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The Computer & Social Science Disciplines
The Computer Sciences The Social Sciences
Dr. L.T.M. Muungo, PhD
Concept of Political Science
in
Social Environment
Dr. L.T.M. Muungo, PhD
Meaning of Political Science
Meaning of political science
 Traditional view point-: political science is the
study of state and government and the study of
various aspects of the state and government is its
subject matter.
 Modern view point-: the modern thinkers have
brought all such activities under the scope of
political science which are concerned with power,
influence authority, shaping and sharing of power
etc and with all this the scope of political science
has become quit vast. Today all the political
activities, from individual upto the world have
become the subject matter of political science.
Scope of political science according
to traditional point of view
 Study of state
 Study of the past of the state
 Study of the present of the state
 Study of the future of the state
 Study of the government
 Study of international relations and organizations
 Study of the man as a political being
 Study of political ideologies

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4 4-regional & national political science

  • 1. The Computer & Social Science Disciplines The Computer Sciences The Social Sciences Dr. L.T.M. Muungo, PhD
  • 2. Concept of Political Science in Social Environment Dr. L.T.M. Muungo, PhD
  • 4. Meaning of political science  Traditional view point-: political science is the study of state and government and the study of various aspects of the state and government is its subject matter.
  • 5.  Modern view point-: the modern thinkers have brought all such activities under the scope of political science which are concerned with power, influence authority, shaping and sharing of power etc and with all this the scope of political science has become quit vast. Today all the political activities, from individual upto the world have become the subject matter of political science.
  • 6. Scope of political science according to traditional point of view  Study of state  Study of the past of the state  Study of the present of the state  Study of the future of the state  Study of the government  Study of international relations and organizations  Study of the man as a political being  Study of political ideologies
  • 7.  Study of political parties  Study of pressure groups  Study of rights and duties  Study of the electoral system  Study of law
  • 8. Scope of political science according to modern point of view Study of political system Study of power Study of influence Study of leadership Study of the authority Study of authorative allocation of values Study of problems and conflict
  • 9.  Study of who gets what when and how  Study of decision making process  Study of the political behaviour of an individuals  Study of political culture  Study of political socialization  Study of comparative government and politics
  • 10. Distinction between Political Theory and Political Science Meaning of Political Theory It is a branch of political science under which scientific analysis is made of political institutions, political events and political facts etc. it is not concerned with the explanation of the facts only, rather its purpose is also to draw some conclusion after making the analysis of political events, political institutions, political system and political behaviour etc on the basis of which we can visualise of an ideal state, ideal government and other ideal institutions.
  • 11.  Political science is a independent subject whereas political theory is branch of it  Political theory is the so what? Department of political science  Difference in their subject matter  Political theory make political science a science  Difference in their method of study
  • 12.  Political science has many branches whereas political theory has none  Political is institutional study whereas political theory is conceptual study  The study of political science is analytical whereas the study political science is explanatory  Theory building is the field of political theory not political science
  • 13. Conclusion There is no doubt that there are many differences between political science and political theory, but there is as close relationship between these two as there is between body and soul. Through political theory is not an independent subject, yet we can certainly call it the soul of political science.
  • 14. References  Aggarwal R.C., Principles of Political Science, S.Chand Company, New Delhi, 1976.  Badyal, J.S, Political Theory, Raj Publishers, 2012, Jalander.  Garner James Wildford, Political Science and Government, The World Press Priviate LTD. Calcutta, 1951.  Gauba O.P, An Introduction to Political Theory, Macmillan Publisher, Delhi, 2009.  Heywood Andrew, Political Theory An Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2005.  Misra K.K & Iyengar Kalpana. M, Modern Political Theory, S.Chand Company, New Delhi, 1988.  Ray Amal, Political Theory Idess and Institutions, The World Press Priviate LTD. Calcutta, 1988  Johari J.C, Principles of Modern Political Science, Sterling Publishers, New Delhi, 1989.
