Making Europe Book Series Proposals


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These are the outline descriptions of the planned six books of the series. These books are under development now, and should be finished by 2012.

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Making Europe Book Series Proposals

  1. 1. 1 Making Europe Technologies and Transformations, 1850-2000 Proposal for a six-volume series (July 15, 2009) Johan Schot, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands & Philip Scranton, Rutgers University, USA, co-editors.
  2. 2. 2 Making Europe: Technologies and Transformations, 1850-2000 Proposal for a six-volume series on key historical and transnational dynamics which have constituted contemporary Europe. Johan Schot, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, & Philip Scranton, Rutgers University, USA, co-editors. Version 1.1 July 15 , 2009 1. Introduction The past and the future of Europe have become pressing analytical issues with a sharp political edge. Indeed that future will likely be co-determined by the European integration process. Countries that were once part of the former Soviet Union eagerly wanted to enter the Union, seeing such steps as a return to Europe. Increasingly, Europe seems to represent the space that is occupied by the EU, and it is anticipated that European and EU identities might merge. In this context, it is both important and timely to locate the history of the integration process in a broader history of Europe, including the ruptures brought by wars, nationalism, and global tensions from the mid-nineteenth through the twentieth century. Traditional European history has long been dominated by nation states’ political and economic trajectories and conflicts; our effort will undertake to expose and analyze crucial transnational processes that both informed and constrained state and enterprise actors, that both enabled and inhibited conflicts and their resolutions. The proposed book series – Making Europe: Technologies and Transformations, 1850-2000 – aims to explore how European spaces were constructed and integrated since 1850 by whom, why, and with what kind of impact, e.g. who and what became central and who and what was marginalized and/or silenced? 1 The notion of space refers to the project’s ambition not to naturalize the model of territorially self-enclosed nation states, and to avoid state-centred modes of analysis, without denying nation states’ historical importance. Series volumes will analyse the emergence of various economic, political and cultural transnational European spaces (for example networks, communities, regimes, landscapes, patterns) within, across, and beyond those nation states in which notions of Europe, European unification, integration were imagined, developed and lived. As we will show, these framings of Europe became important vectors in colonial and transatlantic crossings as well as in encounters between the West and the East.2 By doing so, it will be possible to place the European integration history that begun after the Second World War into a much deeper and broader history of constructing and experiencing various Europes, emergent since 1850. 1 The emphasis on space derives from the spatial turn in history, in particular in contemporary globalization studies. For an introduction see Neil Brenner, New State Spaces. Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood (Oxford University Press 2004), in particular chapter 2. 2 This formulation is inspired by keynote lecture of Charles Bright, 'The Global Condition of Europe', at the launching conference of the ESF program 'Inventing Europe' and the third plenary conference of the 'Tensions of Europe Network', Rotterdam, June 7-10, 2007.
  3. 3. 3 The authors’ collective, developed over the last ten years through ESF-funded research initiatives, uses a much-neglected, but highly-appropriate, lens to research these dynamics. Each volume will examine how technology operated as an agent of change in the contested processes of making European spaces. Technology is here defined not only as machines, products, systems, and infrastructures but also as the skills and knowledge that make them work. In addition, technological change is understood as a deeply political, economic and social process involving people and institutions. Using this contextual definition, the writers’ group will focus on how technical communities, companies, nation states and social groups have contested, projected, performed, and reproduced ‘Europe’ in constructing and using a range of technologies. These include in particular: 1) network technologies in communication, transport and energy sectors; 2) knowledge intensive technologies of large-scale European projects; 3) consumer technologies in a wide range of areas from leisure and mass media to food and construction. This work will reinforce new efforts to write European history without falling back on either a (comparative) history of European nation states or a history of European integration that attends exclusively to its top-down formal phases, as represented by institution building and policy coordination among nation states. Instead the theme group 'Inventing Europe' adopted the emergent transnational history approach to conceptualize the European integration process as an outcome of extensive networking processes.3 Central to this focus are concepts such as circulation and transfer of people, ideas, goods, services and artefacts; the comparison of various circulation trajectories and ways they are integrated and appropriated at specific sites, including the nation state and the city; research on the role of transnational networks and alliances. This ambition to write a new history of European integration through the lens of technology will impact history writing in many fields, for example European history, European integration history, history of technology, business history, media history, consumption history, and global history. It might also impact the broad field of European studies in the political and social sciences. 2. The structure of the book series and composition of theme group The planned book series consists of six commissioned co-authored books. Authors have contracted with the Foundation for the History of Technology (SHT) to deliver a manuscript according to their plans (these resemble the individual book proposals attached). For each volume the SHT has made €20.000 available for funding of research 3 A variety of programmatic statements and introductions on transnational history are available. See for example Philipp Ther, Beyond the Nation: The Relational Basis of a Comparative History of Germany and Europe, Central European History, 36 (2003) 45-73; Kiran Klaus Patel, Ueberlegungen zu einer transnationalen Geschichte, Zeitschrift für Geschichtwissenschaft 52 (2004) 626-645; Pierre-Yves Saunier, Circulations, connexions et espaces transnationaux, Genèses, 57 (2004) 110-126. For the link between transnational history and global history see among others Sebastiaan Conrad and Domenic Sachsenmaier (eds.), Competing Visions of World Order. Global Moments and Movements, 1880s-1930s (Palgrave/Macmillan 2007), and for a plea for a transnational history of the European Union: see Wolfram Kaiser and Peter Starie (eds.), Transnational European Union. Towards a Common Political Space (Routledge 2005).
  4. 4. 4 assistanc and travel. The book series editors are Johan Schot and Philip Scranton, who are responsible for organizing the communication and coherence between the volumes, and arranging a book series contract on behalf the SHT (Schot is Research Director with the SHT). We are seeking a book series contract to be signed by the SHT and the book series editors, as well as individual contracts for each volume to be signed by the authors. SHT will receive 50% of any royalties for each volume in the series. These are the topics, working titles and authors/researchers for each volume (A fuller discussion of each volume follows, along with a biographical note for each author): o Volume 1: Maria Paula Diogo, Dirk van Laak, and Matthias Middell , Europe in the Global World, or how Europe was imagined and lived in colonial, ex-colonial, and other global circulations and exchanges; o Volume 2: Arne Kaijser, Erik van der Vleuten and Per Høgselius, From Nature to Networks. The Infrastructural Transformation of Europe, or how Europe (and its landscape) was constituted by the construction and use of transnational communication, energy and transport infrastructures; o Volume 3: Mikael Hård and Ruth Oldenziel, European Technological Dramas: Histories of Consumption and Use, or how European transnational spaces emerged in the process of producing, distributing and using a range of consumer goods; o Volume 4: Andreas Fickers, and Pascal Griset, Eventing Europe: Information, and Communication Spaces in Europe, or how Europe was experienced in the production and use of (mass) media; o Volume 5: Helmuth Trischler and Martin Kohlrausch, Knowledge Societies, Expert Networks and Innovation Cultures in Europe or how Europe became articulated through efforts to construct European standards, expert knowledge and networks – in a range of sectors from city planning to computer sciences, and large-scale projects and artefacts, for example in military, space and nuclear technology; o Volume 6: Wolfram Kaiser, Johan Schot and Dagmara Jajeśniak-Quast, Governing Europe: Technology, Experts and Networks, or how the emergence of a series of European transnational spaces since 1850 shaped the European integration process. This volume will explicitly focus on a reinterpretation of the European integration process. Full length proposals are in a separate appendix attached to this book series proposal. Below we include summaries of each volume. For each volume we are planning the following format: w each volume will run ca. 300-350 printed pages, including notes, bibliography, and a minimum of 75 illustrations in black and white and possibly also color (charts, diagrams, images). The editors plan to provide a short, standard
  5. 5. 5 introduction/preface indicating the scope and purpose of the series. The Foundation for the History of Technology (SHT) will secure funding for hiring an images editor, preparing illustrations for the full series and to cover licensing fees, where needed. 3. Markets & Marketing For the series as a whole we do not see a competitive adventure. European history books exist, in fact some of them have become international bestsellers4 , yet our book series has a number of unique characteristics which do not exist in this combination: 1. The series is based on new research, not simply a synthesis of published literature; 2. It uses two lenses, both the history of technology and transnational history, to analyze the creation of modern Europe; 3. The work has been accomplished through an intensive collaborative process among authors, and thus is neither one individual’s view, nor a mass of sections composed by a wide variety of scholars; 4. It is pan-European, bringing in research from a wide range of languages and areas; We expect the following markets for the entire series: 1. Library market. Series will be a “must have” for many libraries around the world; 2. Academic market. The Series as a whole speaks to a number of different fields: European History, transnational history, European integration History, history of technology, business history, Science and Technology Studies. These volumes will become standard reading for graduate students in these areas. 3. Engineers interested in History. 4. Companies interested in sponsoring history which integrates the role of technology 5. General audiences. In addition we expect that each volume will sell in additional markets, for example the volume on Consumption will sell in the consumption history and consumption studies market, while this volume as well as the Eventing Europe and the Infrastructure volume will be attractive to any reader interested in the development of the history communication and media. We expect that the Infrastructure volume, and the volumes on Knowledge Societies and Governing Europe will also attract readership from policy makers working in areas related to international relations and European integration. The infrastructure volume speaks explicitly to the interests of environmental historians. Finally all volumes might also attract some interest in the fast growing community working on global history. In particular the Europe in the Global World volume will speak to this community. All together, we expect a large market. A previous book series edited by Schot and Dutch colleagues, seven well-illustrated volumes in the Dutch language focusing on Netherlands’ technological history, sold 5,000 full sets earlier in this decade. MIT Press 4 For example, Mark Mazower, Dark Continent. Europe's Twentieth Century (Penguin, 1998); Norman Davies, Europe, A History (Pimlico 1997) and Tony Judt, Postwar. A History of Europe since 1945 (Heineman, 2005).
