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Martin Buber's concept of Religion


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Martin Buber's concept of Religion

  1. 1. Martin Buber’s concept of Religion Mathew Jose Makkanal The work of the prolific essayist, translator, and editor Martin Buber (1878-1965) is predominantly dedicated to three areas: the philosophical articulation of the dialogic principle (das dialogische Prinzip), the revival of religious consciousness among the Jews (by means of the literary retelling of Hasidic tales and an innovative German translation of the Bible), and to the realization of this consciousness through the Zionist movement. Such was the power of his spoken and written word that during the First World War many young men wrote to him for guidance in difficult moral, religious, and political crises. His answers were seen as those of an authority who rose above the ideologies of the day. A man of considerable organizational talent, Buber shunned responsibility for the nascent political institutions of Zionism. Instead, he attempted to transform the Zionist movement by articulating what he saw as its unique historic mission: the realization of a Hebraic humanism (Grete Schaeder). His advocacy of a binational solution to the Jewish-Arab conflict in Palestine is widely considered to be an indication of the political utopianism Buber developed together with his friend Gustav Landauer, an aesthetic politics shaped in the anarchist and religious socialist movements of the first two decades of the twentieth century. A selection of Buber's works, edited by him in his eighties, comprises more than four thousand pages and is divided into writings on philosophy, the Bible, Hasidism, and (published posthumously) Judaism. There are several volumes of published letters, and the Bible translation begun with Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929) and completed after WWII is still widely used by German Christian ministers who appreciate its poetic language. A complete edition of Buber's works, edited by Paul Mendes-Flohr and Peter Schäfer, is forthcoming. 1. Biographical Background The setting of Buber's childhood and youth was the Austro-Hungarian empire of the fin-de- siècle, the multiethnic conglomerate whose collapse in the First World War ended a thousand years of rule by Catholic princes in the West. Its cosmopolitan capital Vienna was home to late Romantic music, sophisticated theatrical productions, and psychologically perceptive literature. Among the young Buber's first publications are essays and translations into Polish of the poetry of his older peers (e.g., Arthur Schnitzler, Hugo von Hofmannsthal). In historical and cultural terms, Buber's philosophical and literary voice is best understood as related to the Viennese culture of his youth which saw the rise of radically new approaches to psychology (Otto Weininger, Sigmund Freud) and philosophy (Ludwig Wittgenstein), and where solutions to the burning social and political issues of city and empire were often expressed in grandly theatrical oratory (Lueger, Hitler) and in estheticizing rhetoric and self- inscenation (Theodor Herzl). Buber's parents (Carl Buber and Elise née Wurgast) separated in 1882. For the next ten years, Martin lived with his paternal grandparents, Solomon and Adele Buber, in Lemberg (Lvov). Solomon, a ‘master of the old Haskala’ (Martin Buber) who called himself ‘a Pole of the Mosaic persuasion’i produced the first modern editions of rabbinic midrash literature yet was greatly respected even by the ultraorthodox establishment. His reputation opened the doors for Martin when he began to show interest in Zionism and Hasidic literature. The wealth of his grandparents was built on the Galician estate administered by Adele and enhanced by
  2. 2. Solomon through mining, banking, and commerce. It provided Martin with financial security until the German occupation of Poland in 1939, at which time the estate was destroyed. Home-schooled and pampered by his grandmother, Buber became a bookish aesthete with few friends his age and the play of the imagination as his diversion. He easily absorbed local languages (Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish, German) and acquired others (Greek, Latin, French, Italian, English). German was the dominant language at home, while the language of instruction at the Franz Joseph Gymnasium was Polish. This multilingualism nourished Buber's life-long obsession with words and meanings. In 1900, after his years of study (see below), Buber and his partner, Paula Winkler, moved to Berlin where the anarachist Gustav Landauer (1870-1919) was among their closest friends. Landauer played an important role in Buber's life when, in 1916, he criticized Buber for his public enthusiasm for the German war effort. This critique from a trusted friend had a sobering effect, triggering Buber's turn from an aestheticizing social mysticism to the philosophy of dialogue. 