LEGEND OF KAWELO:
MOKUNA I
HWST 104
CHARACTERS
• Kaweloleimakua
– Ka – the
– Welo - To flutter, float or stream, as in the wind; to set, of
the sun; progeny, ...
CHARACTERS
• Aikanaka
– Son of King of Kaua`i
– Kawelo’s cousin
• Kauahoa
– Of Hanalei
– Brought up with Kawelo
– ` lelo N...
CHARACTERS
• K kuhihewaā
– King of O`ahu
– Famous wrestler
– ` lelo No`eauŌ
E `ike ana `oe i ke li`i nui o O`ahu, `o K kuh...
CHARACTERS
• Kanewahineikiaoha
– Becomes Kawelo’s wife in Waik kī ī
– Her forte is the pïkoi (club with string)
• Kalonaik...
CHARACTERS
• Kalohipikonui & Kalohipikoikip wa`awa`aū
– Lohi: slow, tardy, late, retarded, backward
– P wa`awa`a: stupidū
...
H NAIĀ
• The Hawaiian word for adoption is h nai, itsā
derivation meaning to feed or nourish.
• H nai, as it was tradition...
NOTES
• The chiefs were surrounded by a throng of attendants,
who were generally kaukauali`i (class of chiefs of
lesser ra...
WARFARE
• In ancient Hawai`i, chiefs would attack rival islands or battle
factions on their own island. This would require...
WEAPONS
• Clubs
– Clubs are the weapon of choice for men
– Clubs were carved from wood or made of a shaped stone lashed to...
WEAPONS
• Ma`a: Sling
– The ma`a was designed to fling
different types and sizes of rocks
– A bigger stone was flung highe...
WEAPONS
• P hoa: Daggerā
– The p hoa can be used for blocking, spearing,ā
clubbing, and strangling
WEAPONS
• P koiī
– This weapon has a cord that is at least
10-15 feet long. At the end there is a
rock or a piece of wood ...
KUKUI
• Candlenut tree
• The tree is a symbol for
enlightenment
• The nuts were chewed and spat into
the sea by men fishin...
UHU
• Uhu also means to strain, chafe
under restraint; willful,
headstrong
• Uhu are plant eaters, the teeth are
strong an...
OLI (CHANTS)
• Used as a form of communication; form of prayer; informs
us of social protocol
• As noted in previous lectu...
OLI
• Often contains h `ailona (signs, omens,ō
premonitions)
– Kilo (to look at clouds to tell omens) – oli on pg.
40
– Ka...
OLI (CHANTS)
• Adds to imagery as it often contains metaphors
– Pg. 38 “the eyes of H loa” is a metaphor for the sunā
– Li...
ISLAND OF KAUA`I
ISLAND OF O`AHU
PLACE NAMES
• Hanam `uluā
– Landing, landing section,
village, bay, ditch, river,
beach park and birthplace
of the hero Ka...
PLACE NAMES
• Wailua
– Land division,
river, falls, valley,
town, L hu`e qd.,ī
Kaua`i.
– Lit., two waters
As taken from Pl...
PLACE NAMES
• Kaho`olein pe`aā
– Land division near K loa,ō
Kaua`i.
– Lit., the flying (of) the kites
– The kite of the Ka...
PLACE NAMES
• Kalehuawehe
– Name for an ancient surfing area
at Waik k ; now called Castle’sī ī
– Lit., the removed lehua ...
PLACE NAMES
• ` puak hauĀ ē
– Old stream that
debouched near the
present Moana Hotel,
Waik k , probablyī ī
named for a rai...
PLACE NAMES
• Wai`alae
– Mountain, section, avenue
in Honolulu said to be
named for a spring
– Lit., mudhen water
• Wai`an...
PLACE NAMES
• Hanalei
– Land division, village, bay, district,
river, and valley, Hanalei district,
Kaua`i.
– Lit., cresce...
Not all characters and place names are listed in this
presentation. As a reminder, you may access the
Hawaiian Dictionary ...