  6. 6. 6 will soon publish an English-language synthesis volume drawn from these studies. Comparable sales are our goal for the Making Europe series. That said, we would like to work with three sales scenarios for the moment: 1500; 3000; and 5000 (sales for 3 years , including hardcover and paperback). Selling such quantities demands a elaborate marketing and pricing strategy. We believe the books should be priced around €40 for hardcover (retail price). Even much better priced paperbacks (€25) will be printed if sales come close to 1000 or so, a target we might hit before the first book is printed since we propose to organize an advance order campaign coming years (up until 2012 when the first book will come to the market). In fact, we already started this. Schot has already secured an advance order for 300 full sets through the SHT in the Netherlands with an anticipated advance order (discounted ) prices of full sets (hardcover) at €150. The SHT will continue their effort aiming at advance reservations for 1,000-1,500 additional sets from Dutch institutions and corporations. We thus anticipate raising a substantial advance order for sets, so as to moderate the volumes’ selling prices, while making them accessible to a wide readership, not only in the Netherlands, but also in Scandinavia, Belgium, and Germany, and in other countries. To make this happen, The SHT will create a separate flyer and website which will provide information about the book series, previews of the content, interviews with the authors, pictures, links to other relevant content sites, and reports of various events (presentations at conferences, organized public debates; meetings with the press, etc). The website, flyer and advance sale effort needs to be developed in close collaboration with the publisher. We need their advice, and their imprint. The creation and maintenance of the site will be funded by the Foundation for the History of Technology. Engineers will be invited to sign up for the series through their professional organizations; Companies will be visited by former Business people on the SHT board and by Schot and some of the authors, and asked to buy upfront 50-100 series sets (in return we would like to promise them they will get their logo on the title page of the sets they ordered). In addition we will arrange advance order sales through a range of professional organizations and their list serves and journal (placing adds), including the Tensions of Europe Network, Society for the History of Technology, International Committee for the History of Technology, Business History Conference and European Business History Association. These are organizations we are in close contact with already. Through our networks and team of authors we also plan to work with other professional organizations, in particular ones which promote transnational history and European history. We are planning to organize sessions at conferences organized by these professional organizations. In addition we are planning a conference in Sofia, Bulgaria during 2010 (17-20 June) with 150-200 participants. At this conference the book series and the six volume proposals will be presented to the audience for review and comments, another means to develop potential readership and sales. This international base of collaborating scholars is willing to set in motion projects for translating the book series into French, German and Portugese, thus far.
  7. 7. 7 Finally we would like to mention that the research underlying the book series will be used for the creation of a virtual exhibit in collaboration with a large range of science museums in Europe. At the moment, we already have developed a demonstration website which will be tested with users this Fall. This initiative was supported by eight museums in Europe, including the Science Museum in London, Deutsches Museum in Munich, the Norwegian Museum for Science and Technology in Oslo, Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris, Museum Vaipirikki, Tampere, Finland, Technical Museum Vienna, the Hungarian Museum of Natural Science, Budapest and the National Museum of Science and Technology, Stockholm. We expect to be able to reach a student and general audience market through the virtual exhibit (which will be aimed at these markets), and will generate additional sales of individual volumes or full sets. 4. History of proposal, relationship to ongoing research initiatives and planning Work toward this book series builds on a collaboration which began almost 10 years ago, and which has expanded considerably. In 1999 the private Dutch Foundation for the History of Technology (SHT) brought together a group of historians of technology to develop an ESF Network Proposal, which received funding support. Between 2000-2003, this group pioneered extensive collaborations among scholars from multiple disciplines, within the ESF Scientific Network 'Tensions of Europe' (co-funded by a large number of European research councils and the USA’s NSF). The network proved durable and productive, continuing after 2003 under the auspices of SHT.5 In 2004-2005 this network of scholars produced a research agenda which was in 2005 transformed into a ESF EUROCORES collaborative research program Inventing Europe; the role of technology in the making of Europe, 1850-2000. This program runs until September 2010.6 Both programs (Tensions of Europe and Inventing Europe ) have pursued an intensive networking and dissemination strategy, carried out through frequent workshops and conference, along with publication of scholarly articles, collections, and sole-authored monographs. In the winter of 2007/2008 a new phase began – planning for a book series presenting synthetic analyses for broad audiences, and a virtual exhibit in collaboration with the major science museums in Europe. The joint-authored volumes, committed to clarity and accessibility, will integrate completed and fresh research into a coherent body of knowledge, refining and reframing texts and terminologies for non-specialist 5 SHT had just finalized the History of Technology in the Netherlands book series, see Johan Schot, Harry Lintsen, Arie Rip e.a. (red.)., Techniek in Nederland in de Twintigste eeuw , Vol 1-7 (1998-2003). 6 See various publications which resulted from preparations for the development of the Inventing Europe Research Proposal within the Tensions of Europe Network: Johan Schot, Thomas J. Misa and Ruth Oldenziel (eds.), 'Tensions of Europe. The Role of Technology in the Making of Europe', History and Technology (special issue), 1 (2005) 1-139; Erik van der Vleuten and Arne Kaijser (eds.), Networking Europe. Transnational Infrastructures and the Shaping of Europe (Science History Publications 2006); Ruth Oldenziel and Karin Zachmann (eds.), Kitchen Politics: Americanization, Technology Transfer, and European Users (MIT Press 2009); Mikael Hård and Thomas J. Misa (eds.), Urban Machinery: Inside Modern European Cities. (MIT Press, 2008); see also Johan Schot e.a. Proposal for a EUROCORES Research Program 'Inventing Europe. Technology and the Making of Europe, 1850-to the Present' (september 2005), see www.tensionsofeurope.eur
  8. 8. 8 academics, officials and policy makers, and general readers in Europe and beyond. A summer 2008 workshop resulted in a first selection of authors and book proposals for the series. On March 6-8, 2009 a second workshop provided the occasion for critically reviewing second version book proposals. Based on these discussions, author teams have submitted new proposals to the SHT and signed a contract. First-draft collaborative writing and additional research needed will commence by fall 2009, while author teams will gather for five-month periods during fall 2010 and spring 2011 at the residential Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study (NIAS), where they will work closely with one another and the editors to complete full draft texts, to integrate compelling visual materials, and to develop each team’s segment of the virtual museum exhibit. Full funding has been secured through NIAS Submission of manuscripts for the Press’s review will begin during 2011 and continue through 2012. We anticipate rapid turnarounds in response to readers’ reports and expect the series volumes to reach readers starting in 2012. (Volumes will be released in the order of their completion; the volume numbers given above are simply notional.) 5. Summaries of the six series volumes: Volume 1: Europe in the Global World (Diogo, van Laak, Middell) This book investigates how Europeans encountered other parts of the world, to what extent this interaction with people perceived as representatives of otherness (and thus contributing to the self-definition of “European-ness”) changed both Europe and the world. In this global history, we seek to establish the places Europe and Europeans have occupied or were looking for, with special emphasis on technological aspects important both when Europeans imposed their ways of life and production on large parts of the world (or developed fantasies to do so), and when Europeans appropriated others’ knowledge and techniques for their own purposes. The main focal points of the debate we would like to develop are: • the role of de- and re-territorialisation with its consequences for a definition of what “Europe” meant at different times to different people; • the dialectics of flows (of goods, people, ideas and capital) and ways to get control over these flows; • the role of asymmetric power relations in interactions with other parts of the world during times of colonialism, imperialism, and world wars, and later, as global governance becomes more and more institutionalised; • the importance of mental maps, imagined spaces, and definitions of cultural and historical development. Permanent encounters with something “different” set free many irritations and caused ambivalent attitudes: confidence, fear, ascriptions of superiority/inferiority, etc.; • the main domains where contact between Europe and other parts of the world influenced the development of both – the emergence of world markets; the construction of a world-wide infrastructure for transport and communication; colonialism; migration and/or international organisations;
  9. 9. 9 • the extent to which Europe became formatted by these contacts: exploring the category, “portals of globalisation” inquires where Europeans met non-Europeans first hand and with what consequences for populations of those places vs others not exposed to the same extent to various phases of “globalisation”. Most of the time, Europe met with other parts of the world in conflict, therefore its transnational history cannot be written as a story of peaceful encounter and increasing entanglement to the profit of both sides, but only as part of the history of war, military interventions, occupation, expansion, racial clashes, sometimes even with genodical effects. Since the book authors are inspired by approaches like cultural transfer and entangled histories of mutual influence they will turn the perspective from the classical question (how Europeans influenced the world) into an investigation of how Europe transformed itself by learning from others, by implementing foreign cultural element into its own identity and cultural patterns: there is a large debate about the influence of North America on European patterns of consumption or its political culture, but there is – despite some pioneering studies done for only a few European societies – much less on Sovietisation. At least a third dimension has to be added to that kind of debate dealt with in another strand of literature (often separated and even isolated from the discussion on Americanisation): the colonial empires striking back. These three directions of research seem to be separated not only for reasons of scholarly specialisation or their relation to different historical narratives. The methodological challenge is therefore not only to read and integrate a great deal of empirical work already done but to investigate how these various influences and entanglements lead to something that might be called a European culture and which is more than an enumeration of national cases. Table of Contents: 1. Preliminaries: including an outline of what follows, which perspectives are applied, what intentionally is left out, what the peculiar focus is compared to the other volumes, a statement concerning “Eurocentrism” and anti-European sentiments, the concepts of cultural transfer, appropriation, hybridization, or competitive learning, an analysis of changing constellations, the interdependency between nationalization and globalization, and the time period from 1850 to the present. 2 Europe – but what it is and where is it located? 2.1 Views from inside and outside: some empirical evidence, telling examples and iconic pictures 2.2 Different assessments and target setting: This chapter deals with key concepts, which had been attributed to Europe and were the subject of major discussions from 1850 onwards, e.g. the notion that the rest of the world is going to be “Europeanized,” up to the recent hypothesis that Europe is about to be “provincialized”. Europe turns out to be a moving target or a container concept for interests in setting agendas for a European commonality rooted in “shared