1916 was also the year Martin, Paula, and their two children left the big city and moved to the small town of Heppenheim, near Frankfurt on the Main where, since 1904, Buber had been employed as an editor. In Frankfurt, Buber met Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929) with whom he was to develop a close intellectual companionship. After the war, Rosenzweig recruited Buber as a lecturer for the newly established center for Jewish adult education (Freies jüdisches Lehrhaus), he persuaded Buber to take on a widely visible lectureship in Jewish religious studies and ethics at Frankfurt University, and Rosenzweig became Buber's chief collaborator in the project, initiated by the young Christian publisher Lambert Schneider, to produce a new translation of the Bible into German. Buber lived and worked in Frankfurt until his emigration to Palestine in 1937. The remainder of his life he lived and taught mostly in Jerusalem, teaching social philosophy. 2. Zionism Recruited by his older compatriot, the Budapest-born and Vienna-based journalist Theodor Herzl, Buber briefly edited the main paper of the Zionist party, Die Welt, but soon found a more congenial place in the ‘democratic faction’ led by Chaim Weizmann, then living in Zurich. Buber's phases of engagement in the movement's political institutions alternated with extended phases of disengagement, but he never ceased to write and speak about what he understood to be the distinctive Jewish brand of nationalism. Buber seems to have derived an important lesson from the early struggles between political and cultural Zionism for the leadership and direction of the movement. He realized that his place was not in high diplomacy and political education but in the search for psychologically sound foundations on which to heal the rift between modernist realpolitik and a distinctively Jewish theological- political tradition. Very much in keeping with the nineteenth-century Protestant yearning for a Christian foundation of the nation-state, Buber sought a healing source in the integrating powers of the religious experience. After a hiatus of more than ten years during which Buber spoke to Jewish youth groups (most famously the Prague Bar Kokhba) but refrained from any practical involvement in Zionist politics, he reentered Zionist debates in 1916 when he began publishing the journal Der Jude which served as an open forum of exchange on any issues related to cultural and political Zionism. In 1921 Buber attended the Zionist Congress in Carlsbad as a delegate of the socialist Hashomer Hatzair (“the young guard”). In debates following violent riots in 1928 and 29 on whether to arm the Jewish settlers in Palestine Buber represented the pacifist option; in debates on immigration quotas following the 1936 Arab boycott Buber argued for
  3. 3. demographic parity rather than trying to achieve a Jewish majority. Finally, as a member of Brit Shalom Buber argued for a bi-national rather than for a Jewish state in Palestine. At any of these stages Buber harbored no illusion about the chances of his political views to sway the majority but he believed that it was important to articulate the moral truth as one saw it rather than hiding one's true beliefs for the sake of political strategy. Needless to say, this politics of authenticity made him few friends among the members of the Zionist establishment. 3. Early Philosophical Influences Among Buber's early philosophical influences were Kant's Prolegomena which he read at the age of fourteen, and Nietzsche's Zarathustra. Whereas Kant had a calming influence on the young mind troubled by the aporia of infinite versus finite time, Nietzsche's doctrine of “the eternal recurrence of the same” constituted a powerful negative seduction. By the time Buber graduated from Gymnasium he felt he had overcome this seduction, but Nietzsche's prophetic tone and aphoristic style are evident in Buber's subsequent writings. Between 1896 and 1899 he studied history of art, German literature, philosophy, and psychology in Vienna, Leipzig (97/98), Berlin (98/99), and Zurich (99). In Vienna he absorbed the latest literature and poetry, most importantly the oracular poetry of Stefan George which influenced him greatly, although he never became a disciple of George. In Leipzig and Berlin he developed an interest in the ethnopsychology of Wilhelm Wundt, the social philosophy of Georg Simmel, the psychiatry of Carl Stumpf, and the lebensphilosophisch approach to the humanities of Wilhelm Dilthey. In Leipzig he attended meetings of the Society for Ethical Culture (Gesellschaft für ethische Kultur), then dominated by the thought of Lasalle and Tönnies. From his early reading of philosophical literature Buber retained some of the most basic convictions found in his later writings. In Kant he found two answers to his concern with the nature of time. If time and space are pure forms of perception, then they pertain to things only as they appear to us (i.e., to phaenomena) and not to things-in-themselves (nooumena). Thus time primarly concerns the way in which we experience the Other. But can the Other be experienced at all or is it necessarily reduced to the scope of our phenomenal knowledge, to what Buber later called the I-It relation? Yet Kant also indicated ways of meaningfully speaking of the noumenal, even though not in terms of theoretical reason. Practical reason, i.e., the categorical imperative that considers the Other as an end in itself rather than the means to an end, as well the teleological (aesthetic) judgment developed in Kant's Third Critique, seem to admit the possibility of a rational faith, a faith that resonated with Buber's feeling that the phenomenon is always the gateway to the noumenon, just as the noumenal cannot be encountered other than in the concrete phenomena. Thus Buber managed to infuse the seemingly dry Kantian distinctions with an immediate sense of reality. Before this measured view dominated Buber's thought, however, he leaned toward Nietzsche's enthusiastic endorsement of the primacy of life in its immediacy and its superiority to an Apollonian world of distance and abstraction. 4. Social Philosophy Although his earliest writings were literary and theatrical reviews, Buber's major interest was the tension between society and community. Just as he had enlivened Kant's distinction between phenomenon and noumenon with his literary imagination, so too he transformed the value-theoretical distinction between types of social aggregation of Ferdinand Tönnies (Gesellschaft und Gemeinschaft) into a wellspring for his political speeches and writings. The political arena for his social, psychological, and educational engagement was the Zionist