  • 16.  History of Political Science  Recent debates  Specific Research Programs  Duverger’s Law (Riker)  Realignment literature (Mayhew)
  • 17. Almond’s History  Place of political theory  The Behavioral revolution  Foundations of behavioralism  Reaction to existing methods of political science  The quantitative divide
  • 18. Tenets of Behavioralism  Emphasis on discovering regularities  Generalization through “covering laws”  Focus on causality …very Popperian
  • 19. Reactions to Quantification  Statistical methods and Rational Choice theory  One and the same?  Battle between quantoids and non-quantoids
  • 20. “Some may question the coupling of deductive theory and quantitative research under the one rubric of “hard science.” Quantitative researchers do at least schematically empirical work, whereas most deductive theorists use empirical data only for anecdotal illustration. But it was radical quantifiers, those who analyze all questions with statistics, who first deformed the discipline in the name of hard science. It was they who popularized the study of politics outside of its historical and cultural setting, who made methodology into the core of graduate education while degrading political philosophy and foreign language study, and who spawned the trend toward method-driven rather than problem- driven research.” Gregory Kaska (2001)
  • 21. A clash of Paradigms? “Mr. Perestroika” Charges political science with being run by "a coterie" that "dominate and control" the major scholarly journals and impose "the same methodology" on everyone, thereby "ignoring diverse knowledges and methodologies." "Why are all the articles of APSR from the same methodology–statistics or game theory? … Where is political history, international history, political sociology, interpretive methodology?”
  • 22. More from Kaska The Perestroika movement is a reaction against scholars who wish to turn the study of politics into what Thomas Kuhn called a “normal science.” They seek to impose a consensus on epistemological and methodological questions in order to hasten scientific progress. This group of scholars comprises mainly rational choice theorists, formal modelers, and those who do exclusively quantitative research. I refer to them as advocates of “hard science.”
  • 23. What is the end result? The evil of quantification “Numbers crunchers created [the scientific] approach to political education; rational choice theorists thrive on it. Despite their differences, they share the daydream of a hard science of politics. That is why they have formed a ruling coalition in economics departments and aspire to do so in political science.
  • 24. Concept of Political Science, State, Politics, Government, Governance and Administration
  • 25. Political Science It is the systematic study of and reflection upon politics. Politics usually describes the processes by which people and institutions exercise and resist power.
  • 26. Political Science is the systematic study of the state and government. The word political is derived from the Greek polis, meaning a city, of what today would be equivalent of sovereign state. Science comes from the Latin scire, “to know”
  • 27. Scope of Political Science: 1. Political theory 2. Public Law 3. Public Administration
  • 28. Political Theory It refers to the entire body of doctrines relating to the origin, form, behaviour, and purposes of the state are dealt with the study of political theory.
  • 29. Public Law – the (a) organization of governments, (b) the limitations upon government authority, (c) the powers and duties of governmental offices and officers, and (d) the obligations of one state to another are handled in the study of public law.
  • 30. Private Laws are the one which govern the relations among individuals, public law is so specialized that separate courses offered in each of its subdivisions, namely: (a) constitutional law, (b) administrative law, and (c) international Law.
  • 31. Public Administration - attention is focused upon methods and techniques used in the actual management of the state affairs by executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
  • 32. N.B, today, legislative bodies have been forced to delegate greater discretion to executive officers responsible for the conduct of government policies and powers. Thus we find many administrative agencies exercising quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial powers.
  • 33. Interrelationship of Political Science with other branches of learning: 1. History “History is past politics and politics is present history.”
  • 34. Political Scientist adopts a “historical approach and employs knowledge of the past when he seeks to interpret present and probable developments in political phenomena.
  • 35. 2. Economics Refers to the study of production, distribution, and conservation, and consumption of wealth.
  • 36. Political Scientist adopts an “economic approach” when seeking to interpret matters like public financial policies and government regulation of business.
  • 37. 3. Geography Geopolitics It is concerned with the study of the influences of physical factors such as population pressures, sources of raw materials, geography, etc. Upon domestic and foreign politics.
  • 38. 4. Sociology & anthropology It is deeply concerned with the origins and nature of social control and governmental authority, with the abiding influences of race and culture upon society, & with the patterns of collective human behavior.
