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Guerra Contra la Confederación Perú-Boliviana

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guerra entre Chile y la confederación Perú-boliviana en 1836-1839.

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Guerra Contra la Confederación Perú-Boliviana

  1. 1. Guerra en contra la Confederación Perú- boliviana.  Enfrentamiento bélico desarrollado en 1836 - 1839.  Desatado entre:
  2. 2. Antecedentes Generales La división de Latinoamérica en naciones independientes, hizo que surgieran los problemas limítrofes. Rivalidades comerciales entre los países dentro de un sistema de libre comercio.
  3. 3. Creación de la confederación peruana- boliviana.  Las ideas de unión dividieron a Perú:  Estado Sud-Peruano.  Estado Nor-Peruano.  Santa Cruz líder independentista Presidente de la confederación.  El 1 de mayo de 1837 se realiza el “pacto de Tacna” para promulgar la Confederación.
  4. 4. Reacción en Chile .  Creó recelo en los sectores elite, haciendo que Diego Portales volviera al gobierno.  Portales exige al presidente José Joaquín Prieto terminar con la Confederación. Ramón Freire El ex Director Supremo en alianza con Santa Cruz, intenta derrocar al gobierno de Prieto.
  5. 5. Reacción en Chile .  21 de agosto de 1836 Portales ataca la barca de Santa cruz.  30 de agosto 1836 Mariano Engaña negocia un Tratado de Paz, que fue:  1) Pago de la deuda en ejercito libertador para el Perú.  2) La limitación de las tropas confederadas.  3) Acuerdos comerciales entre las naciones.  4) Indemnización por el atentado de Freire.  5) Separación del Perú y Bolivia.  Santa Cruz estuvo de acuerdo en lo comercial, menos en la separación de la confederación.
  6. 6. Declaración de guerra, Causas y motivos:  Chile declaró la Guerra a la Confederación el 28 de diciembre de 1836,con los siguientes motivos:  Se forma el Ejército Unido Restaurador en Chile.  Gobierno argentino declaró guerra el 9 de mayo de 1837.  la competencia comercial.  Influencia que pudiera ejercer la confederación.  La acusación contra Santa Cruz por la muerte de Diego Portales  Perú había motivado una guerra civil en Chile. (R. Freire)  Deuda que chile reclamaba a Perú.  Desconfianza entre los gobiernos de Bolivia, Chile y Perú.
  7. 7. El acontecimiento que vuelve guerra a causa nacional: Portales fue tomado prisionero por un grupo de oficiales que queria impedir la guerra. Dando muerte al ministro el 7 de junio de 1837.
  8. 8. Expediciones restauradoras.  El 15 de septiembre de 1837 Primera Expedición Restauradora: “Tratado de Paucarpata” tan precaria como indigna. En 1838 Segunda expedición restauradora, Por la seguridad de los países limítrofes, destituir a Santa Cruz y lograr la independencia del Perú.  Logró los siguientes combates:  El 21 de agosto de 1838 Portada de Guías  El 6 enero de 1839 Buin.  En enero de 1839 Naval de Casma  El 18 septiembre de 1838 Matucana
  9. 9. Batalla de Yungay  El 20 de enero de 1839, el ejército de Santa Cruz fue completamente derrotado por el Ejército Restaurador en la Batalla de Yungay.
  10. 10. Yungay ha sido una de las batalla mas sangrientas de la historia americana. Santa cruz tuvo 50% de bajas. El ejercito de Bulnes el 15%.
  11. 11. Consecuencias de la Guerra  El gobierno del Perú pagó al gobierno de Chile la deuda.  El triunfo es recordado con el Himno de Yungay, y en Perú con la creación del Departamento de Ancash (zona donde se realizó la Batalla de Yungay).  La derrota significó:  Fin de la confederación Perú-Boliviana.  Santa Cruz huye a Guayaquil (Ecuador).  Chile con su triunfo se alzaba como la gran potencia del Pacífico sur.  Destacada participación del hombre común (roto chileno), quien demostró la valentía y el coraje del ciudadano de la joven nación chilena.
  12. 12. Desenlace y consecuencias  En el ámbito interno:  Sentimiento de nacionalidad.  Figura del “roto chileno” como emblema patrio.  Chile se convierte en la 1º potencia del pacífico, con un dominio marítimo comercial.  En Perú:  Como una guerra civil que como una guerra externa.  En la historiografía peruana se considera que el "invasor" es Bolivia y fue un triunfo que logró la independencia del Perú, minimizando el papel de Chile.
  13. 13. Monumento al “roto chileno”
  14. 14. Sargento Candelaria  Su labor en el Ejército fue una mezcla de soldado, enfermera, espía y mensajera. Durante el bloqueo del Callao por la escuadra chilena a cargo del Almirante Simpson, sirvió de mensajera y correo para llevar noticias a bordo. Evitaba la vigilancia enemiga, por medio de su disfraz de marinero.
  15. 15. Conclusión vs
  16. 16. Gracias por tu atención

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