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  1. 1. A historic overview of Language Teaching Approaches Angelita Quevedo <ul><li>Pre- 20th Century Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Popular approaches in Language Teaching in 20 th Century </li></ul>
  2. 2. Pre-20th Century Trends: <ul><li>Greek and Rome Period [lingua franca] </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>1631-1658 </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>The end of 19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Early 20 th century </li></ul>
  3. 3. Greek and Rome Period: <ul><li>Foreign Language learning [higher learning, philosophy, religion, politics and business] </li></ul><ul><li>Aural-oral techniques: informal and direct approaches </li></ul>
  4. 4. Renaissance <ul><li>Formal study of grammars of Greek and Latin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of printing press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production of books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical grammar in school instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Latin being used in everyday purposes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Johann Amos Comenius [1592 - 1670] <ul><li>Books about teaching techniques [1631-1658] </li></ul><ul><li>To teach usage not analysis of language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation instead of rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice reading and speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful pictures </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Beginning of 19th Century <ul><li>Systematic study of the grammar of classical Latin and text taken over </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Grammar-Translation approach </li></ul>
  7. 7. The end of 19th Century <ul><li>Direct Method: to use rather then to analyze a language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France, Germany, Europe [1880 - publications] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken form taught first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid training in phonetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronunciation and oral skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the early 20th century, DA crossed the Atlantic … </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other approaches <ul><li>Due to limitations of language teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Reading approach (1941 in U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>world war II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiolingual Approach (U.S.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Situational Approach (Britain) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 20th Century: 9 Approaches <ul><li>Grammar-Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-lingualism (U.S.) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral-Situational (Britain) </li></ul>
  10. 10. 20th Century: 9 Approaches <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Affective-Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension-Based </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative </li></ul>
  11. 11. Homework: <ul><li>What do we mean by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are these terms synonymous? If not, how do they differ? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Grammar Translation Approach <ul><li>Instruction given in native language </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no use of target language, </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical parsing: forms and inflection, </li></ul><ul><li>Translate sentences, </li></ul><ul><li>Early reading of classical texts, </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Not for oral communication </li></ul>
  13. 13. Direct Approach <ul><li>No use of mother tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogues and anecdotes in modern onversational style </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and pictures are used </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar and target culture taught inductively </li></ul><ul><li>Literary texts used for pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must be a native speaker or have nativelike proficiency </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reading Approach <ul><li>Grammar useful for reading </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is controlled, then expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher - does not need to have good oral proficiency in the target language. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Audiolingualism [1940s, 1950s, 1960s] <ul><li>Dialogues, mimicry, memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Sequenced grammar structures </li></ul><ul><li>Sequenced skills: listening speaking, reading, writing </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Context and materials are carefully controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Great effort to prevent learner errors </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must be proficient in what he’s teaching </li></ul>
  16. 16. Situational Approach [UK] <ul><li>Spoken language </li></ul><ul><li>All material is practiced orally </li></ul><ul><li>Target language used </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical structures are graded from simple to complex </li></ul><ul><li>New items are presented situationally (at the bank, at the dinner table, etc,.) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Language learning = rule acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar: deductively - rule first, practice later/ inductively - stated after practice or left implicit </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation is de-emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Reading, writing and vocabulary instruction are important </li></ul><ul><li>Errors are inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher has good general proficiency </li></ul>
  18. 18. Affective Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Respect is emphasized </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction involves much work in pairs and small group </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful communication </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a foreign language = Self-realization experience </li></ul><ul><li>Class atmosphere, peer support and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher = counselor or facilitator. He has to be proficient in both language [target and students’] </li></ul>
  19. 19. Comprehension based Approach <ul><li>Due to research in first language acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Listening comprehension - basic skill </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed to meaningful input/ respond non-verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Learners should not speak until they feel ready </li></ul><ul><li>Rule learning may help monitor what they do </li></ul><ul><li>Error correction is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic materials: audio and video tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is near-native </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communicative Approach <ul><li>Language = system for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Communicate in target language </li></ul><ul><li>Content: semantic notions and social functions, not just linguistic structures </li></ul><ul><li>Group or pair works </li></ul><ul><li>Role play and drama </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic real-life material </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated skills from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s role: facilitate communication [1]/ correct mistakes [2]. Be able to use target language fluently and appropriately. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reference <ul><li>Celce-Murcia, M. 1991. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Second Edition. Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. </li></ul>