  • 39. 5. Psychology It promotes studies of the mental and emotional processes motivating the political behavior of individuals and groups. Particular topics under this are: public opinion, pressure groups, and propaganda.
  • 40. 6. Philosophy The concepts and doctrines of Plato, Aristotle & Locke are important to the specialist in academic philosophy and also to the political scientist.
  • 41. 7. Statistics and Logic Political theorist must have abroad background & knowledge of current political problems and he must employ scientific methods in gathering and evaluating the data & in drawing conclusions.
  • 42. 8. Jurisprudence This branch of public law is concerned with the analysis of existing legal systems & also with the ethical, historical, sociological, & psychological foundations of law.
  • 43. Concepts of State Meaning of the State State is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control.
  • 44. Elements of State: 1. People 2. Territory 3. Government 4. Sovereignty 5. Recognition
  • 45. 1. People This refers to the mass of population living within the state. There is no requirement as to the number of people that should compose a state. But it should be neither too small nor too large: small enough to be well-governed and large enough to be self-sufficing. The smallest state is Vatican. China has the largest population.
  • 46. 2. Territory Components of Territory: 1. Terrestrial/land mass 2. Aerial 3. Fluvial 4. Maritime Domain
  • 47. The smallest state is Vatican State with an area of 0.43 square kilometres. It would fit in Rizal Park in Manila. The biggest state is Canada with an area of 3,852,000 square miles which covers a surface nearly as large as Europe.
  • 48. Zambia has a total land area of about …… square kilometres . 3. Government It refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and carried out.
  • 49. 4. Sovereignty It is the supreme power of the state to command and enforce obedience to its will from people within its jurisdiction, and to have freedom from foreign control.
  • 50. Two manifestations of Sovereignty: 1. Internal or the power of the state to rule within its territory; 2. External or the freedom of the state to carry out its activities without subjection or control by other states. External sovereignty is often referred to as independence.
  • 51. N.B these internal and external aspects of sovereignty are not absolutely true in practice because of the development of international relations and consequently international law.
  • 52. 5. Recognition 1.Legal sovereignty is the possession of unlimited power to make laws. It is the authority by which law has the power to issue commands. 2.Political sovereignty is the sum total of all the influences in a state which lie behind the law. It is roughly defined as the power of the people.
  • 53. What is imperium? Dominium? Imperium is the right of the State to pass or enact its own laws and employ force to secure obedience thereto, maintain peace and order within its territorial limits, defend the State against foreign invasion, and do any other act of government over its people and territory.
  • 54. Dominium refers to the independent proprietary right of possession, use, conservation, disposition or sale, and control by the State over its territorial lands.
  • 55. Characteristics of Sovereignty 1. Permanence; 2. Exclusivity; 3. Comprehensiveness; 4. Absoluteness; 5. Individuality; 6. Inalienability; and 7. Imprescritibility
  • 56. Permanence means it exist in the same form forever or for a very long time. Exclusivity means it is limited to a group of people. Comprehensiveness means including everything, so as to be complete comprehensive knowledge of the subject. Absoluteness means possessing unlimited power: having total power and authority.
  • 57. Individuality means the state or condition of being separate from others. Inalienability means it is impossible to take away or not able to be transferred or taken away, e.g. because of being protected by law. Imprescribility it means not to be taken away or impossible to remove or violate the people's imprescriptible rights.
  • 58. Governance 1. manner of government: the system or manner of government; 2. state of governing a place: the act or state of governing a place; 3. authority: control or authority
  • 59. ADMINISTRATION It means the management of the affairs of a business, organization, or institution.
  • 60. GOVERNMENT Forms of Government: The principal forms are the following: 1.As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers;
  • 61. 2. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government; 3. As to relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of the government; 4. As to source of power or authority:
  • 62. 1. As to number of persons exercising sovereign powers: A. Government by one A1) Monarchy or one in which the supreme and final authority
  • 63. is in the hands of a single person without regard to the source of his election or the nature or duration of his tenure. Monarchies are further classified into:
  • 64. Monarchy, form of government in which one person has the hereditary right to rule as head of state during his or her lifetime; the term is also applied to the state so governed.
