Process Intensification Korea-2012

1,765 views

Published on

This presentation is about process intensification and was given at a workshop at the University of Korea 2012

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,765
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
332
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
81
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Process Intensification Korea-2012

  1. 1. Korea 2012 Process Intensification; a brief history of timing. By Professor Malcolm MackleyDepartment of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology. University of Cambridge UK 1
  2. 2. Process Intensification Process; Route to manufacture • Liquid processing • Gas processing • Solid processing • Multiphase processingIntensification • Reduce footprint • Reduce cost • Reduce environmental impact • Increase output • Increase value and or quality of product • Increase safety, reduce risk 2
  3. 3. Process Intensification. Time line Global Process Intensification Major Chemical Companies “Product Invention”1970s Research Laboratories. Polymers, PEEK, Pruteen, ICI, Shell, Bp, Courtaulds, Exxon. PHB, Carbon Fibres. Processes; Fluidised beds. “Market forces” Heat Exchange Networks (HENS).1980s Mergers, sales and acquisitions. Colin Ramshaw. Pharma. “Process Intensification” Spinning Disc reactor. Emergence of Asia and Batch to Continuous.1990s Middle East as major players. Membranes. Emergence of Biotechnology. Nanotechnology. 3
  4. 4. Process Intensification. Time line Global Process Intensification CO2, Energy, Biofuels Microfluidics Displays, Telecoms Pharma, batch to continuous2000s Nanotechnology Car catalyst exhaust “Economic pause”. Pharma; continuous tablet.2010s Telecoms. Batteries. Electric cars. Ink Jet Technologies Alternative energy sources.2020s ? ? 4
  5. 5. Examples of Process Intensification /Invention• 1970-80s High Modulus Polyethylene (HMP)• 1980s onwards Oscillatory Flow Mixing (OFM)• 1990s Flexible Chocolate• 2000s Plastic Microcapillary Films (MCF)s Time scales for; 1. Invention / Innovation concept 2. Development 3. Commercialisation 5
  6. 6. High Modulus Polyethylene (HMP) 1970-2000 6
  7. 7. Bristol 1970- High Modulus Polyethylene; the 1st inventive stepSir Charles Frank Andrew Keller 7
  8. 8. High Modulus Polyethylene (HMP) The 2nd inventive steps 1970s Zwijnenburg, A Pennings, AJ (1975) Paul SmithPiet Lemstra Colloid and Polymer Science 1975 Piston 1. Low entanglement UHMWPE polymer gel 1% PE / Decalin solution Solvent recovery2. Unoriented Gel fibre 4. Hot draw Quench bath 5. Oriented High Modulus Polyethylene 3. Unoriented Low entanglement semi crystalline fibre 8P. Smith, and P.J.Lemstra, J. Material. Sci. 1980, 15,
  9. 9. High Modulus Polyethylene (HMP) Development and Commercialisation, late 1980s Solvent UHMWPE Polymer powde r Low entanglement polymer gel Screw extruderSpinnere t Solvent recovery Gel fibres Hot draw Quench bath Low entanglement semi crystalline fibre Schematic diagram of continuous High Modulus Polyethylene (HMP) process Dyneema®, the world’s strongest fiber™ 9
  10. 10. Time scales1.Invention / Innovation 10 years2. Development 10 years3. Commercialisation 5 years
  11. 11. Oscillatory Flow Mixing ( OFM) Inertial flow. Tube diameters, mm - cms A question of scale! Tonnes/hr, Kg/hr, g/hr 11
  12. 12. Oscillatory Flow Mixing (OFM) 1980s; process Inventive steps 1979- 1982 Air turbine generates power 12
  13. 13. Inventive steps. Plug flow residence time Chem Eng Sci 1989 13
  14. 14. OFM Movie; poetry in motion Adam Harvey 14
  15. 15. Heat transfer Chen Eng Sci 15
  16. 16. Liquid Gas Mass transfer No oscillation With oscillation 8hz, 3mm Go to OFM bubbles movies 1 and 2Filipa Pereira and Nuno Reis 16
  17. 17. Mass transfer Cheng Eng Sci 17
  18. 18. Development StageChem Eng Oscillatory Flow Reactor (OFR) - Oscillator Base Unit - Feed inlet section - Shell and baffled tube vessels - Product outlet section Dr Paul Stonestreet 18
  19. 19. Biodiesel Reaction Progressalong Reactor Net Flow Net Flow In Out 19
  20. 20. CommercialisationProf Xiongwei Ni 20
  21. 21. Further development OFM Meso Reactor System configuration Meso tube, Sc diameter d ale - do wn Smooth constrictions: spacing 3d Minimum constriction diameter 0.4d 35 mm, V ≈ 4.5 mL a) L d d0 ≈ 45º δ b) Nuno Reis, Minghzi Zheng2000s 21