  10. 10. 10 values”. Also included: “Good old Europe”, “Paneuropa”, “Atlantropa”, “Third Ways” between superpowers, “dark continent”, the European Union, “shared values”, “transnational networks” etc. 2.3 Defining levels: regionalism, nationalism, European integration, trans-, supra- and internationalism, globalism, cosmopolitism, center/periphery, racial or cultural distinctiveness etc.), borders/frontiers (towards Islam, the “Asian” East, the “colored people”, “people without history”, “Fortress Europe”, the “Soviet bloc”/Iron Curtain, the Near East etc.), and distant mirrors (United States, Africa, China/Japan, the “Orient”), machines as a measure of man etc. 2.4 Europe defining itself: in comparison and competition to other continents and global rivals, esp. the United States, Japan, China and other Asian countries, geographical or geopolitical definitions etc., “Imagined Europeans”, e.g. as the “industrious people” or “technical race”, “the West”, the “Atlantic community”, “the rich” vs. “the poor” etc. 2.5 Europe being seen, experienced and defined by “the others”: In this chapter images of Europeans as colonizers, technicians, cultural imperialists etc. are recapitulated, as being drawn by all those people who interacted – or were forced to interact – with Europeans and recognized them as “different”. One question will be whether or not Europeans were regarded by “the others” as a coherent nation, race, or culture or whether they could be distinguished from another as members of different – and rival – nations. In almost every case the confrontation was accompanied by the experience of violence, dominance, dependency, devaluation, marginalization etc. Nevertheless Europe also served as a paradigm and as a space of aspiration etc. 3. Europe interacting with the world: namely attempts to control, to channel, to block the flows abroad and flows into Europe, as well as unintended side effects, including the tools of interaction, extraction, expansion, empire and control, leaving “old”, “used” or “Creole” technologies in the rest of the world, but also adopting foreign technologies or creating “appropriate” technologies 3.1 Reasons for interaction: interventionism (anti-slavery movement, religious and civilizing missions, human rights, preventing another “Holocaust”, development policy and humanitarian aid etc.), curiosity and fascination, thirst for scientific knowledge, making the world “legible” and calculable, ornamentalism, love of adventure, need for raw materials, exotic goods and energies, assisting social or socialist “progress”, geopolitical considerations, export of domestic tensions, recruitment of useful migrants, the ideology to open up and develop foreign territories, opening up markets, searching test fields for new technologies etc. 3.2 Expansion, colonialism, imperialism, decolonization, development: the colonial infrastructure at home and abroad, supplementary spaces, colonies as laboratories, but also the late colonial development plans and the European remnants of science and technology in post-colonial states. 3.3 The international division of trade and labor: market structures, tariffs, global products and production chains, cash flows, labor (incl. slavery, forced labor,
  11. 11. 11 seasonal work and migrant labourers), world companies, the creation of basic infrastructures and the transfer of European science and expertise. 3.4 Networking the world: traffic and communication, incl. processes of synchronization and standardization, scientific and technocratic internationalism, agents and modes of interconnectivity, international organizations, technology transfer. 3.5 Portals of globalization: missions, schools, harbours, immigrant quarters, translators, global cities, airports, camps, world fairs etc., understood as two-way gateways of interaction 3.6 People on the move: emigration and immigration, exiles and asylums, tourism.. 3.7 Agents of Europe in the global world: ideas, goods, diplomats, spies, merchants, traders, sales managers, engineers, personnel of development aid, doctors, the military, colonial administrators, foreign cultural and educational policy etc. 3.8 Conflicts: screening the “dark side” of interaction between Europeans and Non- Europeans including strategic considerations, mental maps of potential future conflicts, racial clashes, violent encounters, economic competition, the World Wars, European military interventions/wars in the colonies/the Third World etc. In opening up and researching the globe scientifically Europe had to be “placed” anew, the last 150 years can be viewed as an almost continual “replacement” of Europe on its own mental maps, seen from the European perspective of seeking hegemony or keeping balance among rivaling nations globalization meant realizing ever new competitors and a continuous redefinition of strategies. 3.9 Changing Europe from outside: Americanization, Sovietization, influence of anti-colonial movements, decolonization and Third World theories, fears of international rivalry and of being colonized etc. 4. Interim results: How Europe influenced and was influenced by the rest of the world between 1850 and today. Are there any European peculiarities? How about a reasonable periodization that can be stated in the history of Europe in the global world? Are there comprehensive “narratives” that can be told from 1850 to 2000? Volume 2: From Nature to Networks (Kaijser, van der Vleuten and Høgselius) Infrastructures are obviously of key importance to a transnational history of European integration and fragmentation seen through the lens of technology. Particularly since the mid 19th century, Europe has been covered by a wide range of overlapping infrastructures of many kinds, most notably for transport, communication, and energy supply. Jointly they produced an artificial (i.e. human-made) geography of networks, which surpassed the natural geography and politics in prominence as a deep structure of modern Europe. Historical actors – individuals as well as organizations – have amply recognized the importance of infrastructures in modern European history. We know that from the 19th century, national governments actively supported or built domestic and cross-border infrastructures to forge internal strength and to improve their strategic position in Europe
  12. 12. 12 and in the world. Think of the Baghdad railway; of the Suez Canal; of enduring Dutch and Belgian, but also Greek and Italian, government attempts to become the gateway to Europe by connecting harbours by railway to the German hinterland; and of Alpine country governments competing for North-South trade flows by building huge tunnels. Moreover, in the 20th century individuals and organizations contemplated the creation of ‘European’ networks to integrate Europe, however defined. The European Union policy stimulating Trans European Networks for transport, communication and energy supply to forge ‘economic and social cohesion’ in the Union was preceded by a host of earlier plans and projects for ‘European’ rail, road, telephone, electric power, airline, waterway, and broadcast infrastructures. Today, the EU policy notion of European Critical Infrastructure explicitly denotes that interconnected and interdependent transnational networks have become critical to the functioning of government and the European economy. Last but certainly not least, citizens often recognized infrastructure-related technologies as major changers of 20th century daily life. Older generations typically mention cars and airplanes, electric light and power, and telephony, just as younger generations celebrate mobile phones and the Internet. Europe’s historians have often recognized the pivotal importance of infrastructures in modern and contemporary European history. Yet analysis of how transnational infrastructures actually developed and intertwined with 19th and 20th century European history is largely absent. The specialized historiography of infrastructures, on the other hand, has predominantly taken a national or comparative perspective. Our project’s main aim is to write a book that bridges the fields of European history and infrastructure history by investigating the shaping of a European geography of networks; some major flows through these networks (industrial, military, and leisure); and the implications for European space (land, water and air). The project will address a number of research questions. The first is on how, why and by whom transnational infrastructures in Europe and beyond have been brought about. The second is on how and why the uses of infrastructures (the flows through them) have changed over time. The third is on how networks and flows have intertwined with spatial restructuring of Europe, or to put it differently the transformation of landscapes, waterscapes and airscapes. Table of Contents 1. Introduction: Europe on the eve of the network revolution • Introductory case: The Vienna Congress in 1815 from a material perspective. How did the delegates travel to Vienna? How did they live there and what did they eat? How did they communicate with their governments at home during the negotiations? (Note that the Congress itself counts as an innovation in international politics; previously treaties were negotiated primarily via messengers travelling between capitals.) • The introduction will briefly outline Europe and its natural boundaries and division lines in the early 19th century (Alps, Urals, Caucasus, Atlantic, Mediterranean; see discussion in Davies 1996) as well as the ways of transport, communication and energy supply at that time. • Main thesis of the book: From natural to network geography of Europe (relevant authors like Castells, Hughes/Gras, Cronon, Braudel, etc).
  13. 13. 13 I. CREATING NETWORKS 2. Infrastructural Visions of Europe • Visionaries and system builders (Saint-Simon, Sörgel, Oliven, Myrdal, etc.); including the ‘network’ craze of the 1990s; • Dystopias from Spengler to the Club of Rome, to A Seed Europe/ MATE (environmental action group association targeting amongst others the EU TEN-T program). 3. The Annihilation of Space and Time • A chapter where we briefly sketch the networking of Europe (in a global setting) by transport and communication infrastructure. Old, natural borders were overcome or pierced, making contemporary observers speak of the ‘annihilation of space and time’. Yet the emerging network geography created new types of borders and new forms of time and place (Castells 1996). • Cases like the Great Nordic telegraph network (London- Russia/China) and the Gotthard Tunnel will be discussed, but also the way in which privileged corridors for transport and communication were created at the expense of areas located outside such corridors. 4. Fuelling Europe • Europe’s transformation from local coal abundance and hydropower dreams to dependence on oil, gas and uranium imported from far away. The development of transport-based energy supply and the construction of dedicated transnational networks for energy carrying, such as electricity and gas infrastructure. The interdependencies and vulnerabilities this has led to. • Cases: The Russian gas crisis in 2009 and the pan-European blackout in 2006, with an analysis of the historical processes leading up to these highly publicized events; the 1973/74 oil crisis and the attempts to coordinate European oil imports following it; World War II as an energy war. II. FLOWS OF CHANGE 5. The Wheels of Commerce • Expanding networks enabled a transformation of the European economy. The chapter outlines how transnational production systems emerged and how they were controlled and governed, from farmland/mine/forest via factories, storages, retail to the final consumers, and their effects on urban and rural landscapes. But it also discusses national security of supply/ autarky as a counter force.