  4. 4. movement. Buber's interest in social philosophy was stimulated by his close friendship with Gustav Landauer who was also among the authors Buber recruited for the forty volume series on “Society” (Die Gesellschaft) that he edited for the Frankfurt publishing house Ruetten & Loening. As a pioneer of social thought and a student of Georg Simmel, Buber participated in the 1909 founding conference of the German sociological association. While Buber's social- psychological approach to the study and description of social phenomena was soon eclipsed by quantitative approaches, his interest in the constitutive correlation between the individual and his and her social experience remained an important aspect of his philosophy of dialogue. 5. I and Thou: The Dialogic Principle Buber's best known work is the short philosophical essay Ich und Du (1923), first translated into English in 1937 by Ronald Gregor Smith. In the 1950's and 60's, when Buber first traveled and lectured in the USA, the essay became rather popular in the English speaking world. Since then it has been associated with the intellectual culture of the student movement's spontaneity, authenticity, and anti-establishment sentiment. I and Thou is considered to have inaugurated “a Copernican revolution in theology (…) against the scientific-realistic attitude”ii but it has also been criticized for its reduction of fundamental human relations to just two — the I-Thou and the I-It — of which the latter appears as a mere ‘cripple’ (Franz Rosenzweig in a letter to Buber in Sept. 1922). Walter Kaufmann, who produced a second English translation of I and Thou, went further in his criticism. While he did not regard the lack of deep impact of Buber's contributions to biblical studies, Hasidism, and Zionist politics as an indication of failure, he considered I and Thou a shameful performance in both style and content. In style the book invoked “the oracular tone of false prophets” and it was ‘more affected than honest.’ Writing in a state of “irresistible enthusiasm,” Buber lacked the critical distance needed to critique and revise his own formulations. His conception of the I-It was a “Manichean insult” while his conception of the I-Thou was ‘rashly romantic and ecstatic,’ and Buber ‘mistook deep emotional stirrings for revelation.’iii Buber always insisted that the dialogic principle, i.e., the duality of primal relations that he called the I-Thou and the I-It, was not a philosophical conception but a reality beyond the reach of discursive language. In the initial exuberance of making this discovery Buber briefly planned for I and Thou to serve as the prolegomenon to a five-volume work on philosophy, but he realized that, in Kaufmann's words, “he could not build on that foundation” and hence abandoned the plan. It has been argued, however, that Buber nevertheless solved the inherent “difficulty of dialogics that it reflects on, and speaks of, a human reality about which, in his own words, one cannot think and speak in an appropriate manner”ivby writing around it, inspired by one's conviction of its veracity. The debate on the strength and weakness of I and Thou as the foundation of a system hinges on the perhaps fallacious assumption that the five-volume project Buber intended to write but soon abandoned was indeed a philosophical one. Buber's contemporaneous lectures at the Freies jüdisches Lehrhaus and at the University of Frankfurt as well as his letters to Rosenzweig indicate quite clearly that he was concerned with the development of a new approach to the study of religion (Religionswissenschaft) (cf. Schottroff) rather than with a new approach to the philosophy of religion. 6. The Vagueness of Buber's Language
  5. 5. The preponderance in Buber's writings of abstract nouns such as “experience,” “realization,” and “encounter,” and his predilection for utopian political programs such as anarchism, socialism, and a bi-national solution to the conflict in Palestine point to a characteristic tension in his personality. The philosopher of the “I and Thou” allowed very few people to call him by his first name; the theorist of education suffered no disturbance of his rigorous schedule by children playing in his own home; the utopian politician alienated most representatives of the Zionist establishment; and the innovative academic lecturer could hardly find a proper place in the university he had helped to create — the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Some of the most dedicated students of this inspiring orator and writer found themselves irritated by the conflict between their master's ideas and their own attempts at putting them into practice. In the final analysis it seems as if Buber always remained the well- groomed, affected, prodigiously gifted, pampered Viennese boy whose best company were the works of his own imagination, and whose overtures to the outside world were always tainted by his enthusiasm for words and for the stylized tone of his own voice. 