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Kumu honua
Kumu honua
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  1. 1. KUMULIPO
  2. 2. KUMULIPO • Mele ko`ihonua or genealogical chant showing the mo`okū`auhau (genealogy) of the kanaka maoli • Over 2000 lines long • Echoes the complexities and details of the Hawaiian thought process and perspective
  3. 3. KUMULIPO • Divides ancient Hawaiian history into 16 time periods or wā • Divided into 2 sections – Ka pō: The darkness, the age of spirits (1st 8 time periods) – Ua ao: Arrival of light and the gods (last 8 time periods)
  4. 4. WĀ `AKAHI • Life is formed from darkness • The first living organism is the coral polyp • From this coral polyp is born sea urchins, sea creatures and limu • Sea life is paired with its forest companion on land
  5. 5. WĀ `ALUA • 73 types of fish are born in this wā – ie: nai a, manō, moanoʻ • Once again, sea life is paired with its counterpart on land – ie: weke and wauke
  6. 6. WĀ `AKOLU • 52 flying creatures are born – ie: pueo, pulelehua, noio • These creatures are paired with a land or sea creature – ie: pe`elua & pulelehua
  7. 7. WĀ `AHĀ • Crawling creatures are born – ie: honu, mo`o, `ula • Each crawling creature has a relation to a crawling land plant – ie: maile
  8. 8. WĀ `ALIMA • Haumea or Papahānaumoku (female earth) becomes fertile and gives birth to kalo
  9. 9. WĀ `AONO • Born are the nibblers of the earth – `iole – `uku
  10. 10. WĀ `AHIKU • Born are the land mammals – `īlio – `ōpe`ape`a
  11. 11. WĀ `AWALU • Transition period that begins in the pō (darkness) and ends in the ao (daylight)
  12. 12. WĀ `AIWA – WĀ `UMIKŪMAMĀONO • After this transition period, we see the genealogy of the gods and the birth of man • Man is born in the last wā (16th )
  13. 13. KUMULIPO • The lineage of Papahānaumoku (also known as Papa or Haumea) and Wākea are mentioned in the Kumulipo, the epic chant of creation according to the Hawaiian people. • According to the Kumulipo, Papahānaumoku (Earth Mother) was born in darkness and Wākea (Sky Father) was created in the light. Their union, symbolizing male light’s penetration into female’s darkness, brought forth the birth of the Hawaiian islands and the Hawaiian people.
  14. 14. PAPA • Dr. Taupōuri Tangarō defines Papa as “the earth, the crust upon which floats the oceans, her ambiotic fluid; the crust that feeds the growth of coral, the placenta of ocean life. Whereas Wākea anchors us to the universe, Papahānaumoku anchors us to a geography, our sacred land base.”
  15. 15. WĀKEA  Tangarō defines Wākea as “the male parent of Premordial origins, this informs us that Hawai i’s traditionalʻ consciousness is not only land-based, but celestial, not only anchored in living land but in the sky, as well.”  The Hawaiian Dictionary defines Wākea as the mythical ancestor of all Hawaiians.
  16. 16. MELE KUMU HONUA • According to Mele Kumu Honua, Papahānaumoku & Wākea came together and brought forth the birth of the Hawaiian islands and the Hawaiian people
  17. 17. MELE KUMU HONUA • Papa and Wākea had a daughter named Ho ohōkūkalani (the heavenly one who madeʻ the stars). • Wākea and Ho ohōkūkalani togetherʻ conceived a child. Their union resulted in two births.
  18. 18. MELE KUMU HONUA ‘O Wākea noho iā Papahānaumoku Hānau ‘o Hawai’i, he mokuHānau ‘o Maui, he moku Ho i hou ‘o Wākea noho iāʻ Ho ohōkūkalaniʻ Hānau ‘o Moloka’i, he mokuHanau ‘o Lāna i, ka ula, he mokuʻ ʻ Lili ōpū punalua ‘o Papa iāʻ Ho ohōkūlaniHo i hou ‘o Papaʻ ʻ noho iā Wākea Hanau ‘o O ahu, he mokuHanau ‘oʻ Kaua i, he mokuHanau ‘o Ni ihau,ʻ ʻ he mokuHe ‘ula a o Kaho olaweʻ ʻ Wākea lived with Papa, Born was Hawai’i, an islandBorn was Maui, an islandWākea made a new departure And lived with Ho’ohōkūkalaniBorn was Moloka’i, an islandBorn was Lana’i, an islandThe womb of Papa became jealous at Ho’ohōkūkalani Papa returned and lived with Wākea Born was O’ahu, an islandBorn was Kaua’i, an islandBorn was Ni’ihau, an islandA red rock was Kaho’olawe
  19. 19. Noho hou ‘o Wākea iā Ho ohōkūkalaniʻ A ua hānau mai kā Wākea keiki mua He keiki ‘alu alu, ‘O Hāloanaka kaʻ inoa A make ua keiki ‘alu alu lāʻ Kanu ‘ia iho ma waho o ke kala o ka hale Ulu mai ua keiki lā kalo nō Hānau mai he keiki hou Kapa lākou i kona inoa ma ka hā o ua kalo lā ‘o Hāloa Nānā mai ko ke ao nei a pau, oʻ Hāloa ho i!ʻ Wākea lived again with Ho ohōkūkalaniʻ Born to them was a first child He was stillborn, Hāloanaka was his name He was placed in the earth outside of the house Up sprouted the Kalo Born was another child They called him Haloa after the his elder brother Look at all of us, Hāloa lives!
