4. struktur sel bakteri

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4. struktur sel bakteri

  1. 1. Anthrax Bacillus anthracisCutaneousanthrax
  2. 2. M A T A K U L I A H M I K R O B I O L O G IE V I R O V I A T ISTRUKTUR SEL BAKTERI
  3. 3. ProkaryotesDomainsBacteria &ArchaeaSimple cells –with no nucleusor membrane-boundorganelles
  4. 4. I. Bacteria Classification: Cell shapeA. Compound Light Microscope (1000X) - stainedCocci (Coccus) Bacilli (Bacillus) Spirilli (Spirillum)round or oval rod-shaped helically coiled
  5. 5. B. Scanning Electrom Microscope (SEM) - colorized
  6. 6. II. Classification Bacteria: Cell arrangement1. Diplococcus (diplo=pairs)Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Gram-negative,causes gonorrheaSEMStained: Compound Microscope1000X
  7. 7. Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureus - Causes food poisoning, toxic shock syndromeand skin and wound infections such as scalded skin syndrome,scarlet fever, and impetigo.Stained: Compound Microscope1000XSEM (colorized)2. staphylococcus(staphylo- grapelike clusters)
  8. 8. 3. streptococcus(strepto=chains)Streptococcus pyogenesStained: Compound Microscope1000XSEM (colorized)
  9. 9. 4. Streptobacillus
  10. 10. Bacteria StructureCell wall – unique, peptidoglycanPeptidoglycan - structuralpolysaccharides(sugars) cross-linked bypeptides (chains of aminoacids)
  11. 11. The Gram stain procedureDeveloped in 1884 by the Danish physicianHans Christian GramAn important tool in bacterial taxonomy,distinguishing so-called Gram-positivebacteria, which remain coloured after thestaining procedure, from Gram-negativebacteria, which do not retain dye and need tobe counter-stained.Can be applied to pure cultures of bacteriaor to clinical specimensTop: Pure culture of E. coli(Gram-negative rods)Bottom: Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a smear of urethral pus(Gram-negative cocci, with pus cells)
  12. 12. CrystalvioletGramsiodineDecolorise withacetoneCounterstain withe.g. methyl redGram-positivesappear purpleGram-negativesappear pinkThe Gram Stain
  13. 13. Gram-positive rodsGram-negative rodsGram-positive cocciGram-negative cocci
  14. 14. Gram stainDistinguishes different cell wall typesGram positive Staphylococcus aureusGram negative Escherichia coli
  15. 15. 16Be able to identify all the parts ofa Gram + & - cell wall for the next exam.
  16. 16. Two biochemical groups of bacteria:peptidoglycanoutermembrane
  17. 17. will stain will not stainGram positive bacteria Gram negative bacteriaTwo biochemical groups of bacteria:peptidoglycanoutermembrane
  18. 18. Bacteria with Chemically Unique Cell Walls Acid-Fast Cells Mycobacterium species Gram + type of cell wall Unique lipid Mycolic acid – waxy substance Does not decolorize
  19. 19. Bacterial Growth Solid media or liquid media Agar plates, slopes, broth culture Atmosphere: Aerobic, anaerobic or microaerophilic Facultative or obligate anaerobes Usually at 37 degrees C Most clinically important bacteria grow overnight, orwithin a few days Mycobacteria can take months Some can not be grown
  20. 20. Capsules or slime layerE.g., slime layerallows bacteria tocling to toothenamel or othersubstrates
  21. 21. Pili (singular: pilus)Protein filaments that attach bacteria to other cells& substratespili
  22. 22. Used for locomotionSome prokaryotes have flagella(singular: flagellum)flagella
  23. 23. 50 nmBase of a bacterial flagellum……the only known wheel in nature
  24. 24. Reproduction: Asexual, through binary fissionE. coliDNAcell wall
  25. 25. Binary fissionDaughter cells are identical copies(1) (2) (3)(4) (5) (6)Chromosome Plasma membraneNeither mitosis nor meiosis occurs in prokaryotes
  26. 26. REPRODUCTION Asexual, through binary fission No true sexual reproduction, since neithermitosis nor meiosis exist in prokaryotes Horizontal transfer of genetic material Transformation Uptake of genetic material from theenvironment Transduction Transfer of genetic material betweenprokaryotes by viruses Conjugation Direct transfer of genetic material from oneprokaryote to another
  27. 27. Conjugation in E. coliSex pilusSex pilus connects cells and draws them togetherConjugation tube then forms
  28. 28. Bacteria Surviving harsh conditions Endospore – forms inside a bacterium and then persiststhrough inhospitable conditionsendospore
  29. 29. The oldest known fossilsFirst organismson EarthCyanobacteria> 3 billion yearsold
  30. 30. Distributed globally – including manyextremophiles “Heat-loving”Archaea “Salt-loving”Archaea
  31. 31.  MethanogensMethane-generating ArchaeaOccur in oxygen-free habitatsE.g., swamp mud, guts ofruminant animals Cave Bacteria Sometimes reachingacidity of pH 0.5Distributed globally – including manyextremophiles
  32. 32. Ice Bacteria & ArchaeaDistributed globally – including manyextremophiles
  33. 33. Prokaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophsAll organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonAutotrophs canobtain all theirC from CO2
  34. 34. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonHeterotrophsrequire at leastone organicnutrient, e.g.,glucoseProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  35. 35. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonPhototrophsobtain theirenergy fromthe sunProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  36. 36. All organisms require a source ofenergy & carbonChemotrophsobtain theirenergy fromchemicalcompoundsProkaryote Nutrition – autotrophs & heterotrophs
  37. 37. KLASIFIKASI BAKTERI

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