7. Man of Letters Buber's wide range of interests, his literary abilities, and the general appeal of his philosophical orientation are reflected in the far flung correspondence he conducted over the course of his long life. As the editor of Die Gesellschaft Buber corresponded with Georg Simmel, Franz Oppenheimer, Ellen Key, Lou Andreas-Salomé, Werner Sombart, and many other authors. Among the poets of his time with whom he exchanged letters were Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Hermann Hesse, and Stefan Zweig. He was particularly close to the socialist novellist Arnold Zweig. With poet Chaim Nachman Bialik and novellist Sh. Y. Agnon he shared a deep interest in the revival of Hebrew literature. He published the works of the Jewish Nietzschean story-teller Micha Josef Berdiczewsky. He was a major inspiration to the young Zionist cadre of Prague Jews (Hugo Bergmann, Max Brod, Robert Weltsch) and became a major organizer of Jewish adult education in Germany where he lived until 1937. Buber's name is intimately linked with that of Franz Rosenzweig and his circle (Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, Hans Ehrenberg, Rudolf Ehrenberg, Victor von Weizsäcker, Ernst Michel, etc.), an association that manifested itself, among others, in the journal Die Kreatur (1926-29). Der Jude and his many speeches on Judaism made Buber the central figure of the Jewish cultural renaissance of the 1920's. Younger intellectuals from highly assimilated families, such as Gershom Scholem and Ernst Simon, were awakened to a modern form of Judaism through Buber and developed their own profiles in struggling against Buber's influence. Buber also counted among his friends and admirers Christian theologians such as Karl Heim, Friedrich Gogarten, Albert Schweitzer, and Leonard Ragaz. Buber's philosophy of dialogue entered into the discourse of psychoanalysis through the work of Hans Trüb, and is today among the most popular approaches to educational theory in German-language studies of pedagogy. 8. Honors and Legacy Among the honors Buber received are the Goethe-Prize of the City of Hamburg (1951), the Friedenspreis des Deutschen Buchhandels (Frankfurt am Main, 1953), and the Erasmus Prize (Amsterdam, 1963). Significant students who considered their own work a continuation of Buber's legacy were Nahum Glatzer (Buber's only doctoral student during his years at the university in Frankfurt, 1924-1933, later an influential teacher of Judaic Studies at Brandeis University), Akiba Ernst Simon (historian and theorist of education in Israel who first met Buber at the Freies jüdisches Lehrhaus in Frankfurt, founded by Franz Rosenzweig, and who
  6. 6. returned from Palestine to work with Buber and Ernst Kantorowicz for the Mittelstelle für jüdische Erwachsenenbildung from 1934 until 1938), Maurice Friedman (Buber's American translator and a prolific author in his own right who introduced Buber to American religious scholarship), Walter Kaufmann (who, despite his critique of Buber's I and Thou as a poeticized philosophy helped to popularize it in the USA), and several significant Israeli scholars (Shmuel Eisenstadt, Amitai Etzioni, Jochanan Bloch) who knew Buber in his later years when he taught seminars on social philosophy and education at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 9. Philosopy of religion Buber declared that not only he knew of no cogent proof of God’s existence but also he would reject it if it existed Buber says that he has no metaphysics to prove his truth and he also continued that when he speak of ontological significance it is to distinguish this reality from psychological happening . Buber does not posit the ontological one, for God is a negative being according to him. Write Buber “my philosophy …. Does not serve a series of revealed propositions ….but an experienced, a perceived attitude that it has been established to make communicable”v The eternal Thou of Buber does not mean the traditional God of philosophers, metaphysicians and theologians- the God whose exclusive can be as proved as whose nature and attitude can be described. He wishes rather to show us the road on earth on which we can meet God whom we can never knew as himself apart from our relation to him. The concept of God is thou and I. This being that directly most nearly and lastly facing us, that may properly only be addressed and not expressed. “God is not person in our relationship between him becomes one. So I speak to love and be loved; to know and to be known by us”vi. This is the paradox of God who remains unlimited and get enters in direct relationship with us. “This paradox Buber put in contrast to traditional metaphysics which demand the choice between an absolute and that is not in relation to the world and a God who is in relation and therefore less than absolute”vii. God is he ‘absolute person’ who is whenever we meet our fellowmen, nature as art as ‘thou’. God is an ‘eternal thou’ who cannot become an ‘it’. The true God cannot be an object of our thought, not even the ‘absolute object’ from which all other. Buber reject