  22. 22. Meso Fluid MechanicsGo to OFM PIV and LES movies Minghzi Zheng 22
  23. 23. Continuous Flow Oscillatory Mesoreactor 0.02 b) Exp-E(t) 0.018 1 Exp-E(t) 2 0.016 Exp-E(t)3 0.014 Fit-E(t) (1->2) 2 Fit-E(t) (1->3) 0.012 3 Fit-E(t) (2->3) E(t) (-) 3 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Time (s) Minghzi Zheng 23
  24. 24. Mesotube; Liquid drop dispersion a) f=6Hz a) xo=3 mm b) f=10Hz b) xo=4 mmSilicon oil (4.6mPas,2.5%) mixing Silicon oil (4.6mPas, 2.5%) mixing with water at xo=2 mm with water at f=6Hz 24
  25. 25. Mesotube; Particle suspensionInstantaneous velocity vector maps of fluid phase at Reo = 625,x0 = 2 mm, f = 10.0 Hz at vertical position in the presence of 3%(v/v ) amount of ion-exchange particles 25
  26. 26. Time scales1.Invention / Innovation 2 years2. Development 10 years3. Commercialisation Ongoing 26
  27. 27. Flexible Chocolate 1994 27
  28. 28. Flexible Chocolate 1994; invention Extrusion processing Cold MeltPolyethylene Extrusion Processing ∆H 50 100 150 200 0 Temperature CChocolate Cold Melt Extrusion Processing ∆H 16 0 14 0 12 0 Piston/(ram) 10 20 30 40 A Yield 0 10 0 Temperature C pressure Chocolate feed Pressure transducer 80 Die 60 B Extrusion pressure 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 C Compaction (no flow) t (s) Review. Chen et al Soft Matter 2006
  29. 29. Cold ExtrusionGo to Flexible Chocolate extrusion movie
  30. 30. Knotting Chocolate Go knotting movie
  31. 31. Cold Moulding Chocolate Go to moulding movie
  32. 32. Chocolate Development
  33. 33. Time scales1. Invention / Innovation 1 day2. Development 5 years3. Commercialisation ?
  34. 34. Plastic Microcapillary Films (MCFs) 2004-2012 34
  35. 35. MicroCapillary Films (MCFs) 2000s; invention Polymer flow InjectorDie landMCF extrudate Quench bath Extrudate to haul off Bart Hallmark 35
  36. 36. Micro Capillary Film; invention Die exit Direction of flowPolymer melt Entrainment Chill rollers body MCF Array of 19 entrainment nozzles PLAN VIEW Quenching length, L Air inlet Single screw extruder MCF extrusion die P2 T5 T6 Chilled rollers MCF T1 T2 T3 T4 Spooling Gear pump Guide rollers B. Hallmark, et al. Adv. Eng. Mat., (2005). 36
  37. 37. MCF Development; Pressure Drop Christian Hornung 37
  38. 38. MCF Development RTD 50 45 length = 20 m inlet flow rate = 0.5 ml/min outlet 40 35 30 c [mg/l] 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 t [min] 38
  39. 39. MCF Commercialisation 2 flat silicon heaters (200 W each) PID control - Temperature monitoring at top and bottom heater plates developed by Tmax = 150 °C Lamina Dielectrics Ltd. & Cambridge University Reactor disk tray Temperature control Teflon coated hot plates Patrick Hestor Lamina Ltd
  40. 40. MCF Development; MicroflowOrganic.Kerosene, 1.8 mPas Video,Oil, 27 mPas Methanol Nuno ReisVegetable oil. 50 mPas into Veg oil Water, 1 mPas, glycerol 10-50 mPas or methanol
  41. 41. MCF Development; Slug separation Scheiff et al. Lab on a Chip. 2011
  42. 42. Multi channel flow Go to MCF multi channel movieNuno Reis
  43. 43. MCF Development; Biodiesel Microreactor Input OutputVegetable oil Biodiesel Methonal plus Glycerol catalyst Microcapillary Flow disc
  44. 44. MCF Microreactor; Biodiesel Methanol GlycerolVeg oil Biodiesel Methanol plus Glycerol catalyst
  45. 45. MCF Development. Microporous MCF membranes Bore fluid Die Haul-off Air-gapNitrogen External Gas CoagulantCylinder Glass Water Polymer Bath Solution Single Capillary, MCF membranes Sina Bonyadi
  46. 46. Microporous MCFs 2 µm 100 µm 1 µm 2 µmBonyadi et al. Journal of Membrane Sci 2012
  47. 47. Time scales1. Invention / Innovation 3years2. Development 8 years3. Commercialisation Ongoing
  48. 48. Lessons to be learnt• Work backwards.Identify need and then “process intensify”.• Get timing right.Anticipate current and futureneed for process intensification.• Build an interdisciplinary team.•Plan for a timescale of say 10 years 48
  49. 49. Future MessageProcess intensification can result in aconcentration of process leading to monopoliesand a single source provider.Process Diversification can help prevent“bottlenecks” and provide flexibility. We need a balance between ProcessIntensification and Process Diversification. Process Intensification and Diversification 49

×