  • 65. Monarchs include such rulers as kings and queens, emperors and empresses, tsars, and kaisers. Two types of Monarchical government: 1. Absolute Monarchy or one in which the ruler rules by divine right; and
  • 66. 2. Limited monarchy or one in which the ruler rules in accordance with a constitution. The power of the monarch varies from absolute to very limited; the latter is exemplified in modern-day constitutional monarchies.
  • 67. A2 Authoritarian or one in which the supreme power of the dictator whose power is usually through force. 1. strict and demanding obedience: favoring strict rules and established authority;
  • 68. 2. demanding political obedience: belonging to or believing in a political system in which obedience to the ruling person or group is strongly enforced.
  • 69. B. Government by few B1 Aristocracy or one in which political power is exercised by few privileged class. 1. people of highest social class: people of noble families or the highest social class
  • 70. 2. superior group: a group believed to be superior to all others of the same kind 3. government by elite: government of a country by a small group of people, especially a hereditary nobility 4. state run by elite: a state governed by an aristocracy.
  • 71. B2 Oligarchy 1. small governing group: a small group of people who together govern a nation or control an organization, often for their own purposes;
  • 72. 2. entity ruled by oligarchy: a nation governed or an organization controlled by an oligarchy; 3. government by small group: government or control by a small group of people.
  • 73. Sources of their power: 1. By birth2. By wealth3. By wisdom In an aristocracy, although the power of government is wielded by a few, theoretically the administration of government is carried on for the welfare of the many.
  • 74. Whenever the interests of the people as a whole are made subservient to the selfish interests of the rulers, aristocracy becomes a form of government known as oligarchy.
  • 75. C. Government by many C1 Democracy or one in which political power is exercised by the majority of the people. It is further classified into:
  • 76. C1.1 Direct or pure democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated or expressed directly and immediately through the people in a mass meeting or primary assembly rather than through the medium of representatives chosen by the people to act for them.
  • 77. C1.2 Indirect, representative or republican democracy or one in which the will of the state is formulated and expressed through the agency of a relatively small and select body of persons chosen by the people to act as their representatives.
  • 78. 2. As to extent of powers exercised by the central or national government: A. Unitary government or one in which the control of national and local affairs is exercised by the national government;
  • 79. B. Federal government or one in which the powers of government are divided between two sets of organs, one for national affairs and the other for local affairs, each organ being supreme within its own sphere.
  • 80. Dist. bet. Federal & Unitary Gov’t Federal states, such as the U.S. and Switzerland, comprise unions of states in which the authority of the central or national government is constitutionally limited by the legally established powers of the constituent subdivisions.
  • 81. In unitary states, such as the United Kingdom and Belgium, the constituent subdivisions of the state are subordinate to the authority of the national government.
  • 82. Countries with federal political systems have both a central government and governments based in smaller political units, usually called states, provinces, or territories. These smaller political units surrender some of their political power to the central government, relying on it to act for the common good.
  • 83. In a federal system, laws are made both by state, provincial, or territorial governments and by a central government. In the United States, for example, people who live in the state of Ohio must obey the laws made by the Ohio legislature and the Congress of the United States.
  • 84. Federal political systems divide power and resources between central and regional governments. Central governments decide issues that concern the whole country, such as organizing an army, building major roads, and making treaties with other countries.
  • 85. In unitary systems, with laws giving virtually all authority to the central government. The central government may delegate duties to cities or other administrative units, but it retains final authority and can retract any tasks it has delegated.
  • 86. The central government in a unitary system is much more powerful than the central government in a federal system.
  • 87. 3. As to relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of the government: A. Parliamentary government or cabinet gov’t. is one in which the executive and legislative branch of the government are dependent or executive branch is part of the legislative branch.
  • 88. B. Presidential government or one in which the state makes the executive independent from the legislative.