any notion of supreme nature or supreme-natural in favor of God who is above both spirit and nature yet permits and bears them .According to him we can have him when we meet the world with fullness of our being. Faith is binding oneself in relation with an undeterminable and unproveable , yet even so in relationship . Knowable being from whom all meaning come. The religious essence of all religion found in the centerity that the meaning of the essence opened and accessible in the actual lived concrete not above the suggestible with reality but in it. “This meaning must be authenticated by once own commitment and response. Religious reality begins when our existence between birth and death becomes in-comprehensible and un causing, when reality is shattered through…essential mystery.”viii Human truth is participation in the being write Buber, not a conformity with and that to which propos ion refers .It cannot chain universal validity yet it can be exemplified and symbolized in true situation of human persons. Buber’s eternal thou is best understood as eternity “thou” –the thou met ever again in reality of the present. “According to my in sight of the faith” write Buber ‘god is as well as after time. He uncompasses time and manifests himself in it.”ix The attempts to fix god in an image prevent God from hiding and revealing himself ever a new concrete situation. The religious reality of meeting with god knows no image of god
  7. 7. nothing comprehensive as object. “It knows only the presents of the present one”. Every symbol of god whether image or idea, crude or subtle: means tuning the “thou”to it. Yet god suffers that one look at him through necessarily untrue images until swell themselves up and abstract the way to god claiming to be the reality itself rather than a point to it . At this time philosophers criticism of image that not longer justice to god enable religious persons to self forth across the God – deprid reality to anew meeting with the man less meter”x Revelation- religious language means mutual contact and communication rather than a detached observation of an object . “The signs of address” that we become aware when we meet the world neither objective sign capable of interpreted no subject rejection of human values but address that come from that unique present we, you recognize that you are the person addressed .What can know of god when we are addressed by the sign of life is never assessable apart from that addresses . Yet from asuvession of such “movements of god” they may arise for us with a single identity,”the lord of voice” .Each new Thou renews in all presentences the past experiences of Thou the movements of the past and present became simultaneously Present and joint in the living unity In the infinite language of events and situation eternally changing lent plan to lively attentive, transcendence speaks to our hearts essential movement of personal life”xi Revelation is Buber is our meeting with god’s presence rather than information about Gods existence. The world that results from this meeting is human in his meeting and form get witness is the being that stimulates it. Revelation is not written text speaking voice, speaking in present movement for the concrete present situation. Buber does mean eternal though the reality of between. “Revelation seizes human elements that are at the hand and recast them it is the pure shape of the meeting"xii i Friedman, Maurice, 1981, Martin Buber's life and work : the early years, 1878-1923, New York: Dutton,11. ii Bloch, Jochanan/Gordon, Hayyim (ed.), 1983, Martin Buber. Bilanz seines Denkens, Freiburg i. B,42. iii Kaufmann, Walter, 1983, “Bubers Fehlschläge und sein Triumph” in Bloch [1983], pp. 22ff,28-33. iv Bloch, Jochanan/Gordon, Hayyim (ed.), 1983, Martin Buber. Bilanz seines Denkens, Freiburg i. B,62. v s 20. Jahrhunderts), Stuttgart. English edition: 1967, The Philosophy of Martin Buber. (Series: Library of Living Philosophers, vol. XII). Lasalle/Ill.: Open Court. Among the contributors to this volume are, aside from Buber himself, Max Brod, Emmanuel Lévinas, Emil Brunner, Emil Fackenheim, Marvin Fox, Nahum Glatzer, Mordecai Kaplan, Walter Kaufmann, Gabriel Marcel, NSchilpp, Paul Arthur/Friedman, Maurice (ed.), 1963, Martin Buber, (Series: Philosophen deathan Rotenstreich, Rivka Schatz-Uffenheimer, Ernst Simon, Jacob Taubes, C.F. von Weizsäcker, and Robert Weltsch vi 1937, I and Thou, transl. by Ronald Gregor Smith, Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 2nd Edition New York: Scribners, 1958. 1st Scribner Classics ed. New York, NY: Scribner, 2000, c1986,134. vii Licharz, Werner/Schmidt, Heinz (ed.), 1989, Martin Buber (1878-1965). Internationales Symposium zum 20. Todestag. Two volumes (Series: Arnoldshainer Texte), HAAG + HERCHEN,336. viii 1952, Eclipse of God, New York: Harper and Bros. Publ. 2nd Edition Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977,36. ix Kohn, Hans, 1930, Martin Buber, Hellerau, Second edition: Cologne, 1961. First biography of Buber, published on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday,87. x 1952, Eclipse of God, New York: Harper and Bros. Publ. 2nd Edition Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977,45. xi 1967b, On Judaism, edited by Nahum Glatzer and transl. by Eva Jospe and others, New York: Schocken Books,216. xii 1957, Pointing the Way, transl. Maurice Friedman. New York: Harper, 1957, 2nd Edition New York: Schocken, 19,135.