  14. 14. 14 • Cases: Rotterdam harbour and its transport connections to the German hinterland in the shaping of the transnational Rhine economy from 1850 onwards; the Soviet Gosplan central planning organization; the European food economy; connected petrochemical complexes. 6. Logistics of War • The chapter will analyze changing paces of warfare (marching, slow trains, “blitzkrieg”, air warfare) as well as related shifts of the military landscapes (fortified cities, defence lines, bunkers, air-raid shelters) . And it will discuss logistic preparations for war carried out by NATO and the Warsaw pact. • Cases: The mobilisation in August 1914 based on rail & telegraphy (following fixed Military Travel Plans); logistics in World War II; the Swedish Air command system in the Cold War; the electronic battlefield and the “networked soldier” (Stefan Kaufman). 7. On the move • Migration to, from and within Europe spurred by poverty, oppression and dreams of new opportunities and enabled by the network revolution. The emergence of mass tourism and the changing logistics of leisure. The emergence of the ‘migration machine’ (technology to manage which migrants can access the European network geography and which cannot). Pandemics as a flip side of migration and tourism. • Cases: Emigration to America; Russia/Soviet colonization of new territories in the East (Siberia, Central Asia) and West (Baltics, Ukraine, Caucasus); two seaside resorts (Jurmala in Latvia, tsarist, soviet and post-communist leisure) and Cyprus; the Spanish flu. III. EUROPEAN SPACES 8. Troubled Waters • The growing multifunctionality of European waterscapes (rivers and seas) has led to increasing interdependencies and many conflicts, but also to many efforts to handle conflicts and to preserve natural resources. • Cases: Rhine pollution from the Sandoz chemical factory in Basel in 1986; the transnational environmental disaster in the Szamos – Tisza – Danube rivers, following emission of 100.000 m3 cyanide-polluted water from a Rumanian gold mine in 2000; the Cod War between UK and Iceland; environmental debate about Russian-German gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea. 9. Faces of the Earth • The chapter will analyse the restructuring of landscapes and townscapes and the interrelation between these processes applying a Cronon/von Thünen perspective but with an emphasis on the increasingly transnational character of the “ecological footprints” of cities. Development of environmental protection.
  15. 15. 15 • Cases: Two remote European villages (one northern and one southern) and their changing landscapes as result of an embedding in the world economy. Transformed townscapes (one in the west and one in the east) due to the car and the tram. Highway roadscapes of Europe. The European ecological network as a response to biodiversity threats.. 10. Common Skies • The chapter will analyse how the new technologies of wireless, aviation, and large-scale air pollution implied new conflicting demands on European airscapes, and how these conflicts have been handled • Cases: Radio Luxemburg and Radio Comintern. A hi-jacking from Czechoslovakia to West Germany in the 1950s. The discovery of acid rain. Radioactivity spreading from nuclear accidents. 11. Conclusion: Europe Transformed by Networks • Drawing the threads together about networks, flows and restructured space Case: The Davos Summit in 2009. How did the delegates travel to Davos etc. Volume 3: European Technological Dramas (Hård and Oldenziel) This volume investigates how in the last 150 years European citizens integrated material artifacts into their lives. Picking up Bryan Pfaffenberger’s notion of “technological drama,” it argues that this was mostly a dramatic process. What from hindsight might look as a smooth affair was a drama characterized by processes of inclusion and exclusion. The authors indicate that History of Technology and STS (Science and Technology Studies) perspectives are absolutely essential for the reassessment of the history of European consumption. In line with the program of transnational history, the volume presents a number of stories to illustrate overarching developments, structural changes, and fundamental lines of tension and conflict. Juxtaposing these scholarly traditions leads to a series of questions: What are the differences between the “users” we find in the History of Technology and STS, the “consumers” we approach in Cultural and Consumer Studies, and the “citizens” we find in Political History? Are these different labels for essentially the same things or are they fundamentally different? Do users, consumers, and citizens have different historical trajectories or not? Is the “citizen-consumer” a particular Anglo-Saxon phenomenon or do we find him or her also on the European Continent? Whereas “consumers” are a rather well-defined category in the economic historical scholarship and citizens figure prominently in political-science traditions, the history of “users” still needs to be written. In the History of Technology scholarship, furthermore, there is a slippage in the use of language between notions of users and of consumers that is seldom confronted theoretically. Against this background, the proposed volume focuses on the use and appropriation of innovations, the daily application of products, and the emergence of use communities rather than on consumption as an act of purchase and acquisition. The book
  16. 16. 16 does so from a deliberately international and diachronic framework, and it attempts to synthesize a rich body of literature, but also seeks to go beyond it. The book combines a rough chronological outline with a thematic structure. In the first part the authors investigate the transition from an aristocratic style of consumption to one in which middle-class values and ways of life become dominant. Taking up the challenge posed by Victoria De Grazia (Irresistible Empire, 2005), the second part of the volume focuses on how European actors appropriated U.S. products and modified U.S. notions of consumption. In the third part, which roughly covers the postwar period, consumer communities were co-opted by the state and corporate finance into peculiar European “consumer regimes.” The proposed book systematically investigates domestication processes, mediation practices, sites of resistance, and contestation of key innovations in the period 1850-2000. Table of Contents Introduction Part I: (En)countering the Aristocratic Model: Stories of Learning and Tinkering 1. Fashioning Europe: The Paris Model By reviewing some of the classic texts on the importance of fashion for the reproduction of class differences and the creation of social distinction, the chapter investigates the emergence of pan-European dream worlds in which Paris figured as Europe‘s capital city. As a counterpoint, it shows how the many Cinderellas of the continent have used sewing-machines and alternative distribution channels in their attempts to close the gap between themselves and so-called trend setters, and tinkering with the designs. 2. European Shopping Experiences: Learning How to Consume Bon Marché, arcades, and department stores stand as the cathedrals of consumption, in which bourgeois women learned how to participate in what became the European standard of cosmopolitanism. In the 20th century this standard became increasingly challenged by U.S. commercial innovations such as the supermarket and the mall. 3. Experiencing Europe and its Borders: The Emergence of Tourism The chapter highlights the Janus face of tourism—on the one hand socially inclusive, on the other hand economically exclusive. Since the time of the first Rhine trips – and even stronger after the establishment of a Europe-wide railroad network, train and plane passengers developed a better sense of the diversity of Europe, while at the same time having used the experiences of other countries to strengthen their own identity. Part II: Appropriating America: Stories of Domestication and Contestation 4. Creating Leisure: The Making of European Car Cultures Perhaps more than any other object, the automobile came to symbolize in Europe a U.S. lifestyle of affluence and freedom. Still, Europeans developed particular practices of car use that we do not find elsewhere, including subcultures that defined themselves in terms of automobile addiction, tinkering, and comradery.
