A project on wave nature of light

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A project on wave nature of light

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A project on wave nature of light

  1. 1. A project on wave nature of light By: Manisha Xii – science Faith Academy 2008-09
  2. 2. Wave nature of light <ul><li>Light is an electromagnetic wave. </li></ul><ul><li>EM waves are those waves in which there are sinusoidal variation of electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other as well as to the direction of propagation of wave . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Wave Nature of Light Wavelength & Frequency c = λ ν
  4. 5. Diffraction and Interference <ul><li>Two phenomenon explaining wave nature of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffraction and interference are similar phenomena . </li></ul><ul><li>Interference is the effect of superposition of 2 coherent waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffraction is the superposition of many coherent waves </li></ul>
  5. 6. Huygens’ principle <ul><li>Every point on the given wave front acts a fresh source of new disturbance called secondary wavelets which travel in all directions . </li></ul><ul><li>A surface touching these secondary wavelets, tangentially in the forward direction at any instant gives the direction of the new wave front. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Huygen’s Picture of a Plane wave
  7. 8. Huygen’s Explanation of Reflection
  8. 9. Huygen’s Explanation of Refraction
  9. 10. Young’s double slit experiment: classic wave effect
  10. 11. Young’s double slit experiment Interference of light is the phenomenon of redistribution of light energy in a medium on account of superposition of light waves from two coherent sources
  11. 12. Formation of crests n troughs
  12. 13. Double slit experiment with particles (e.g. electrons) Interference pattern with one slit blocked
  13. 14. Double slit experiment with particles (e.g. electrons) Interference pattern observed on the screen When both the slits are open
  14. 15. <ul><li>If the crests of one wave coincide with the crests of the other, the amplitudes of the waves are additive. Thus, if the amplitudes of both waves are equal, the resultant amplitude is doubled . </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>If the crests of one wave coincide with the troughs of the other wave, the resultant amplitude is decreased. This destructive interference is accompanied by a decrease in light intensity. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Magical effects of interference <ul><li>When a film of oil floating atop a body of water reflects light, a swirling mass of colors seems to magically appear. The cause of this strange phenomenon is interference between light waves. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Diffraction <ul><li>When light waves hit an obstacle it bends around the edges of the obstacle. </li></ul><ul><li>This property of bending of light is called diffraction. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if light of red wavelength from a laser source hits a small hole, it bends around the edges of the hole and forms a pattern called an Airy disc pattern. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Single slit diffraction <ul><li>Diffraction occurs on account of mutual interference of secondary wavelets starting from the portions of wave front which are allowed to pass from the aperture. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The pattern spreads out due to Diffraction . Wave picture Light spreads out when passed through small aperture.
  20. 21. Position of minima: a sin θ n = nλ Position of maxima a sin θ n= (2n+1)λ/2
  21. 22. Polarization If unpolarized light is incident on 1 polarizer, the intensity of the light passing through is I= ½ I 0 .
  22. 23. • Light scattered at 90 degrees is 100% polarized . Polarization & Scattering
  23. 24. L a w o f m a l u s <ul><li>If the incident wave is already polarized, then the transmitted intensity is I=I 0 cos 2 q where q is the angle between the incident wave’s direction of polarization and the transmission axis of the polarizer. </li></ul>
  24. 25. A polarizer will transmit linear polarized waves in the same direction independent of the incoming wave.
  25. 26. Brewster's Law <ul><li>when the light is incident at a particular incident angle, called the Brewster angle i p , on an interface separating air from a medium of refractive index ‘n’ then the reflected light is fully polarized . </li></ul>n = tan i p
  26. 27. light :a wave leading to our future The end

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