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Kawelo (Ch 1)

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Kawelo (Ch 1)

  1. 1. LEGEND OF KAWELO: MOKUNA I HWST 104
  2. 2. CHARACTERS • Kaweloleimakua – Ka – the – Welo - To flutter, float or stream, as in the wind; to set, of the sun; progeny, ancestry, breed, family trait or strain, group custom, heritage characteristic – Lei – figuratively represents a beloved child – Makua – parent • Maihuna – Kawelo’s father • Malaiakalani – Kawelo’s mother
  3. 3. CHARACTERS • Aikanaka – Son of King of Kaua`i – Kawelo’s cousin • Kauahoa – Of Hanalei – Brought up with Kawelo – ` lelo No`eau:Ō He hoa `ai wai paha no Kauahoaū Lit: Perhaps he shared the breast with Kauahoa A play on uahoa (hard) in Kauahoa, a warrior of Kaua`i – Uahoa: hard, severe, harsh, indifferent to the distress of others
  4. 4. CHARACTERS • K kuhihewaā – King of O`ahu – Famous wrestler – ` lelo No`eauŌ E `ike ana `oe i ke li`i nui o O`ahu, `o K kuhihewaā Lit: You will meet with the great chief of O`ahu, K kuhihewaā You shall find out how wrong you are. A play on kuhihewa (erroneous) – Kuhihewa: To suppose wrongly, err in judgment, give wrong directions; to mistake a person for someone else
  5. 5. CHARACTERS • Kanewahineikiaoha – Becomes Kawelo’s wife in Waik kī ī – Her forte is the pïkoi (club with string) • Kalonaikahailaau – Kawelo’s father-in-law – Teaches Kawelo martial arts • Maakuakeke – Of Waialae – Kawelo’s fishing instructor
  6. 6. CHARACTERS • Kalohipikonui & Kalohipikoikip wa`awa`aū – Lohi: slow, tardy, late, retarded, backward – P wa`awa`a: stupidū – From the meaning of their names, we can foreshadow their actions/characteristics in this mo`olelo
  7. 7. H NAIĀ • The Hawaiian word for adoption is h nai, itsā derivation meaning to feed or nourish. • H nai, as it was traditionally practiced inā Hawaiian culture, referred to the situation where a child was taken permanently to be reared, educated, and loved by someone other than their natural parents. The tradition of h nai is still practiced to this day.ā • Sometimes a child was asked for by a friend or relative before it was born, but not the eldest. • The eldest belonged to the grandparents; a boy to his paternal grandparents and a girl to her maternal grandparents
  8. 8. NOTES • The chiefs were surrounded by a throng of attendants, who were generally kaukauali`i (class of chiefs of lesser rank than the high chief) ie: the father is a high chief and the mother of lower rank, but not a commoner. These attendants included a steward. • ` ` pu`upu`uā ī – The steward of a person of high rank, deputed to care and care for the chief’s food – Steward, butler, said to be so called because the chief’s steward got calluses (pu`upu`u) on his shoulders from carrying food
  9. 9. WARFARE • In ancient Hawai`i, chiefs would attack rival islands or battle factions on their own island. This would require months of careful preparation. A chief would consult advisors as well as kahuna (priests) and then drew his army from lesser ranked chiefs and well- trained warriors. • Lua – A type of dangerous hand-to-hand fighting in which the fighters broke bones, dislocated bones at the joints, and inflicted severe pain by pressing on nerve centers. Many of the techniques were secret; lua experts were bodyguards to chiefs. • Some of the weaponry mentioned in this mo`olelo are described in the following slides. Please note that the list included here is not all-inclusive as there are many other forms of traditional Hawaiian weapons.
  10. 10. WEAPONS • Clubs – Clubs are the weapon of choice for men – Clubs were carved from wood or made of a shaped stone lashed to a wooden handle. • Ihe: Spears – Spears had barbed edges or straight point – Warriors used short and long spears for thrusting and throwing. – Women were generally not allowed to use spears in warfare – Some women had spears, but they were short (8 ft).