  17. 17. 17 The chapter discusses various alternatives to U.S.-style automobiles, e.g., the attempts to design and market micro-cars in post-war Eastern Europe 5. Making it Work: Connecting Computers In the face of IBM´s dominance, Europeans sought either to craft computers in their own national images or to appropriate American models into their own user contexts. Because of military embargos, there developed in Eastern Europe particular solutions that—in turn—were wiped out after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. 6. Constructing European Foods: Inside the Body Since the days of Marco Polo, European cooking has been firmly integrated in a global distribution network. In opposition to the so-called McDonaldization thesis, the chapter argues that European actors have creatively appropriated foreign food products to fit their own culinary traditions, and that they at times have successfully invented new traditions of an authentic European self to accommodate to changing market prices and supply structures. 7. Equipping the Home: Household Machines as Mirrors of America Standard accounts of the history of household technology tend to adopt a diffusionist and trickling-down perspective. In contrast, this chapter discusses household equipment in terms of appropriation and domestication. In this context, U.S. household machines operate as transporters of meaning and desire, Swedish equipment as symbols of welfare policies. Part III: Reconstituting Europe: Stories of Negotiation and Regularization 8. Constructing a Shelter: European Housing and the Welfare State The Cold War sandwiched war-torn Europe between models of individual and collective forms of provisioning, between the Soviet Union and the United States. Out of the prewar transnational movements of modernism, cooperativism, and home economics, the European welfare states forged a long-lasting heritage that incorporated user and producer communities into state experiments with building mass-scale public housing. Collective consumption, we argue, was not a phenomenon restricted to the Eastern Bloc. 9. Furnishing the Home: Designing the European Home Interior decoration and furniture is a wonderful area for discussing strategies of signification and counter-signification. At least since Victorian times, European homes have been battlegrounds of class differences, individual aspirations, and cultural codes. The chapter analyzes these processes along transnational lines, for example by investigating the growing uniformity of European homes in an era of mass-scale production and mass-scale consumption. 10. Wasting or Conserving: Between American Affluence and European Austerity The throw-away mentality associated with modern ways of life is unique in history. Throughout the ages human beings have usually been forced to save
  18. 18. 18 resources. The chapter analyzes the diffusion of wastefulness (as a sign of American affluence) throughout Europe and shows how austerity reappeared in certain phases in the 20th century, not seldom couched in a national discourse of autarky. 11. Instituting Europe’s Experience through the EU The experience of users in Europe is often mapped within the institutional walls of the European community as on the one hand a story of success and on the other one of failure. The final chapter reviews the multiple paths and experiences of user communities and their organizations within and without the EU´s institutional frame to problematize the meaning of Europe. 12. Conclusion Volume 4: Eventing Europe (Fickers and Griset) This volume seeks to describe and analyze the role and importance of electronic information and communication technologies in European history over the long term (1850-2000). Paying special attention to these technologies and to their geopolitical significance in European and global communication will highlight the crucial relationship between technology and culture in the age of electronic mass media. In analyzing the spatial dimension of mediated cultural flows in their material forms (devices, infrastructures), institutional manifestations (transnational organizations, politics, industries) and symbolic meanings (compression of time and space, participation at a distance), we expect to substantially enlarge classical perspectives on information and communications technologies as both historical witnesses to and actors in change. By offering an integrated interdisciplinary research design as a conceptual innovation to media history and the field of the history of technology in general, we will open new perspectives on European historiography. This book aims at emphasizing the tensions between the integrative and splitting forces of transnational media by examining both the efforts at transnational transmission, national control, and civilian circumventing of cultural performances. In approaching communications and information – both as technologies and as media – we will frame them as mediating interfaces between transmitted visions of Europe and individual appropriations, which will serve to historicize theoretical discussions on media technologies and society at a European level. The book will have three thematic parts, each following an internal chronological logic. The first section concentrates on eras dominated by various national initiatives to build information and communication infrastructures chiefly in order to secure nationwide communications networks. Yet as national networks emerged, the unavoidable transnational nature of telecommunication became evident. Tensions between national and transnational (and European) spaces of communication focus the second section, problematizing the effects these technologies have on complex processes of identity building in an increasingly global world. The third section explores domestic and individual levels of usage and addresses the blurring of private and public spaces and the roles of amateurs and users in shaping new communications communities.
  19. 19. 19 Table of Contents: Section 1: REGULATING FLOWS: States, institutions, communities I: Communication as a battlefield: World Wars, peace and Cold War – Information and communication technologies have been and still are at the centre of military and strategic political activities. From the radiotelephone to digital integrated networks, they provide crucial tools for tactical/operational planning and the realization of military conflicts, as well serve as potential peacemakers in times of intense diplomatic activity. II: Information beyond conflicts: cooperation, competition, negotiation - Telecommunications networks were built in a global context of state owned monopolies, as wireless and long distance lines were supplemented by efforts to build computer networks. Nevertheless, conflicts were numerous, revealing both difficulties and creativity. From the ITU through Europe-wide protocols for data transmission, negotiation has been a recurrent challenge as well as a means toward resolving tensions. III: Freedom of information or tools of empire? Propaganda, censorship, monopolies - The intrinsic potential of media for good or ill becomes most evident when state or governmental bodies have used information and communication technologies as political tools. In analyzing state control of information flows by either creating information monopolies or by using censorship and propaganda, the importance of infrastructures and networks of control, manipulation and seduction is emphasized. Section 2: SHAPING IDENTIES: Places, spaces and territories IV: Hidden networks for entangled territories: control, political representations, frontiers – Here the relationship between information and communication technologies and the control or configuration of spaces and territories is central. As media of political representation and tools for surveying, they shape the social construction of political topographies and thereby our broader relationship with territory. Air, sea, and ground controls and surveillance techniques yield new mediations between citizens and terrains, plus imagined utopian or nightmare representations and real fragmentations/disjunctions. V: Mediated European experience space: Live, recorded, rerun - The role of media in the creation of nations – as “imagined communities” – has caught media scholars’ and historians’ attention. This chapter probes the technological fundaments of that development, concentrating on technologies of liveness, simultaneity and reproduction. Had these technologies not helped to create llusions of the “media to be part of”, the European and worldwide landscape would still offer a strongly fragmented picture. Real time conversation, listening. and viewing have deeply changed perceptions of time and space, yet recording disguises immediacy while preserving performance. VI: The dynamics of mobility: virtual traveling, private mobilization, real virtualities – Physical, mental, or virtual mobility have a long common history and share metaphors and characteristics. Railways and telegraph lines, cars and radios, scooters and
  20. 20. 20 transistors, subways and I-pods represent interwoven developing technologies of mobility and communication. In addition, the spatial and temporal dimensions of our everyday experiences have been deeply challenged by communication technologies, promising to bring the world to our homes, from broadcasting news and entertainment to constituting virtual worlds in games and cyberspaces. Section 3: CONNECTING PEOPLE: Private lives and public spheres VII: Europe as a jamming session? Jamming, subversive practices, pirates - Here readers encounter the subversive use of communication and media technologies, and the related rise of alternative communities in Europe. “Subversive” references secret and unofficial practices of mediated listening and watching in Europe, notably during World War Two and in Eastern Europe during the Cold War. How did such practices enable the circulation of culture across national borders and even across the Iron Curtain? We examine jamming as a major state-sponsored technology of distortion and cultural discrimination, the circulation of subversive music, and illegal commercial broadcasting, among other practices. VIII: Innovative fabrics and the reconfiguration of culture: companies, researchers, amateurs - This chapter examines the role of individual actors (amateurs, researchers) and private actors (firms, companies) in the development and co- construction of media technologies. The central aim is to identify the role and place of these actors in processes of invention and innovation, as the interface between science and industry is one of the most complex issues concerning European history. IX: When new technologies look old: remediation, visions, myths - Exploring the discourses of new media historicizes the constant remediations of relatively stable narrative patterns and rhetorical figures capturing the emergence of new information and media technologies from the mid 19th century until today. Examining the stability or cyclic reoccurrence of those discourses, which feature a fundamental ambivalence between high hopes for and fierce skepticism about the “new,” will highlight the fundamental role of media discourses in shaping and implementing media technologies. Volume 5: Knowledge Societies (Trischler and Kohlrausch) The period beginning around 1850 was, among many other developments, characterized by the constant rise of the technical expert. In retrospective it seems almost inevitable that with the enormous growth of science and technology, those who commanded the latest knowledge gained in importance and societal standing. It would be all too easy, however, to regard the rise of the expert as a mere result of the ascent of the knowledge- based society. This is true not only because knowledge as an important factor did not arise only in the 20th century but because a wide range of other factors helped technical experts like engineers to acquire an importance unheard of before.
  21. 21. 21 The underlying theme of the planned volume is the problem of networking and materialising European ways of knowing. It thus refers to areas of research that are at the same time extremely dynamic and manifold. It has implications for most fields of ‘mainstream’ history – be it cultural, economic, social or political – and also alters the classical periodisation of the envisaged period, i.e. 1850-2000. Such a history of knowledge takes up important aspects from the history of technology and technical transfer, the study of innovation and transnational history. Concentrating on experts and thus on people allows us to capture the cultural conditions of knowledge circulation in and beyond Europe – those aspects which have been expressed in the concept of ‘tacit knowledge’, but even more so the political, social and cultural implications of professional knowledge exchange. Against this background the volume will strive to ask about how far one can speak of particular European knowledge societies and innovation cultures. Three aspects of this development deserve special attention: 1. the growth of international exchange, with a special emphasis on institutionalisation and new forms of exchange; 2. closely connected to this point: the emergence of new channels of and fora for communication and establishing professional contacts ; 3. a multilayered ‘politicisation’ of expertise which was strongly connected with World War I and in particular with the rise of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes in the 1920s and 1930s. The book will present a complex story with evolving political and technological implications. Out of the huge array of possible groups and networks, the volume will focus on the fields of science and technology and on those professional groups aiming at producing and fostering innovation and change within the period in question. Technology, or better techno-science, however, is understood in the wider sense as a resource of knowledge, generating and demanding a new class of experts. In order to better understand the set-up of these groups it will be necessary to look for general patterns, be it along the lines of generations, of gender or of the social structure of the groups analyzed. Necessarily, the volume will include the ever growing number and scale of new institutions for technical education and also professional networks, often on an international level. The book will combine a chronological and systematic approach and will confront the questions outlined above via narrated case studies. Preliminary Structure of the Book 1. A European space of experts? Scopes, limits and asymmetric orders of international exchange - Demonstrating Europe’s techno-scientific base: World expositions as places of knowledge circulation (London, Paris, Milan) - A typology of technical experts. Social and professional aspects - Spaces of expertise: Asymmetric orders of European expert cultures - What is European about modernism? The traditional legacies of technological progress 2. The rise of the technical expert and the struggle for acceptance - The long quest for respect. Social standing, symbolic capital and professional emancipation of technical experts.