  • 89. Distinctions bet. Presidential & Parliamentary In parliamentary governments, of which the United Kingdom, India, and Canada are examples, the executive branch is subordinate to the legislature.
  • 90. In presidential governments, such as in Zambia, the executive is independent of the legislature and judiciary, although many of the executive's actions are subject to legislative review and judiciary scrutiny.
  • 91. 4. As to source of power or authority: A. De facto is one not so constituted or founded with the existing constitution but has the general support of the people and has effective control of the territory over which it exercises its powers.
  • 92. B. De Jure is one which is constituted or founded in accordance with the existing constitution of the state but has no control of the territory. C. Hereditary & Elective
  • 93. Checks and Balances, the doctrine and prac tice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability among political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens.
  • 94. The system of checks and balances is a basic feature of the United States government. The first check comes from the fact that different branches of the government have overlapping authority, so each branch can act as a limit on the other.
  • 95. For example, the president can veto an act of Congress. A two- thirds majority in Congress can then override the president’s veto. The president appoints major federal officials, but only if the Senate by majority vote agrees.
  • 96. Separation of Powers, the doctrine and practi ce of dividing the powers of a government among different branches to guard against abuse of authority.
  • 97. A government of separated powers assigns different political and legal powers to the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The legislative branch has the power to make laws.
  • 98. The executive branch has the authority to administer the law— primarily by bringing lawbreakers to trial—and to appoint officials and oversee the administration of government responsibilities.
  • 99. The judicial branch has the power to try cases brought to court and to interpret the meaning of laws under which the trials are conducted.
  • 100. A government of separated powers is less likely to be tyrannical and more likely to follow the rule of law: the principle that government action must be constrained by laws.
  • 101. A separation of powers can also make a political system more democratic by making it more difficult for a single ruler, such as a monarch or a president, to become dictatorial.
  • 102. The division of powers also prevents one branch of government from dominating the others or dictating the laws to the public. Most democratic systems have some degree of separation of powers.
  • 103. POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES Liberalism, attitude, philosophy, or movement that has as its basic concern the development of personal freedom and social progress.
  • 104. The course of liberalism in a given country is usually conditioned by the character of the prevailing form of government.
  • 105. For example, in countries in which the political and religious authorities are separate, liberalism connotes, mainly, political, economic, and social reform.
  • 106. In countries in which a state church exists or a church is politically influential, liberalism connotes, mainly, anticlericalism.
  • 107. In domestic politics, liberals have opposed feudal restraints that prevent the individual from rising out of a low social status; barriers such as censorship that limit free expression of opinion; and arbitrary power exercised over the individual by the state.
  • 108. In international politics, liberals have opposed the domination of foreign policy by militarists and military considerations and the exploitation of native colonial people, and they have sought to substitute a cosmopolitan policy of international cooperation.
  • 109. In economics, liberals have attacked monopolies and mercantilist state policies that subject the economy to state control.
  • 110. In religion, liberals have fought against church interference in the affairs of the state and attempts by religious pressure groups to influence public opinion.
  • 111. Conservatism, a general state o f mind that is averse to rapid change and innovation and strives for balance and order, while avoiding extremes. Originally conservatism arose as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment.
  • 112. Conservatives advocated belief in faith over reason, tradition over free inquiry, hierarchy over equality, collective values over individualism, and divine or natural law over secular law.
  • 113. Conservatism emphasizes the merits of the status quo and endorses the prevailing distribution of power, wealth, and social standing.
  • 114. Democracy (Greek demos,” the people”; kratein, “to rule”), political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish.
  • 115. In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by representatives elected by popular suffrage.
  • 116. The representatives may be supplanted by the electorate according to the legal procedures of recall and referendum, and they are, at least in principle, responsible to the electorate.
  • 117. Socialism, economic and social doctrine, political movement inspired by this doctrine, and system or order established when this doctrine is organized in a society.
  • 118. The socialist doctrine demands state ownership and control of the fundamental means of production and distribution of wealth, to be achieved by reconstruction of the existing capitalist or other political system of a country through peaceful, democratic, and parliamentary means.
