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COMPILED By   RIA TALWAR
       XII- SCIENCE (2011-12)
            FAITH ACADEMY
Water and sound waves transfer energy from
one place to another- they require a medium
through which to travel. They are mechanical
waves.

Electric field-region in which charged particles
can be pushed or pulled.
Nature of Electromagnetic Waves
 They are Transverse waves without a medium.
  (They can travel through empty space)
 They travel as vibrations in electrical and
  magnetic fields.
 Have some magnetic and some electrical properties
  to them.
 Speed of electromagnetic waves = 300,000,000
  meters/second (Takes light 8 minutes to move from
  the sun to earth {150 million miles} at this speed.)
 When an electric field changes, so does the magnetic field.
  The changing magnetic field causes the electric field to
  change. When one field vibrates—so does the other.
 RESULT-An electromagnetic wave.




 Click here Animation:
 Interaction of vibrating charges
Waves or Particles
 Electromagnetic radiation has properties of waves
   but also can be thought of as a stream of
   particles.
 Example: Light
 Light as a wave: Light behaves as a transverse
   wave which we can filter using polarized lenses.
 Light as particles (photons)
 When directed at a substance light can knock
   electrons off of a substance (Photoelectric effect)
B.Electromagnetic Spectrum—name for the range of

   Waves of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
 electromagnetic waves when placed in order of increasing
 frequency
 Click here (Animation—Size of EMwaves)
                              ULTRAVIOLET           GAMMA
 RADIO        INFRARED
                              RAYS                  RAYS
 WAVES        RAYS
     MICROWAVES                              X-RAYS
                         VISIBLE LIGHT
RADIO WAVES
 A. Have the longest wavelengths and lowest
  frequencies of all the electromagnetic waves.
 B. A radio picks up radio waves through an antenna
  and converts it to sound waves.
 C. Each radio station in an area broadcasts at a
  different frequency. # on radio dial tells frequency.
 D. MRI (MAGNETIC RESONACE IMAGING)
   Uses Short wave radio waves with a magnet to create an
    image
AM=Amplitude modulation—waves bounce off ionosphere can
pick up stations from different cities.
(535kHz-1605kHz= vibrate at 535 to 1605 thousand times/second)




               +
FM=Frequency modulation—waves travel in a straight line &
through the ionosphere--lose reception when you travel out of range.
(88MHz-108MHz = vibrate at 88million to 108million times/second)




              +
Bands of Radio/TV/Microwaves
MICROWAVES
 Microwaves—have the shortest wavelengths and the
 highest frequency of the radio waves.
   Used in microwave ovens.
       Waves transfer energy to the water in the food causing them to
        vibrate which in turn transfers energy in the form of heat to the
        food.
   Used by cell phones and pagers.
   RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging)
       Used to find the speed of an object by sending out radio waves and
        measuring the time it takes them to return.
INFRARED RAYS
 Infrared= below red
 Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than
  microwaves.
 You can feel the longest ones as warmth on your skin
 Heat lamps give off infrared waves.
 Warm objects give off more heat energy than cool
  objects.
 Thermogram—a picture that shows regions of
  different temperatures in the body. Temperatures are
  calculated by the amount of infrared radiation given
  off. Therefore people give off infrared rays.
VISIBLE LIGHT
 Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than infrared
    rays.
   Electromagnetic waves we can see.
   Longest wavelength= red light
   Shortest wavelength= violet (purple) light
   When light enters a new medium it bends (refracts). Each
    wavelength bends a different amount allowing white light
    to separate into it’s various colors ROYGBIV.
ULTRAVIOLET RAYS
 Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than visible light
 Carry more energy than visible light
 Used to kill bacteria. (Sterilization of equipment)
 Causes your skin to produce vitamin D (good for teeth
  and bones)
 Used to treat jaundice ( in some new born babies.
 Too much can cause skin cancer.
 Use sun block to protect against (UV rays)
X- RAYS
 Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than UV-rays
 Carry a great amount of energy
 Can penetrate most matter.
 Bones and teeth absorb x-rays. (The light part of an x-
  ray image indicates a place where the x-ray was absorbed)
 Too much exposure can cause cancer
     (lead vest at dentist protects organs from unnecessary exposure)
 Used by engineers to check for tiny cracks in structures.
     The rays pass through the cracks and the cracks appear dark on
      film.
GAMMA RAYS
 Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than X-rays
 Carry the greatest amount of energy and penetrate the
  most.
 Used in radiation treatment to kill cancer cells.
 Can be very harmful if not used correctly.
Using the EM waves to view the Sun
 Animation—View a Galaxy at different
  wavelengths
 Brief SUMMARY
 A. All electromagnetic waves travel at the same
  speed. (300,000,000 meters/second in a vacuum.
 B. They all have different wavelength and different
  frequencies.
   Long wavelength-lowest frequency
   Short wavelength highest frequency
   The higher the frequency the higher the energy.
Electromagnetic waves

