Development Production Distribution/Media Outreach/PR Launch Strategic Development Research & Planning Process Monitoring & Assessment
    25. 27. Where Do You Start? <ul><li>All compelling campaigns start with the process of research and strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>This allows you to uncover key insights that will relate to your target audience </li></ul>
    26. 28. Where Do You Start? <ul><li>Review secondary research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts and figures about the issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of previous/similar campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conduct consumer research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uncover key insights that are unique, relevant and actionable </li></ul>
    27. 29. How Do You Create A Great Campaign? <ul><li>Understand that a great campaign: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivates people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends a message that strikes a chord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves them to start doing something new or differently </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. How Do You Create A Great Campaign? <ul><li>Whether it’s an ad, a brochure or a book mark, great creative ideas communicate just one idea and start with a creative brief that’s single-minded </li></ul>
    29. 31. Components of a Creative Brief <ul><ul><li>Background/Objective – Why are we advertising? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audience – Who are we talking to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target insight – What will get their attention? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main message – What should the advertising say? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for message – Why should they believe us? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call to action – What do we want the target to do? </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Theory of Change Model <ul><li>Public Service Ads </li></ul><ul><li>- TV </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Public Relations & Press Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign-related </li></ul><ul><li>- Other sponsor activities & events </li></ul>Other Messages & Activities Overseen by Sponsor Exposure to PSAs [Donated media data, tracking survey] Exposure to Press Coverage <ul><li>Increased awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Increased talkability/word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened interest in foster care and/or adoption </li></ul>Target audience members visit website/calls number Target audience begins application process Increased number of placements of children in loving, permanent homes Activities Short-term and Intermediate Outcomes Behavioral Outcomes Impact <ul><li>Other Messages & Activities, eg., </li></ul><ul><li>State-level and local-level appeals </li></ul><ul><li>News media stories, entertainment media </li></ul>
    31. 33. Best Practices for Creative Development <ul><li>In every communication, talk to the audience as you would a friend </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, entertain them </li></ul><ul><li>If needed, make them uncomfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Once you’ve got them, don’t ask for too much </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them why they shouldn’t drive drunk… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take small steps to get healthier… </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. What If Creative Is Cutting-Edge or Controversial? <ul><li>Ensure your facts are bullet-proof </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid being provocative for provocative sake </li></ul><ul><li>Understand who your advocates and adversaries are </li></ul><ul><li>Gain buy-in of the message from the very top </li></ul><ul><li>Build external, non-partisan consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Have a plan to address concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Be resolute to weathering a storm </li></ul>
    33. 35. How Many Ways Can You Reach Them? <ul><li>To accomplish social change, a broader communication model is ideal </li></ul><ul><li>People consume media in many ways so integrated marketing includes more than just TV </li></ul><ul><li>Even small budgets can be effective with the right marketing mix that ties closely to campaign goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive reach to broad population? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of message to priority population? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of seasonality or geography? </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. How Many Ways Can You Reach Them? <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out Of Home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow Pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroots Marketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buzz </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 37. How Many Ways Can You Reach Them? <ul><li>Event Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerts, Health Fairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letters, Phone Calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collateral </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures, Free Standing Inserts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s Kits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Brand Tie-ins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Government Affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative Briefings & Outreach </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 38. Ad Council Model for Effective Campaigns Exposure Recognition Engagement Impact
    37. 39. Employ a “Dashboard” of Indicators <ul><li>Strategic and creative testing </li></ul><ul><li>Media measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Press coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys of the target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment (web visits, toll-free calls) </li></ul><ul><li>Online analytics </li></ul><ul><li>Externally monitored results </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal feedback </li></ul>
    38. 40. Discussion <ul><li>What are your communication needs? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we apply this learning? </li></ul>
    39. 41. Questions? <ul><li>George Perlov </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>1-917-748-2543 </li></ul><ul><li>Skype: georgeperlov </li></ul>