  • 119. The doctrine specifically advocates nationalization of natural resources, basic industries, banking and credit facilities, and public utilities.
  • 120. It places special emphasis on the nationalization of monopolized branches of industry and trade, viewing monopolies as inimical to the public welfare.
  • 121. It also advocates state ownership of corporations in which the ownership function has passed from stockholders to managerial personnel.
  • 122. Capitalism, economic syste m in which private individuals and business firms carry on the production and exchange of goods and services through a complex network of prices and markets.
  • 123. Capital in this sense means the buildings, machines, and other equipment used to produce goods and services that are ultimately consumed.
  • 124. Second, economic activity is organized and coordinated through the interaction of buyers and sellers (or producers) in markets.
  • 125. Third, owners of land and capital as well as the workers they employ are free to pursue their own self-interests in seeking maximum gain from the use of their resources and labor in production.
  • 126. This principle, called consumer sovereignty, reflects the idea that under capitalism producers will be forced by competition to use their resources in ways that will best satisfy the wants of consumers.
  • 127. Fourth, under this system a minimum of government supervision is required; if competition is present, economic activity will be self- regulating.
  • 128. Communism, a theory and system of social and political organization that was a major force in world politics for much of the 20th century.
  • 129. As a political movement, communism sought to overthrow capitalism through a workers’ revolution and establish a system in which property is owned by the community as a whole rather than by individuals.
  • 130. In theory, communism would create a classless society of abundance and freedom, in which all people enjoy equal social and economic status.
  • 131. In practice, communist regimes have taken the form of coercive, authoritarian governments that cared little for the plight of the working class and sought above all else to preserve their own hold on power.
  • 133. I. Ancient Political Thinkers: 1. Socrates 2. Plato 3. Aristotle
  • 135. Greek philosopher and teacher who lived in Athens, Greece, in the 400s BC. He profoundly altered Western philosophical thought through his influence on his most famous pupil, Plato, who passed on Socrates' teachings in his writings known as dialogues.
  • 136. Socrates taught that every person has full knowledge of ultimate truth contained within the soul and needs only to be spurred to conscious reflection in order to become aware of it.
  • 137. His criticism of injustice in Athenian society led to his prosecution and a death sentence for allegedly corrupting the youth of Athens.
  • 138. Attitude towards Politics Socrates was obedient to the laws of Athens, but he generally steered clear of politics, restrained by what he believed to be divine warning.
  • 139. He believed that he had received a call to pursue philosophy and could serve his country best by devoting himself to teaching, and by persuading the Athenians to engage in self- examination and in tending to their souls.
  • 140. He wrote no books and established no regular school of philosophy. All that is known with certainty about his personality and his way of thinking is derived from the works of two of his distinguished scholars: Plato & Xenophon
  • 141. He was charged in 399 BC with neglecting the gods of the state and introducing new divinities, a reference to the daemonion, or mystical inner voice, to which Socrates often referred.
  • 142. He was also charged with corrupting the morals of the young, leading them away from the principles of democracy. He was condemned to die, although the vote was carried by only a small majority.
  • 143. Socrates' friends planned his escape from prison, but he preferred to comply with the law and die for his cause.
  • 144. His last day was spent with his friends and admirers, and in the evening he calmly fulfilled his sentence by drinking a cup of hemlock according to a customary procedure of execution.
  • 146. Plato (428?-347 BC), Greek philosopher, one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophy. He was born to an aristocratic family in Athens.
  • 147. His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione, his mother, was distantly related to the 6th- century BC lawmaker Solon.
  • 148. The Republic, Plato's major political work, is concerned with the question of justice and therefore with the questions “what is a just state” and “who is a just individual?”
  • 149. The ideal state, according to Plato, is composed of three classes. The economic structure of the state is maintained by the merchant class. Security needs are met by the military class, and political leadership is provided by the philosopher-kings.
  • 150. A particular person's class is determined by an educational process that begins at birth and proceeds until that person has reached the maximum level of education compatible with interest and ability.