  11. 11. WEAPONS • Ma`a: Sling – The ma`a was designed to fling different types and sizes of rocks – A bigger stone was flung higher into the air onto the top of the enemy; smaller stones were flung directly into the face or forehead of the attackers – Women were allowed to use slings
  12. 12. WEAPONS • P hoa: Daggerā – The p hoa can be used for blocking, spearing,ā clubbing, and strangling
  13. 13. WEAPONS • P koiī – This weapon has a cord that is at least 10-15 feet long. At the end there is a rock or a piece of wood (such as the one shown). – A warrior would hold onto one end of the cord and whip it around. – It would tangle the enemy, causing him to trip or allowing the warrior to pull his opponent down. – This was the forte of Kawelo’s wife
  14. 14. KUKUI • Candlenut tree • The tree is a symbol for enlightenment • The nuts were chewed and spat into the sea by men fishing with nets in order to calm the sea • The nuts were used for lights; cooked for a relish (`inamona); or polished and strung into lei • The leaves and small white flowers are also used in leis
  15. 15. UHU • Uhu also means to strain, chafe under restraint; willful, headstrong • Uhu are plant eaters, the teeth are strong and beaklike, well fitted for clipping off food from coral • The colors of this fish are so pretty that it is sometimes compared to a sweetheart • Uhum ka`ika`i: lit: travelingā uhu , perhaps so called because they follow one another in line
  16. 16. OLI (CHANTS) • Used as a form of communication; form of prayer; informs us of social protocol • As noted in previous lecture notes, in the Hawaiian culture, there is much power in words. This is demonstrated through Kawelo’s oli in which he kills Uhum ka`ika`i through his prayer.ā • The words of an oli were chosen very carefully because of its double meanings, metaphorical references, etc. • ` lelo No`eauŌ I ka ` lelo n ke ola, i ka ` lelo n ka makeō ō ō ō Lit: Life is in speech; death is in speech Words can heal; words can destroy
  17. 17. OLI • Often contains h `ailona (signs, omens,ō premonitions) – Kilo (to look at clouds to tell omens) – oli on pg. 40 – Kawelo tells Kamalama that the small pointed clouds denote oppression – He then goes on to chant about Kaua`i and lists different place names of Kaua`i, indicating the place of oppression
  18. 18. OLI (CHANTS) • Adds to imagery as it often contains metaphors – Pg. 38 “the eyes of H loa” is a metaphor for the sunā – Lines #2-4 of oli on pg. 40 strengthen the action of imagery (what Kawelo’s wife is doing) • Halahola – the character in which the mat is spread out • Kaukekeha – the character in which the head is tilted on the pillow • Maakuiaikalani – the character in which the kapa envelopes the wearer • Lines #3-8 of oli on pg. 48/49 are martial holds in lua (Hawaiian martial art of self-defense)
  19. 19. ISLAND OF KAUA`I
  20. 20. ISLAND OF O`AHU
  21. 21. PLACE NAMES • Hanam `uluā – Landing, landing section, village, bay, ditch, river, beach park and birthplace of the hero Kawelo, L hu`e district, Kaua`i.ī – Lit., tired (as from walking) bay As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P ku`i, Elbertū & Mo`okini
  22. 22. PLACE NAMES • Wailua – Land division, river, falls, valley, town, L hu`e qd.,ī Kaua`i. – Lit., two waters As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P kuū i, Elbert & Mo`okini
  23. 23. PLACE NAMES • Kaho`olein pe`aā – Land division near K loa,ō Kaua`i. – Lit., the flying (of) the kites – The kite of the Kaua`i hero Kawelo was entangled here with that of his rival cousin. • Waik kī ī – Beach, Honolulu. – Lit., spouting water As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P ku`i, Elbert &ū Mo`okini
  24. 24. PLACE NAMES • Kalehuawehe – Name for an ancient surfing area at Waik k ; now called Castle’sī ī – Lit., the removed lehua lei; take off the lehua – ` lelo No`eauŌ Ka nalu ha`i o Kalehuawehe The rolling surf of Kalehuawehe Kalehuawehe was Waik k ’sī ī most famous surf. IT was so named when a legendary hero took off his lei of lehua blossoms and gave it to the wife of the ruling chief, with whom he was surfing. As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P ku`i, Elbert & Mo`okiniū
  25. 25. PLACE NAMES • ` puak hauĀ ē – Old stream that debouched near the present Moana Hotel, Waik k , probablyī ī named for a rain. – Lit., basket (of) dew.
  26. 26. PLACE NAMES • Wai`alae – Mountain, section, avenue in Honolulu said to be named for a spring – Lit., mudhen water • Wai`anae – Quadrangle, mountain range, land division, town, valley on O`ahu. – Lit., mullet water As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P ku`i, Elbert &ū Mo`okini Wai`anae Coast
  27. 27. PLACE NAMES • Hanalei – Land division, village, bay, district, river, and valley, Hanalei district, Kaua`i. – Lit., crescent bay • Ka`ie`iewaho – Channel between O`ahu and Kaua`i – Lit., outer Ka`ie`ie (as in the `ie`ie vine) • Pu`uloa – Land section, village, area east of Pearl Harbor; an old name for Pearl Harbor, O`ahu – Lit., long hill As taken from Place Names of Hawai`i (1974) by P ku`, Elbert & Mo`okiniū Hanalei, Kaua`i
  28. 28. Not all characters and place names are listed in this presentation. As a reminder, you may access the Hawaiian Dictionary and Place Names of Hawai`i (and many other books) for free online via a link on the Resources page.

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