  22. 22. 22 - Incorporating national progress: Engineers as new role models - An ambivalent success: the unchallenged role of technical expertise today 3. Educating technical experts – Engineering elites - Les Grandes Ecoles: the French model vs. Technische Hochschulen: the German model - Training engineering elites at the periphery: Portugal, Poland 4. Visible expertise. Media and fora of exchange of expertise - New media of exchange: The rise of the scientific journal - Getting together: Conference-cultures - Signifying systems: Otto Neurath, Wilhelm Ostwald - The order of knowledge: Paul Otlet - Regulating intellectual property: Fixing intellectual property rights in 19th century Europe - A European-wide expert system: the European Patent Office 5. The mechanics of scientific internationalism in Europe - Meter and kilogram: conflicts about regulating norms and standards - Transnational expert systems: Standardizing Europe in a global context (Meteorology, Geosciences, Agriculture, Biology, Medicine, …) - Scientific internationalism between 1880 and 1914: The role of scientific organisations and networks - Divided Europe: International relations in science in the Interwar Period - The Rapallo-axis in science relations: Germany and Russia 6. The European university - The Humboldtian university – idea and reality - A home for science: Institutionalizing research at (German) universities - Imitating the European university in the US in the 19th century - Science inside in the Eastern Bloc: the division of labour between universities and national academies - The Bologna process: reforming and uniting European universities along the American model European Universities (Florence, Budapest, …) 7. Science in the Age of Extremes. Scientific experts and the dual use-character of techno-scientific knowledge - Between gas war and pesticides research: the case of Fritz Haber - Aeronautics and aerial warfare: Germany and Spain - The Faustian bargain: The architect as demiurge and war criminal 8. The role model of technology. Technologically inspired discourse beyond the field of technology - Facing the society: Social engineering and technocracy - Machine-age: The language of technology - “Urban machinery”: Urbanism and architecture (Le Corbusier)
  23. 23. 23 9. A European research area under Nazi dictatorship - Mobilizing techno-scientific resources in the occupied countries - Barbaric research: Human experiments and medical crimes in World War II - Technical experts in exile 10. Intellectual Reparations in the postwar period - Wernher von Braun and the German rocket engineers in the US - German scientists and engineers in the Soviet Union - Europeanization under the American flag: the Marshall Plan - Reconstruction: The hour of the technical expert 11. Nuclear Europe - CERN and the development of particle physics in Europe - EURATOM: a European way of governance in nuclear research and technology - Fast breeder research and fusion technology between conflict and co-operation - The big machine: LHC and European particle physics in the 21st century 12. Europe in Space - A fragmented Europe: the ELDO-desaster - Euro-Gaullism versus the American option: the Post-Apollo-Programmes - Experiencing a long learning curve: the European Space Agency - Overcoming the Iron Curtain: the International Geophysical Year - Eastern Europe in Space: the INTERKOSMOS-programmes 13. Expert networks and knowledge cultures in information technologies - Styles and concepts of innovating: Information sciences in the US, informatics in Western Europe, and informatics in the Eastern Bloc - Cybernetics in East and West - Experts networks and discourses across the Iron Curtain: Edsger W. Dijkstra, Friedrich L. Bauer, Nikolaus Lehmann, and the “ALGOL”-conspiracy - Shaping a joint European knowledge base: EU-research programmes in ICT (ESPRIT, etc.) 14. Envisioning and shaping an integrated European research area - The European Commission as actor: From framework program to framework program - ESF, COST and others - The European Research Council - Creating a system of knowledge production and innovation in Eastern Europe - European places of knowledge production (EMBL, ILL, ESTEC, ESO, ESRI, etc.)
  24. 24. 24 Volume 6: Governing Europe (Kaiser, Schot and Jajeśniak-Quast,) This volume will address forms of European governance and their change over time. Such governance patterns have always been highly fragmented and functionally and spatially differentiated: functionally, because of differences between various sectors and policy domains, and spatially, as global, transatlantic, all-European and smaller regional governance structures within Europe have often competed or overlapped with each other. Moreover, the origins of European governance reach back to at least the mid-nineteenth century and first attempts at international collaboration and the formation of transnational forms of governance designed to regulate technological development, standardization and economic exchange relations. The project’s main aim is to write a transnational history of changing transnational European governance patterns with a focus on the role of technical experts (mainly engineers, scientist, but at times also economists and lawyers, and others who had intimate knowledge of the problems involved in technical development at the international level). Our core hypothesis is that these experts and their networks co-shaped the nature of emerging governance structures in Europe. By taking an all-European and long-term approach, the volume also aims to “de-centre” the EU in narratives about European integration. This book relates to a number of important literatures in the political sciences and in history. First, political science research on governance and networks in the EU disputes the idea that European integration is either about the construction of an intergovernmental organization (Europe des Patries) or a supranational state (United States of Europe). The governance literature assumes that a variety of intermediate outcomes are possible between these two poles, shifting the study of the EU from integration toward multi-level governance. The notion of governance should be seen in a very broad sense as a common set of rules that emerges as a result of the interacting intervention efforts of all actors. An important contribution we will be building on is the notion of perceiving the EU as a regulatory state. This 'may be less of a state in the traditional sense than a web of networks of national and supranational regulatory institutions held together by shared values and objectives, and by a common style of policy-making.'7 Such an approach allows us to integrate the crucial contributions of informal institutions, and all public and private actors, and to show how a range of actors creating transnational regulatory networks critically contributed to the making and breaking of forms of European governance. It assumes fluidity in international relations, the permanence of uncertainty and multiple modalities of authority. In general the governance turn in EU studies resulted in two strands of literature we will be drawing on: (discursive and historical) institutionalism and policy network analysis and other actor network approaches such as advocacy coalitions. Our contribution to this literature will be two-fold. First, we will overcome its strong presentist bias since it largely assumes that informal political steering combining “state” and “non-state” actors is a novel form of decision-making, and as some would argue, only developed on the “ruins” of the nation-state in the 1970s. Second, we will explore a less European Union and state-centrist analysis which is still 7 Majone, Giovanni (1996). Regulating Europe, London: Routledge, 276.
  25. 25. 25 dominating the governance turn. Incipient research on networks in European integration governance since World War II has shown that experts and networks played an important role in integration politics from the very beginning. Moreover, it is clear from empirical historical research that even in the heyday of the nation-state and nationalism around 1900 sectors like transport were characterized by transnational forms of cooperation and regulation akin to modern forms of “governance.” Also in East-Central Europe, even before nation state formation happened, governance structures linked peripheral regions to the Imperial capitals in Vienna, Saint Petersburg, and Berlin. Thus, while utilizing political science concepts for better conceptualising the change of European integration governance in the long-run, this book will also call into question the political science literature’ historical assumptions concerning temporal change and the dominance of the nation-states in European governance forms. Secondly, the book will speak to the rapidly growing historical literature on European integration history since 1945. Until recently, however, this literature has suffered from a number of weaknesses which are comparable to the ones in political science: (a) it has been under- conceptualised in its narrow analysis of integration politics as intergovernmental bargaining, with states as practically the only relevant actors; (b) its state-centrism, which has largely united traditional diplomatic history and economic historical “revisionist” accounts, has meant that the role of experts and societal actors in the development of political ideas, agenda-setting and policy-making has hardly been studied in historical perspective; (c) crucially, most of the traditional research has implicitly treated 1945 as a historical rupture, so that European integration history paradoxically has been narrated by historians in a fashion that ignores the “longue durée” continuities and discontinuities in experts, networks and sectoral governance across World War II; (d) as a result, this literature has also focused almost exclusively on western continental Europe. In contrast, this book will take a more all-European approach and in particular, bring East-Central Europe back into the history of transforming European governance. This volume’s transnational perspective will frame Europe as a connected and overlapping space, with a clear focus on cross-border linkages in the informal coordination of network-type relations and cooperation in international organisations, especially among experts in three selected policy fields. This approach distinguishes itself clearly from a comparative history which is not, or at least not in the first instance, interested in such connections. Finally, the book will also relate to relevant general political histories of modern and contemporary Europe. This history has often been written as a rivalry between three ideologies and types of economic and political systems: liberal democracy, communism and fascism. The promoters of these ideologies saw themselves as destined to create a new order that also had distinctive European dimensions. We will explore the role and contributions of experts (and the idea of technocracy) to the European history of this rivalry. Our hypothesis is not only that they had their own technocratic visions and framings on the remake of European societies, but also that these in part can explain the nature European governance patterns as they emerged from 1850s to the present.. We expect that our research on experts and their role in the formation of European governance will lead to new insights on issues such as the continuities and discontinuities between both World Wars and the Cold War, and will also shed new light on the question
  26. 26. 26 to what extent the “iron curtain” between East and West was actually to some extent porous during the Cold War. Table of Contents: Introduction The introduction will set out the book’s theme, scope and research questions, its use of key concepts like “governance”, "expert", the methodology and literature and archival basis. Chapter 1: Experts in emerging forms of European governance Chapter 1 will set the scene for the subsequent three chapters on individual sectors. It will describe crucial economic, social, and political trends as the contexts for understanding the role of experts and their networks in changing forms of European governance. In particular, it will discuss the changing role of the (nation) state in technological and economic governance and regulation; shifting international relations with their major upheavals, e.g., the First and Second World Wars and the Cold War; the emergence, growth and decline of many technical organisations such as the International Telecommunications Union, and International Organisations like the League of Nations and factors other than experts & networks that may account for the evolution of differentiated forms of political integration in post-World War II western Europe and forms of “integration” within the Soviet bloc. Chapter 2: European governance in transport Chapters 2-4 will focus in more detail on the emergence and nature of European governance structures and the role of experts in these processes in each of the three policy fields. Each chapter will identify a number of expert committees, specific issues, and individual experts and will analyse and narrate relevant developments over time. Each sector may have to zero in on specific subsectors (for example rail and air within transport), but we would still try to generalize for the sector as a whole. We expect that networks in transnational governance in this sector will be dominated, or at least strongly influenced by experts drawing on particular sets of technological knowledge. Chapter 3: European governance in heavy industry As with chapter 2 on the transport sector, this chapter on heavy industry may also have to focus on a particular sub-sector, probably steel. The steel sector was of especially crucial importance for war industries and for prestige. From this perspective, it might be expected that the role of experts and networks was limited. However, the sector was also characterized throughout by a high degree of informal coordination, especially in cartel- type relations, which favoured network-type contacts that even continued to operate smoothly during the German occupation of France from 1940-44. Moreover, this sector was actually at the heart of “core Europe”’s formation after World War II, i.e. unlike in transport, a supranational coal and steel community was successfully created. This outcome lends itself to comparative enquiry concerning its causes and the possible roles of experts and networks. We expect that expertise in this sector will have been more
  27. 27. 27 mixed compared to transport, especially in combining technological and business-focused economic expertise. Chapter 4: European governance in agriculture Finally, the agricultural sector has always blended technological expertise in agricultural production (machinery, chemicals etc.) with business and trade concerns. More so than in transport or steel, agriculture has been a core electoral concern in most European countries in the process of democratisation, characterized in democratic states by highly- successful interest group organisation and influence on national policy-making. Like steel, agriculture became integrated into “core Europe” and was closely implicated in barter trade agreements within the Soviet bloc. Chapter 5: Comparing sectors in European governance In this chapter we will systematically compare the role of experts and networks in the formation of European governance structures in various sectors. We will focus on comparisons among the three selected sectors; but wherever possible, we will make suggestions about how our results could be generalized to other sectors as well. Here we would hope to draw on the other five volumes, which will study other cases and deliver empirical insights on the emergence of forms of European governance and the role of experts. Chapter 6: Changing European governance over time This chapter will focus on the broader ramifications of our results for European integration history and European history at large. It will address, in particular, issues such as the catalytic effects of the two World Wars, the significance of the Cold War, and the novelty, if any, of the present-day EU context for integration. It will also explore the issue of technocracy and its relations with democracy, fascism and communism as an important aspect of emergent, distinct forms of European governance. Epilogue In the epilogue we will speculate on the nature of recent developments in the European integration process. In particular we will look at the question of how to interpret the recent return to liberalization and privatization of European governance structures. Should we see this trend, as is assumed in some of the political science literature, as a dramatic change from hierarchical to network governance, constituting a ‘hollowing out’ of the nation-state in the 1970s, or is something else at stake? Should we perhaps see it as a next phase in the emergence of transnational regulatory regimes? If so, how to characterize this phase and project its future?