  • 151. Those who complete the entire educational process become philosopher-kings. Plato divides the human soul into three parts: the rational part, the will, and the appetites.
  • 152. The just person is the one in whom the rational element, supported by the will, controls the appetites. An obvious analogy exists here with the threefold class structure of the state, in which the enlightened philosopher-kings, supported by the soldiers, govern the rest of society.
  • 154. Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato's Academy.
  • 155. In politics, many forms of human association can obviously be found; which one is suitable depends on circumstances, such as the natural resources, cultural traditions, industry, and literacy of each community.
  • 156. Aristotle did not regard politics as a study of ideal states in some abstract form, but rather as an examination of the way in which ideals, laws, customs, and property interrelate in actual cases.
  • 157. John Locke (1632- 1704), English philosopher Locke was born in the village of Wrington, Somerset, on August 29, 1632. He was educated at the University of Oxford and lectured on Greek.
  • 158. Locke's views, in his Two Treatises of Government (1690), attacked the theory of divine right of kings and the nature of the state as conceived by the English philosopher and political theorist Thomas Hobbes.
  • 159. Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people, and that the state is supreme, but only if it is bound by civil and what he called “natural” law.
  • 160. Many of Locke's political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were later embodied in the U.S. Constitution.
  • 161. Locke further held that revolution was not only a right but often an obligation, and he advocated a system of checks and balances in government. He also believed in religious freedom and in the separation of church and state.
  • 163. He was born 1588-1679, English philosopher and political theorist (see Political Theory), one of the first modern Western thinkers to provide a secular justification for the political state.
  • 164. Hobbes held that since people are fearful and predatory they must submit to the absolute supremacy of the state, in both secular and religious matters, in order to live by reason and gain lasting preservation.
  • 166. Karl Marx (1818- 1883), German political philosopher and revolutionist, cofounder with Friedrich Engels of scientific socialism (modern communism), and, as such, one of the most influential thinkers of all times.
  • 167. That the history of society is a history of struggles between exploiting and exploited, that is, between ruling and oppressed, social classes.
  • 168. That the capitalist class would be overthrown and that it would be eliminated by a worldwide working-class revolution and replaced by a classless society.
  • 169. He believed that between the capitalist and communist systems of society lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other.
  • 170. This corresponds to a political transition period, whose state can be nothing else but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat.”
  • 172. He was born in 1723-1790, British philosopher and economist. The central thesis of The Wealth of Nations is that capital is best employed for the production and distribution of wealth under conditions of governmental non- interference, or laissez-faire, and free trade.
  • 173. In Smith's view, the production and exchange of goods can be stimulated, and a consequent rise in the general standard of living attained, only through the efficient operations of private industrial and commercial entrepreneurs acting with a minimum of regulation and control by governments.
  • 174. To explain this concept of government maintaining a laissez-faire attitude toward commercial endeavors, Smith proclaimed the principle of the “invisible hand”
  • 175. Every individual in pursuing his or her own good is led, as if by an invisible hand, to achieve the best good for all. Therefore any interference with free competition by government is almost certain to be injurious.
  • 177. He was born on 1712 & died 1778. He is French philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, and one of the most eloquent writers of the Age of Enlightenment.
  • 178. He contributed greatly to the movement in Western Europe for individual freedom and against the absolutism of church and state.
  • 179. His conception of the state as the embodiment of the abstract will of the people and his arguments for strict enforcement of political and religious conformity are regarded by some historians as a source of totalitarian ideology.
  • 180. CONSTITUTION It is a system of fundamental laws or principles for the government of nation, society, corporation or other aggregation of individuals and it may be either written or unwritten.
  • 181. It is a written enactment by the direct action of the people by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, defined and limited and by which those powers are distributed among several departments for their safe and useful exercise for teh benefit of the body politic.
  • 182. BASIC PURPOSES OF CONSTITUTION: 1. Prescribes the permanent framework of the system of government; 2. It assigns to the different departments their respective powers and duties; &
  • 183. 3. It establishes basic principles on which the government is founded.