  20. 20. HĀLOA • The first birth was an unformed fetus (keiki alu alu), who wasʻ ʻ born prematurely. He was named Hāloanakalaukapalili, meaning the quivering long stalk. • Hāloanakalaukapalili was buried at the eastern corner of the house and from his burial grew the first kalo (taro) plant.
  21. 21. HĀLOA • The second birth was a child named Hāloa in honor of his elder brother. Hāloa was born strong and healthy and is believed to be the first kanaka maoli, or Hawaiian man. • Hāloa means long breath
  22. 22. KULEANA • Thus, Haloanakalaukapalili, the kalo, is considered to be the older sibling and the kanaka Hawai`i (Hawaiian people) the younger sibling.
  23. 23. KALO • The kalo (taro) plant plays a vital part in the genealogy of the Hawaiian people as their most important crop and main sustenance.
  24. 24. `OHANA • It is also important to note that the term ohana (family) comesʻ from the kalo plant itself. The corm of the kalo is called the ohā.ʻ
  25. 25. SHOWING RESPECT • In Hawaiian tradition, it is considered disrespectful to fight in front of an elder. One should not raise the voice, speak angrily or make rude comments or gestures.
  26. 26. ŌLELO NO EAUʻ ʻ He ali i nō ka āina,ʻ ʻ he kauā nō ke kanaka The land is the chief, man is the servant

Editor's Notes

  • The chant reflects sophisticated theories about the origins of the cosmos and life on this planet - providing a concept of world order, reminding everyone about the core relationship people have with earth and how to live harmoniously. Reaffirms the natural procreative process – life is conceived and perpetuated through the mating of male and female elements, species and life forms. Recognize the truth in balance – that there is always a male and a female principle/energy The Kumulipo serves as a wellspring of information about the profound relationship between Hawaiians and nature and their environment. Our ancestors possessed a deep understanding of each creature and the relationships between them. For each creature born of the land, another was born of the sea and their traits and characteristics were reflective of each other. This was part of the symmetry of all nature. Thus, while we are connected biologically to all of the creatures and plants of the earth, we are also spiritually bonded.”
  • unfolding from the beginning of time to the 18th century. Under the surface meaning lie the hidden meanings, the kaona. Life appears in the Kumulipo as the result of natural forces, male and female Po­­the darkness and first stirring of life, the cosmic night­­tells of the night world, the birth of sea and land life, of winged life and crawlers. Hawaiian time begins with the darkest night which gives birth to male and female nights. Brother and sister mate to produce the divinity of the universe, which is all life. They give birth to the coral polyp and each creature in its turn gives birth to other creatures, proceeding up the evolutionary chain. Each descendant adds its name, and the mana, the sacred power is thus passed on. Here, the proper relationship between land and sea is established as the kanaka maoli came to understand that the actions of the land would effect the living in the sea Ao­­the dawn of the day, and the world of human beings­­starts with the eighth chant. It opens with the breaking of light. The first part is a literal story of the development of natural forms on the earth. The latter half of the chant gives the genealogical history of the Hawaiian line of chiefs. Kumulipo tells us that we are the descendants of the earth mother and sky father, our `aumakua, Part of this land with a responsibility to mālama or to love and care for the land, the earth, our akua & `aumakua
  • Fish are descendants of those that were born in the first wā
  • These first 7 Wā end in Pō nō (meaning only night), This is the time of darkness and what some believe the time of the ancestors. It is the creatures from these 7 wā that become familial guardians or ʻaumākua.
  • Man took the longest to evolve and the newest in the universe
  • Papahānaumoku, the woman who gives birth to the islands mates with the sky father, Wākea to give life to the islands, kalo and the hawaiian people.
  • Papahānaumoku (Earth Mother) & Wākea (Sky Father) came together and brought forth the birth of the Hawaiian Islands & the Hawaiian people. This is a chant that tells us how the islands were born and how the first man came about.
  • The sun rises in the east and brings forth new life. The east signifies birth, life, and growth.
  • The word Hāloa infers to the strength and endurance of the Hawaiian people. Without breath we have no life; without without we have no voice.
  • It is said that if you take care of your older siblings and your mother, they will nurture and take care of you.  This is the relationship that the Hawaiians have to kalo.
  • It is man’s responsibility to take care of the ʻāina (land) so that the ʻāina will feed the people.
  • The ʻohā is the main part of the plant that is used to feed one’s ʻohana. As the young shoot grows from the corm, people grow from the family.
  • As such, when the poi bowl was open, there must be no quarreling or arguing for it was a sign of disrespect to Hāloa because Haloa (Taro) is the elder brother of humans.
  • This is how we should view our environment for it is our kūpuna (elder) and our ali`I (chiefs).