  28. 28. 28 6. Biographical sketches of the editors and authors Co-Editors: Johan Schot (b. 1961) is professor in social history of technology at the Eindhoven University of Technology. He is research director of the Foundation for the History of Technology, and of the Foundation for System Innovation and Transitions towards Sustainable Development. He is a fellow of the N.W. Posthumus Institute for social and economic history. He is co-founder and chairing (with Ruth Oldenziel) the Tensions of Europe Collaborative Network and Research Program. He was the program leader and main editor of the research program and book series on the History of Technology in the Netherlands in the 20th century. He founded (together with Kurt Fischer) the Greening of Industry Network. In 2002 he was awarded a VICI grant under the Innovational Research Incentives Scheme for talented scholars (highest category) by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) for his proposal Transnational Infrastructures and the Rise of Contemporary Europe. In 2007 he was awarded a Fernand Braudel Fellowship by the European University Institute in Florence, and in 2009 he was elected as a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW). His research and publications range from history of technology, science and technology studies, Dutch history, European history to sustainability studies. Key publications: Thomas J. Misa and Johan Schot, ‘Inventing Europe: Technology and the Hidden Integration of Europe’, History and Technology, volume 21, number 1 (2005) 1-20; Hugo van Driel and Johan Schot, ‘Radical Innovation as a Multilevel Process. Introducing Floating Grain Elevators in the Port of Rotterdam', Technology & Culture, 46 (2005) 51-77; Johan Schot, ‘The Usefulness of Evolutionary Models for Explaining Innovation. The Case of the Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century’, History and Technology, vol. 14 (1998) 173-200; Johan Schot, Harry Lintsen, Arie Rip, Adri Albert de la Bruhèze e.a. (eds), Techniek in Nederland in de Twintigste Eeuw (Technology in the Netherlands in the Twentieth Century. Volume I-VII (Walburg Pers 1998-2003); Remco Hoogma, René Kemp, Johan Schot and Benhard Truffer, Experimenting for Sustainable Transport. The approach of Strategic Niche Management (Spon Publishers 2002); Arie Rip, Tom Misa, and Johan Schot (eds.), Managing Technology in Society. The Approach of Constructive Technology Assessment (Pinter Publisher 1995). Philip Scranton (b. 1946) is University Board of Governors Professor, History of Industry and Technology, at Rutgers University, where he chairs the MA-History program. Scranton also directs the Hagley Museum & Library's research arm, the Center for the History of Business, Technology and Society, with responsibility for seminar series, conferences, and fellowships. During 2003-04, he held the Lindbergh Chair in Aeronautic and Aerospace History at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum; and in 2007 he became Editor-in-Chief for Enterprise and Society, the Business History Conference's quarterly journal, published by Oxford University Press. His publications include eleven books and sixty scholarly articles, multiple contributions to exhibition catalogs, and numerous reviews of books, conferences, and exhibits. In 1997, Princeton University Press released his Endless Novelty: Specialty Production and American
  29. 29. 29 Industrialization, 1865-1925 (paperback 2000, Japanese translation, 2004), which followed earlier, prizewinning monographs: Proprietary Capitalism (Cambridge, 1983) and Figured Tapestry (Cambridge, 1989). At present Scranton edits two book series: Studies in Industry and Society (The Johns Hopkins University Press), and Hagley Perspectives on Business and Society (University of Pennsylvania Press, with Roger Horowitz). Coordinating Editor for Images and Virtual Museum Director: Alexander Badenoch (b. 1971) is Instructor in Media and Cultural studies at the University of Utrecht, and post-doctoral researcher for the Foundation for the History of Technology in Eindhoven. He has a PhD in Modern Languages from the University of Southampton (2004) and recently completed a Post-Doc as part of the Transnational Infrastructures and the Rise of Contemporary Europe (TIE) project at the Technical University of Eindhoven. He is currently co-editing a volume, together with Andreas Fickers, based on this project. He is content editor of the 'Europe, Interrupted' international online virtual exhibit. He is co-founder of the Transmitting and Receiving Europe (TRANS) collaborative research network and active member (newsletter editor) of the Tensions of Europe Collaborative Network and Research Program. The monograph based on his PhD research was recently awarded the International Association for Media and History (IAMHIST) Prize for the best book in the field of media and history in 2007- 2008. His research covers a range of topics in 20th Century national (German) and transnational history, and draws on disciplines ranging from media and cultural studies, cultural geography, gender studies, and history of technology. Authors: 1. Europe in the Global World Maria Paula Diogo (b. 1958) is Associate Professor of History of Technology at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the New University of Lisbon. She holds a PhD in History and Philosophy of Science from the New University of Lisbon, where she specialized in the History of Technology. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on History of Technology and she publishes on regular bases both nationally and internationally. She is currently working on Portuguese engineers and engineering, mainly during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. She coordinates a national project on Science, Technology and the Empire and she participates on several other projects concerning the Portuguese History of Science and Technology. She is a founding member of STEP (Science and Technology in the European Periphery), an international research group which aims at studying science and technology in the European Peripheries and of INES (International Network on Engineering Studies). She is also a member of the Tensions of Europe network. Dirk van Laak (b. 1961) ist Professor of Contemporary History at the Justus Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. Previously he was Scientific Assistant at the Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Visiting Assistant Professor at the University of Chicago and Deputy Professor at the Eberhard Karls University in Tuebingen and at the Albert
  30. 30. 30 Ludwigs University in Freiburg. Recent books: Imperiale Infrastruktur. Deutsche Planungen für eine Erschliessung Afrikas 1880 bis 1960 (2004); Ueber alles in der Welt. Deutscher Imperialismus im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (2005). Recent articles: “Technological Infrastructure. Concepts and consequences,” in: ICON. Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology (2004), “Detours around Africa. The connection between developing colonies and integrating Europe,” in: Alec Badenoch/Andreas Fickers (Hg.): Technologies of Transnationalism: Material Infrastructures and the Shaping of Europe in the 20th Century (forthcoming). Matthias Middell (b. 1961) is Professor of Comparative Cultural History at the University of Leipzig and Head of the European Consortium “Global Studies”. He was previously Visiting Professor at the EHESS in Paris, the ENS Paris, the Universities of Yaoundé in Cameroun, Stellenbosch in South Africa, Santa Barbara in the US and most recently Fulbright Distinguished Professor at Duke University. From 2005 till 2008 he served as president elect of the European Network in Universal and Global History; and since 2005 he is General Secretary of the International Committee for the Research on the History of the French Revolution (as part of CISH). He is editor of Editor of Comparativ. Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung, Leipzig (since 1991), of Geschichte.Transnational (since 2004), and of French Revolution/ Révolution française/ Französische Revolution (since 2007). Recent books include: (with Michel Espagne and Michael Geyer), A transnational history of Europe, New York: Palgrave (2008); Transnational history as a transnational practice, Leipzig/ Berlin: Akademische Verlagsanstalt (2008); Dimensionen der Kultur- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag (2007); Weltgeschichtsschreibung im Zeitalter der Verfachlichung und Professionalisierung. Das Leipziger Institut für Kultur- und Universalgeschichte 1890-1990, 3 vols, Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsanstalt (2005); Die Geburt der Konterrevolution in Frankreich 1788-1792, Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag (2005). 2. From Nature to Networks Arne Kaijser is Professor of History of Technology at the Department of History of Science and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. He holds a M.Sc.Eng (technical physics) from the University of Lund (1973) and a PhD in technology and social change from the University of Linköping (1987). Apart from his academic career, he has worked seven years as a civil servant in various government agencies (SIDA, FOA, NE, IVA) primarily working with energy related issues. He was a visiting scholar at the Technical University of Delft in 1993-1994. His main research interest is comparative studies of the historical development of large technical systems. He has published five books and more than 30 articles. Erik van der Vleuten (b. 1968) is universitair docent at the School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology. From 1999-2005 he led (with Arne Kaijser) the research theme and network on European infrastructure history within the Tensions of Europe research program. Currently he is a member of the Tensions of Europe advisory committee and a Personal Investigator in the ESF-EUROCORES