  8. 8. Bibliography Works Cited  Friedman, Maurice, 1981, Martin Buber's life and work : the early years, 1878-1923, New York: Dutton.  Bloch, Jochanan/Gordon, Hayyim (ed.), 1983, Martin Buber. Bilanz seines Denkens, Freiburg i. B.  Kaufmann, Walter, 1983, “Bubers Fehlschläge und sein Triumph” in Bloch [1983], pp. 22ff. Bibliographies  Catanne, Moshe, 1961, A Bibliography of Martin Buber's Works (1895-1957), Jerusalem.  Cohn, Margot, 1980, Martin Buber. A Bibliography of His Writings. 1897-1978. Compiled by Margot Cohn and Raphael Buber. Jerusalem: Magnes Press. This is the most authoritative bibligraphy compiled by Buber's long-time secretary and his son.  Friedman, Maurice, 1963, “Bibliographie” in: Paul Arthur Schilpp and Maurice Friedman (ed.), Martin Buber, Stuttgart.  Kohn, Hans, 1930, Martin Buber, Hellerau. This biography includes a bibliography of Buber's writings from 1897 to 1928. The second edition (1961) contains bibliographic updates by Robert Weltsch.  Moonan, Willard, 1981, Martin Buber and His Critics. An Annotated Bibliography of Writings in English Through 1978, New York & London: Garland Publ. With a list of the abstracts, indices, and bibliographies consulted by the author, indices of translators and authors writing on Buber, and subject indices of writings by and about Buber. Selected Early Works By Martin Buber  1906-1912, Die Gesellschaft. Sammlung sozial-psychologischer Monographien [Society. A Collection of Social-Psychological Monographs], Frankfurt am Main: Rütten & Loening. 40 volumes. The first volume (Werner Sombart, Das Proletariat) includes Buber's introduction to the series.  1906b, Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman [The Tales of Rabbi Nachman], Frankfurt am Main: Rütten & Loening. Dedicated to “the memory of my grandfather, Salomon Buber, the last master of the old haskalah.”  1908, Die Legende des Baal Schem [The Legend of the Baal Shem], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening (second edition: 1916). On the founder of the hasidic movement in early 18th century Podolia/Volynia,  1911a, Chinesische Geister- und Liebesgeschichten [Chinese Ghost- and Love Stories], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening.  1911b, Drei Reden über das Judentum [Three Speeches on Judaism], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening, 1911, Second, “complete” edition , 1923. Dedicated to “my wife.”  1916-24, Der Jude. Eine Monatsschrift [The Jew. A Monthly]. Founded by Buber who edited it from 1916 to 1924. With many contributions by Buber.
