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  2. 2. Old English And before The language changes through time specially : Meaning and Vocabulary.This determiner which words a culture keep astheir own heritage and which words it borrowsfrom others.
  3. 3.  The origin of words:How and where the first words came from it hasbeen always a question .Socrates and Hermogenes’s debate : “Whether words related naturally to things they named”
  4. 4. 1.The shape or sound of a word has no naturalrelationship to the thing it names. Phonetic imitation. Phonetic symbolism.2. The grunts and groans of work, cries of joyand sorrow, sounds made by the tongueimitating the shape of an object.
  5. 5.  The oldest words in English. The oldest data are the words found in written texts and carved monuments.However, why have we lost some andretained others?
  6. 6. The most distant origins: Indo-European. If we can figure out about an old culture, how about get to know the words that they were able to pass on ? Daily life Objects ActionsThis concepts are so independent of particularcultures, that we will found this words passes onfrom generation to generation, for centuries, butat the end is the “same” word.
  7. 7. 1.We can find words from several languages, butrefer to the same concept.Example: Aliminum2. Words can resemble one another fromlanguage to language, because they have beenborrowed from some common source.
  8. 8.  Once we establish the principle that similar words with similar meanings, may be descended from some common but nor lost ancestor form, it becomes possible to reconstruct some of those earlier ancestral words.Sanskrit Greek Latin Gothic English Pita Pater Pater Fadar FatherEach letter in the root is a symbol, derived from thephonological sounds of cognate words found indescendant languages.
  9. 9.  Indo- European: It was once a dialect or collection of dialects of some even more distant progenitor.Sometimes, we can get words (OE) , fromgeographical features, or its location orsociological data that will allow guess about thegeneral area of the original Indo-Europeanhomeland.
  10. 10.  Indo-European > West EuropeanIt has been thought that IE first split into Easternand western branches, because of thewidespread correspondences of one particularsound change east and west of a line.East: The original “K”.Then split into Balto- Slavic Indo-Iranian.The western branches split into :Hellenic Italic Germanic
  11. 11.  Indo-European >Western European> Germanic>West Germanic.Here we found Scandinavian inscriptions and a translationof parts of the bible into Gothic.Germanic is divided into tree branches on the basis ofcertain phonological and grammatical changes thatoccurred before about A.D 600.(1)East Germanic, (2) North Germanic and (3) WestGermanic.Cognates: Broth, brew, dough, loaf, wheat, silver, ware etc.
  12. 12.  Nonetheless according with the cultural reconstruction about the language, you are able to find in some cases one word only as Germanic, or on the contrary words which have the same spelling but with different meaning. Other issue, is that the historical establish linguistics relationship as well. Between Western and Eastern languages. (Celtic- Germanic- Balto Slavic- Italic,etc)
  13. 13. As we know from the commom vocabulary, archeological remains. 1. Roman InvasionTheir common vocabulary included, many words referring to advanced agriculture, farming, besides also added some latin words.Example: campun-camp(field-battle) tributum-trifet (tribute).
  14. 14. Anglo- Saxon Britain: ThebeginningsAfter the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The dialect areas that existed in Anglo-Saxon England reflected a rather social changes .Here is a list of some of the Celtic words borrowed into English.Ex: Bratt(cloak), Bannuc (piece of cake), gafeluc(small spear)
  15. 15. The rise of Anglo-SaxonEngland. The heptarchy: The original tribes had organized themselves into seven kingdoms, (Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, Mer cia, Northhumbria and East Anglia). During the VII and VIII centuries, cultural and political supremacy passed from Kent until Wessex, where under Alfred. We have few texts from the Norman invasion.Ex: law- charters- little verse and few translation.
  16. 16.  The Christian Conversion and a National Character.The conversion of England to Christianity re-introduced Latin and created monastic environmentsin which learning and scholarship were richly thatEurope was soon sending its students to the cities.During this period poetry flowered (Beowulf).The marriage of religious laws and secularenforcement created a governing institution of greatpower. The organization of townships.
  17. 17.  Latin words borrowed to Germanic.Plants and animals: 30%Food, households items: 27%Buildings: 12%Dress: 12%Trade, commerce: 9%.About 170 words were borrowed during this pre-OE period.
  18. 18.  The Danish Invasions.At this time King Alfred defeated the Danes.Consequently in the Treaty of Wedmore, theDanes agreed to remain east of a line an areacalled Danelaw.Danish words borrowed into English.Ex: In the Oxford dictionary there are almost 30or so words beginning with sk-/sc-of.Everyday words: egg-fellow-freckle-kneel-kis-led-call-loose-odd-lift etc.
  19. 19.  The rise of London.It was during Roman times that London began todevelop into the first city of the country. Before the end of the The spots on which eleventh century. London sits, it was a London had become the suitable landing place most important for ships commercial city When William the Conqueror built a London’s political ad residence, he made a few cultural strength miles encompassing resulted in its dialect Westminster and London becoming the prestige the political, commercial dialect of the land and cultural center of the land.