  31. 31. 31 Inventing Europe program on European Critical Infrastructure (EUROCRIT). He directs (with Ewout Frankema) the research program on globalization of the Netherlands research school for economic and social history, the N.W. Posthumus institute. Erik coedited volumes on water system building (special issue of Knowledge, Technology and Policy 2002/4), the networked nation (special issue of History and Technology 2004/3), and Networking Europe. Transnational infrastructures and the shaping of Europe 1850- 2000 (Science History Publications 2006). He also works on historiographical concepts such as a ‘transnational history of technology’ (Technology & Culture 2008/4), and ‘critical transactionalism’ as a (historical) perspective on infrastructure and regional integration and fragmentation. Per Högselius (b. 1973) is a researcher at the Division of History of Science and Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm. He holds an MSc degree in Engineering Physics and History of Technology from KTH and a PhD in Innovation Studies from Lund University, Sweden. He has also been a guest researcher at Bocconi University, Milan, and worked as an independent expert for the OECD. His research has focused on East-West relations in the history of technology and infrastructures – particularly telecommunications, electricity and natural gas – resulting, among other things, in a number of books published by leading academic publishers in Sweden, Germany, Britain and the United States. In Sweden, he is also active as an author of popular history books and articles published in leading media. Key publications: “Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: an international comparison”, Energy Policy, vol. 37 (2009); “The Internationalization of the European Electricity Industry: The Case of Vattenfall”, Utilities Policy, vol. 17 (2009); with A. Kaijser, När folkhemselen blev internationell: Elavregleringen i historiskt perspektiv [The internationalization of electricity: historical perspectives on regulatory reform in the electricity industry] (Stockholm: SNS Förlag, 2007); ”Connecting East and West: Electricity Systems in the Baltic Region, in van der Vleuten, E. and Kaijser, A. (eds), Networking Europe: Transnational Infrastructures and the Shaping of Europe, 1850- 2000 (Cambridge: Science History Publications, 2005); Die deutsch-deutsche Geschichte des Kernkraftwerkes Greifswald. Atomenergie zwischen Ost und West (Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2005); The Dynamics of Innovation in Eastern Europe: Lessons from Estonia (Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar, 2005). 3. European Technological Dramas Ruth Oldenziel is professor at Eindhoven University of Technology and Associate Professor at the University of Amsterdam. She received her PhD from Yale University in American History in 1992 after graduate training in American Studies at Smith College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the University of Amsterdam. She has been a fellow at Hagley Museum and Library in Delaware and a senior fellow at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, the Lemelson Center in Washington, the Social Science Research Insitute in Amsterdam, and a Senior Fulbright Fellow at Georgetown University. Over the past ten years, she has been chair and teamleader of several international ESF grants and invited speaker and guest lecturer among them: to Stanford, Princeton, Michigan, Sorbonne, Science Museum London, Berlin Free University,
  32. 32. 32 Munich TU, University of Antwerp, KU Leuven, Central University Budapest, University of Athens. Her publications include books and articles in the area of American, gender and technology studies: Kitchen Politics of the Cold War. Americanization, Technology, and Users (2008); Manufacturing Technology. Manufacturing Consumers (2008); Gender and Technology. A Reader (2003); Crossing Boundaries, Building Bridges (2000); Schoon Genoeg (1998); Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women and Modern Machines in America, 1870-1945 (1999); Boys and their Toys[in America] (1997); Gender and the Meanings of Technology: Engineering in the U.S., 1880-1945 (1992). She is completing a research project with the working title, 'Islands as Stepping Stones of the American Empire, 1898-2004' and is researching for a monograph with the working title ‘Appropriating America.’ Mikael Hård (born 1957) is professor of history of technology at the Department of History, Darmstadt University of Technology. Before he came to Germany in 1998 he held a professorship for the same subject at the Center for Technology and Society at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. He holds a PhD from Gothenburg University, Sweden, and an M.A. from Princeton University, NJ. He presently directs the graduate program “Topology of Technology” in Darmstadt and is a co-editor of NTM – Journal for the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine. Among his recent publications are Urban Machinery: Inside the Modern European City (MIT Press 2008, co-edited with T. J. Misa) and Hubris and Hybrids: A Cultural History of Technology and Science (Routledge 2005, written with A. Jamison). 4. Eventing Europe Andreas Fickers (born 1971 in St.Vith / Belgium) is Associate Professor of Comparative Media History at Maastricht University (Netherlands). After graduating in history, philosophy and sociology at the University in Aachen (Germany), he worked at the German Museum for Science and Technology in Munich and its dependence in Bonn. He returned to the University of Aachen as post-graduate fellow and assistant at the Institute for Contemporary History, where he defended his PhD in 2002. In 2003 he was appointed Assistant Professor for Television History at Utrecht University (Netherlands), where he worked until his move to Maastricht in 2007. He published widely on the cultural history of media technologies, especially on the history of the transistor radio and colour television. Since several years his research focuses on a comparative perspective of European history. Recent books include: “Politique de la grandeur” versus “Made in Germany”. Politische Kulturgeschichte der Technik am Beispiel der PAL-SECAM- Kontroverse (Munich : Oldenbourg Verlag 2007) ; A European Television History (New York: Blackwell 2009), (ed. with Jonathan Bignell); Materializing Europe? Transnational Infrastructures and the Project of Europe (London: Palgrave 2009), (ed. with Alec Badenoch). Pascal Griset: 1994-1995: Auditeur à l’Institut des Stratégies Industrielles. 1994: Habilitation à diriger des recherches (Université Paris IV Sorbonne.):"Etat, recherche et
  33. 33. 33 télécommunications en France au XX° siècle : contribution pour une histoire de l'innovation et de la communication." 1993 : Thèse de Doctorat d'Histoire (Université Paris IV Sorbonne.), "Technologie, entreprise et souveraineté : les télécommunications transatlantiques de la France (1869-1954).". Mention Très Honorable, avec les félicitations du jury à l'unanimité de ses membres. 1980: Agrégation d' Histoire 1975: Baccalauréat. Professional back ground Since Septembre 1998: Professeur d’histoire contemporaine à l’Université Paris-Sorbonne, (Paris IV. Directeur du Centre de Recherche en Histoire de l’Innovation. De 1996 à 1998: Professeur d’histoire contemporaine à l’Université Michel de Montaigne (Bordeaux III), De1988 à 1996: Chargé de Recherches, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)Institut d' Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine. 5. Knowledge Societies Helmuth Trischler has served as Head of Research of the Deutsches Museum since 1993. He also holds a professorship for Modern History and History of Technology at the University of Munich and is a member of the steering board of the Munich Centre for the History of Science and Technology. His research group at the museum’s Research Institute for the History of Technology and Science consists of about 15 researchers. He is also responsible for the overall research programme of the museum, which employs about 50 scientific staff members. He has long-standing expertise in steering large research projects, currently including the research group of the German Research Foundation on “Interrelations between Science and Technology” which consists of 7 sub- projects (2001-2007). He co-coordinates the research programme on “Science in the 20th Century” with 25 sub-projects (2002-2009) and the research group on the history of the German Research Foundation, 1920-1970 with 18 sub-projects (2001-2007). He was theme coordinator of “Engineering Big Civilian Programmes and Military Projects” together with Hans Weinberger, Stockholm, and John Krige, Atlanta, in the European network “Tensions of Europe”, and is participating in the “Inventing Europe”-theme “Software for Europe”. His most recent publications include: Helmuth Trischler & Kai- Uwe Schrogl (eds.), Ein Jahrhundert im Flug. Luft- und Raumfahrtforschung in Deutschland 1907 bis 2007, Frankfurt a.M. and New York: Campus, 2007. Martin Kohlrausch (b. 1973) is a Research Fellow at the German Historical Institute Warsaw (since 2005). He took his Ph.D. from the European University Institute, Florence, in 2003. From 2003 till 2005 he was Assistant Professor at the Technical University Berlin. He published widely on the history of Mass Media, history of the monarchy and, more recently, of intellectual networks. Recent books include Der Monarch im Skandal. Die Logik der Massenmedien und die Transformation der wilhelminischen Monarchie, Berlin 2005 and Das Erbe der Monarchie. Nachwirkungen einer deutschen Institution nach 1918, Frankfurt a.M. 2008 (ed. with Thomas Biskup). He was guest editor of the special issue “Technological Innovation and Transnational Networks: Europe between the Wars” of the Journal of Modern European History (2008). Martin Kohlrausch is co-organiser of the research-network ‘The International Community of Experts and the Tranformation of the Fatherland. Central Eastern Europe in the European Context since WW I.