  9. 9.  1918, Mein Weg zum Chassidismus. Erinnerungen [My Path to Hasidism. Recollections], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening. Dedicated to “my beloved father.”  1919, Der heilige Weg. Ein Wort an die Juden und an die Völker [The Holy Path. A Word to the Jews and to the Gentiles], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening. Dedicated to “the friend Gustav Landauer at his grave.”  1922, Der grosse Maggid und seine Nachfolge [The Great Maggid and his Succession], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening.  1923, Ich und Du [I and Thou].  1924, Das verborgene Licht [The Hidden Light], Frankfurt: Rütten & Loening.  1925ff, Die Schrift. Zu verdeutschen unternommen von Martin Buber gemeinsam mit Franz Rosenzweig. Buber and Rosenzweig's translation of the Hebrew Scriptures was published by Lambert Schneider first in his own publishing house in Berlin, between 1933 and 1939 under the heading of Schocken Verlag, Berlin, and finally, after 1945, again through the newly founded Lambert Schneider Verlag, Heidelberg.  1926-29, Die Kreatur [Creation]. A quarterly edited by Buber with the Protestant psychologist Victor von Weizsäcker and the dissident Catholic theologian Joseph Wittig. Collections and Editions of Writings and Letters  1953-62, Die Schrift. Verdeutscht von Martin Buber gemeinsam mit Franz Rosenzweig, improved and complete edition in four volumes, Cologne.  1953a, Hinweise. Gesammelte Essays, Zurich.  1962, Werke. Erster Band: Schriften zur Philosophie [Works, Volume One: Philosophical Writings], Munich and Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider Verlag.  1963a, Werke. Dritter Band: Schriften zum Chassidismus [Works, Volume Three: Writings on Hasidism], Munich and Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider Verlag.  1963b, Der Jude und sein Judentum. Gesammelte Aufsätze und Reden, Cologne.  1964, Werke. Zweiter Band: Schriften zur Bibel [Works, Volume Two: Writings on the Bible], Munich and Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider Verlag.  1965, Nachlese. Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider. English translation: 1967a.  1972-75, Briefwechsel aus sieben Jahrzehnten, edited by Grete Schaeder, Volume I: 1897-1918 (1972), Volume II: 1918-1938 (1973), Volume III: 1938-1965 (1975), Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider. Buber in English  1937, I and Thou, transl. by Ronald Gregor Smith, Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 2nd Edition New York: Scribners, 1958. 1st Scribner Classics ed. New York, NY: Scribner, 2000, c1986  1952, Eclipse of God, New York: Harper and Bros. Publ. 2nd Edition Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1977.  1957, Pointing the Way, transl. Maurice Friedman. New York: Harper, 1957, 2nd Edition New York: Schocken, 1974.  1960, The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism, transl. M. Friedman, New York: Horizon Press.  1965, The Knowledge of Man, transl. Ronald Gregor Smith and Maurice Friedman, New York: Harper & Row. 2nd Edition New York, 1966.
  10. 10.  1966,The way of response: Martin Buber; selections from his writings, edited by N. N. Glatzer. New York: Schocken Books.  1967a, A Believing Humanism: My Testament, translation of Nachlese (Heidelberg 1965), transl. by M. Friedman, New York: Simon and Schuster.  1967b, On Judaism, edited by Nahum Glatzer and transl. by Eva Jospe and others, New York: Schocken Books.  1968, On the Bible: Eighteen Studies, edited by Nahum Glatzer, New York: Schocken Books.  1970a, I and Thou, a new translation with a prologue “I and you” and notes by Walter Kaufmann, New York: Scribner's Sons.  1970b, Mamre: essays in religion, translated by Greta Hort. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.  1970c, Martin Buber and the theater, including Martin Buber's “mystery play” Elijah. Edited and translated with three introductory essays by Maurice Friedman. New York, Funk & Wagnalls.  1972, Encounter; autobiographical fragments. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court.  1973a, On Zion; the history of an idea. With a new foreword by Nahum N. Glatzer. Translated from the German by Stanley Godman. New York: Schocken Books.  1973b, Meetings. Edited with an introd. and bibliography by Maurice Friedman. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court Pub. Co., 3rd ed. London, New York: Routledge, 2002.  1983, A land of two peoples: Martin Buber on Jews and Arabs, edited with commentary by Paul R. Mendes-Flohr. New York: Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1994  1985, Ecstatic confessions, edited by Paul Mendes-Flohr; translated by Esther Cameron. San Francisco: Harper & Row.  1991a, Chinese tales: Zhuangzi, sayings and parables and Chinese ghost and love stories, translated by Alex Page; with an introduction by Irene Eber. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press International.  1991b, Tales of the Hasidim, foreword by Chaim Potok. New York : Schocken Books, distributed by Pantheon.  1992, On intersubjectivity and cultural creativity, edited and with an introduction by S.N. Eisenstadt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  1994, Scripture and translation. Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig; translated by Lawrence Rosenwald with Everett Fox. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.  1999a, The first Buber: youthful Zionist writings of Martin Buber, edited and translated from the German by Gilya G. Schmidt. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.  1999b, Martin Buber on psychology and psychotherapy: essays, letters, and dialogue, edited by Judith Buber Agassi ; with a foreword by Paul Roazin. New York: Syracuse University Press.  1999c, Gog and Magog: a novel, translated from the German by Ludwig Lewisohn. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.  2002a, The legend of the Baal-Shem, translated by Maurice Friedman. London: Routledge.  2002b, Between man and man, translated by Ronald Gregor-Smith; with an introduction by Maurice Friedman. London, New York: Routledge.  2002c, The way of man: according to the teaching of Hasidim, London: Routledge.  2002d, The Martin Buber reader: essential writings, edited by Asher D. Biemann. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  11. 11.  2002e, Ten rungs: collected Hasidic sayings, translated by Olga Marx. London: Routledge.  2003, Two types of faith, translated by Norman P. Goldhawk with an afterword by David Flusser. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. Major Edited Volumes on Martin Buber  Bloch, Jochanan/Gordon, Hayyim (ed.), 1983, Martin Buber. Bilanz seines Denkens, Freiburg i. B.  Licharz, Werner/Schmidt, Heinz (ed.), 1989, Martin Buber (1878-1965). Internationales Symposium zum 20. Todestag. Two volumes (Series: Arnoldshainer Texte), HAAG + HERCHEN.  Schilpp, Paul Arthur/Friedman, Maurice (ed.), 1963, Martin Buber, (Series: Philosophen des 20. Jahrhunderts), Stuttgart. English edition: 1967, The Philosophy of Martin Buber. (Series: Library of Living Philosophers, vol. XII). Lasalle/Ill.: Open Court. Among the contributors to this volume are, aside from Buber himself, Max Brod, Emmanuel Lévinas, Emil Brunner, Emil Fackenheim, Marvin Fox, Nahum Glatzer, Mordecai Kaplan, Walter Kaufmann, Gabriel Marcel, Nathan Rotenstreich, Rivka Schatz-Uffenheimer, Ernst Simon, Jacob Taubes, C.F. von Weizsäcker, and Robert Weltsch. On Buber's Philosophy of Dialogue  Avnon, Dan, 1998, Martin Buber. The Hidden Dialogue, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publ.  Babolin, A., 1965, Essere e Alteritá in Martin Buber, Padova.  Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 1958, Einsame Zwiesprache. Martin Buber und das Christentum, Cologne.  Berkovits, Eliezer, 1962, A Jewish Critique of the Philosophy of Martin Buber. New York, Yeshiva University.  Bloch, J., 1971, Die Aporie des Du, Heidelberg.  Blumenfeld, Walter, 1951, La antropologia filosofica de Martin Buber y la filosofia antropologica; un essayo, Lima.  Casper, Bernhard, 1967, Das dialogische Denken: Franz Rosenzweig, Ferdinand Ebner, Martin Buber, Freiburg i. B., Basel, Wien: Herder Verlag.  Dujovne, L., 1966, Martin Buber; sus ideas religiosas, filosoficas y sociales, Buenos Aires.  Friedman, Maurice, 1955, Martin Buber. The Life of Dialogue, Chicago.  Horwitz, Rivka, 1978, Buber's Way to I and Thou. An Historical Analysis, Heidelberg.  Koren, Israel, 2002, “Between Buber's Daniel and His I and Thou: A New Examination” in Modern Judaism 22 (2002): 169-198.  Lang, B., 1964, Martin Buber und das dialogische Leben, Bern.  Mendes-Flohr, Paul, 1989, From Mysticism to Dialogue. Martin Buber's transformation of German social thought. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.  Poma, Andrea, 1974, La filosofia dialogica di Martin Buber, Torino.  Schaeder, Grete, 1966, Martin Buber, Hebräischer Humanismus, Göttingen. English: 1973, The Hebrew Humanism of Martin Buber, transl. by Noah J. Jacobs, Detroit.
  12. 12.  Theunissen, Michael, 1964, “Bubers negative Ontologie des Zwischen” in Philosophisches Jarhbuch, pp. 319-330.  Theunissen, Michael, 1965, Der Andere. Studien zur Sozialontologie der Gegenwart, Berlin.  Wood, R., 1969, Martin Buber's ontology; an analysis of “I and Thou”, Evanston. Literature on Other Aspects of Buber's Life and Work  Kohn, Hans, 1930, Martin Buber, Hellerau, Second edition: Cologne, 1961. First biography of Buber, published on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday.  Simon, Ernst, 1959, Aufbau im Untergang. Tübingen. English: 1956, “Jewish adult education in Nazi Germany as spiritual resistence”, in: First Yearbook of the Leo Baeck Institute, London, pp. 68-105. On the Mittelstelle für jüdische Erwachsenenbildung, a centralized institution, run by Buber from 1933-38, in charge of reeducating Jewish teachers who had been forced out of the general school system under the Nazis.  Smith, M. K. (2000) ‘Martin Buber on education’, The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. [Available online, last update: November 15, 2002.] Other Internet Resources  Martic Buber Homepage, The English language website of the German Martin Buber Society.  Buber Timeline, A brief biographic sketch maintained by the online project of the Museum for German History in Berlin.