  • 185. 1. As to form: a. Written – one which has been reduced in writing at a particular time fashioned out usually by a constitutional convention; &
  • 186. b. Unwritten – one that is the product of political evolution, both in form and in substance, not inaugurated at any specific time and changing by accretion rather than by systematic method.
  • 187. 2. As to origin a. Cumulative or evolved – one where it has its origin mainly on customs, common law principles, and decisions of courts. It is the product of historical evolution and growth rather than of deliberate and formal enactment.
  • 188. b. Convention or enactment – one that is the product of deliberate assembly and consciously adopted formally.
  • 189. 3. As to modality of amendment a. Rigid – one that cannot be amended except by the very procedure spelled out in that Charter itself which is rigid.
  • 190. b. Flexible – one which possesses no higher legal authority than ordinary laws which can be amended easily.
  • 191. ADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN CONSTITUTION: 1. It is frequently the only possible starting point for the foundation and growth of civil institutions and often forms the first available means to give civil dignity and political consciousness to the people, as well as the beginning of a distinct delineation of power.
  • 192. 2. In times of political apathy, it forms the bridge to pass over to better times. 3. It gives a strong feeling of right and a powerful impetus to action to have the written law clearly on one’s side.
  • 193. 4. It serves as a beacon to apprise the people when their rights and liberties are invaded and endangered. 5. It furnishes a text to which those who are watchful may again rally and recall the people in moments of passion and delusion.
  • 194. 6. It protects the people from frequent and violent fluctuations of public opinion.
  • 195. DISADVANTAGES OF WRITTEN CONSTITUTION: 1. It establishes iron-clad rules which are difficult to change even if found inconvenient or oppressive.
  • 196. 2. It is often construed on technical principles rather than in the light of great principles. 3. It is likely to invade the domains of ordinary legislation
  • 197. The advantage and disadvantage of unwritten constitution. The chief advantage of an unwritten constitution is its flexibility and elasticity which is reflective at all times to the
  • 198. correct expression of the progressive and changing necessities of the State. Its principal weakness lies in the fact that it is subject to perpetual changes at the will of the law-making power.
  • 199. Major parts of a Constitution: 1. The Constitution of Government That portion which establishes the major organs of government and defines and allocates these powers among the several departments.
  • 200. 2. The Constitution of Liberty The provisions guaranteeing individual rights which may be invoked against the massive powers of the government in case of excesses or abuses.
  • 201. 3. Constitution of Sovereignty That part of the Constitution where it spells out the authority of the people as the repository of sovereignty to approve or change a Constitution.
  • 202. Requisites of a good Constitution: 1. It must be broad It must outline an organization of the government for the whole State.
  • 203. 2. It must be brief It is a document that should not be too detailed in form. 3. It must be definite Clarity and definiteness are indispensable ingredients of a Constitution.
  • 204. CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA (No. 2 of 2016) 1. Zambia Independence Act of 1964, Chapter 65 2. Zambian Constitution 1991 3. The Constitution of Zambia ( Amendment) , Bill 2015 4. The constitution of Zambia Amendment No.2 of 2016 9
  • 205. Study Questions Define the following terms: [Law, production, distribution, and conservation, consumption, sociology, anthropology, psychology, philosophy, jurisprudence, Territory, Sovereignty, Terrestrial, Aerial, Fluvial, Maritime, Imperium, Dominium, Monarchy, Authoritarian, Oligarchy, Liberalism, Unitary, Federal, democracy, executive, legislative, judiciary, Conservatism, socialism, Capitalism, communism,, etc] Respond to the following questions: Give a detailed descriptive account of Zambia’s traditional and modern views political Science Describe the political scope of political science as it applies to the Zambian scenario State and describe the elements of what constitutes a State and how they are related to the Zambian scenario Describe the characteristics of a of Sovereignty nation like Zambia Describe the various political thinkers and relate some to those of the Zambian and regional-based politics Group work discussional questions: Describe some of the basic purposes and kinds of constitutions and how such an outlines have been applied to the Zambian setting State and explain some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of constitutions Give an outline of the Zambian constitutional development and accompanying reasoning for systematic modifications