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Electromagnetic waves

  • 1. COMPILED By RIA TALWAR XII- SCIENCE (2011-12) FAITH ACADEMY
  • 2. Water and sound waves transfer energy from one place to another- they require a medium through which to travel. They are mechanical waves. Electric field-region in which charged particles can be pushed or pulled.
  • 3. Nature of Electromagnetic Waves  They are Transverse waves without a medium. (They can travel through empty space)  They travel as vibrations in electrical and magnetic fields.  Have some magnetic and some electrical properties to them.  Speed of electromagnetic waves = 300,000,000 meters/second (Takes light 8 minutes to move from the sun to earth {150 million miles} at this speed.)
  • 4.  When an electric field changes, so does the magnetic field. The changing magnetic field causes the electric field to change. When one field vibrates—so does the other.  RESULT-An electromagnetic wave.  Click here Animation: Interaction of vibrating charges
  • 5. Waves or Particles  Electromagnetic radiation has properties of waves but also can be thought of as a stream of particles.  Example: Light  Light as a wave: Light behaves as a transverse wave which we can filter using polarized lenses.  Light as particles (photons)  When directed at a substance light can knock electrons off of a substance (Photoelectric effect)
  • 6. B.Electromagnetic Spectrum—name for the range of  Waves of the Electromagnetic Spectrum electromagnetic waves when placed in order of increasing frequency  Click here (Animation—Size of EMwaves) ULTRAVIOLET GAMMA RADIO INFRARED RAYS RAYS WAVES RAYS MICROWAVES X-RAYS VISIBLE LIGHT
  • 7. RADIO WAVES  A. Have the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies of all the electromagnetic waves.  B. A radio picks up radio waves through an antenna and converts it to sound waves.  C. Each radio station in an area broadcasts at a different frequency. # on radio dial tells frequency.  D. MRI (MAGNETIC RESONACE IMAGING)  Uses Short wave radio waves with a magnet to create an image
  • 8.
  • 9. AM=Amplitude modulation—waves bounce off ionosphere can pick up stations from different cities. (535kHz-1605kHz= vibrate at 535 to 1605 thousand times/second) +
  • 10. FM=Frequency modulation—waves travel in a straight line & through the ionosphere--lose reception when you travel out of range. (88MHz-108MHz = vibrate at 88million to 108million times/second) +
  • 12. MICROWAVES  Microwaves—have the shortest wavelengths and the highest frequency of the radio waves.  Used in microwave ovens.  Waves transfer energy to the water in the food causing them to vibrate which in turn transfers energy in the form of heat to the food.  Used by cell phones and pagers.  RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging)  Used to find the speed of an object by sending out radio waves and measuring the time it takes them to return.
  • 13. INFRARED RAYS  Infrared= below red  Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than microwaves.  You can feel the longest ones as warmth on your skin  Heat lamps give off infrared waves.  Warm objects give off more heat energy than cool objects.  Thermogram—a picture that shows regions of different temperatures in the body. Temperatures are calculated by the amount of infrared radiation given off. Therefore people give off infrared rays.
  • 14.
  • 15. VISIBLE LIGHT  Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than infrared rays.  Electromagnetic waves we can see.  Longest wavelength= red light  Shortest wavelength= violet (purple) light  When light enters a new medium it bends (refracts). Each wavelength bends a different amount allowing white light to separate into it’s various colors ROYGBIV.
  • 16.
  • 17. ULTRAVIOLET RAYS  Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than visible light  Carry more energy than visible light  Used to kill bacteria. (Sterilization of equipment)  Causes your skin to produce vitamin D (good for teeth and bones)  Used to treat jaundice ( in some new born babies.  Too much can cause skin cancer.  Use sun block to protect against (UV rays)
  • 18. X- RAYS  Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than UV-rays  Carry a great amount of energy  Can penetrate most matter.  Bones and teeth absorb x-rays. (The light part of an x- ray image indicates a place where the x-ray was absorbed)  Too much exposure can cause cancer  (lead vest at dentist protects organs from unnecessary exposure)  Used by engineers to check for tiny cracks in structures.  The rays pass through the cracks and the cracks appear dark on film.
  • 19.
  • 20. GAMMA RAYS  Shorter wavelength and higher frequency than X-rays  Carry the greatest amount of energy and penetrate the most.  Used in radiation treatment to kill cancer cells.  Can be very harmful if not used correctly.
  • 21. Using the EM waves to view the Sun Animation—View a Galaxy at different wavelengths
  • 22.  Brief SUMMARY  A. All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed. (300,000,000 meters/second in a vacuum.  B. They all have different wavelength and different frequencies.  Long wavelength-lowest frequency  Short wavelength highest frequency  The higher the frequency the higher the energy.