Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Security and Authentication Daniel L. Silver, Ph.D. Acadia & Dalhousie Univs.
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To introduce the basics E-Commerce security issues and web entity authentication </li></ul>
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Why is security such an issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Physical security </li></ul><ul><li>IT Security Basics – Firewalls </li></ul><ul><li>Public Key Cryptography </li></ul><ul><li>SSL – Secure Socket Layer </li></ul><ul><li>SET – Secure Electronic Transactions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is Security an Issue? <ul><li>The Internet lets you travel outside of your network and others travel in – Those travelers are not all friendly! </li></ul><ul><li>Critical and private information can be snooped — sniffed </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be deleted or destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet provides an opportunity for anonymous and rapid theft of lots of money </li></ul>
  5. 5. How many categories/classes of security invasions/breaches can you find? <ul><li>User/password – shoulder surfing </li></ul><ul><li>Trojan horses </li></ul><ul><li>Password breaking (various strategies) </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of service attacks – flood the server with requests </li></ul><ul><li>Packet sniffing on net (wire tap, wireless recon.) </li></ul><ul><li>Spoofing websites </li></ul><ul><li>Dumpster diving – garbage search </li></ul>
  6. 6. How many categories/classes of security invasions/breaches can you find? <ul><li>Hacking user IDs and passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of service/access </li></ul><ul><li>Physical invasion of a data centre </li></ul><ul><li>Social Engineering – exploit human good nature to get info you should not have </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Packet Sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Taking advantage of known frailties in systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Hijacking – impersonating another legitimate domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer Overflows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attacks by employees </li></ul>
  7. 7. Components of Security Diagram by Konstantin Beznosov
  8. 8. Five Major Requirements of a Secure Transaction <ul><li>Privacy – how to ensure information has not been captured by a third party </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity – how to ensure the information has not been altered in transit </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication – how to ensure the identity of the sender and receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Authorization – how to ensure a user has the authority to access / update information </li></ul><ul><li>Non-repudiation – how do you legally prove that a message was sent or received </li></ul>
  9. 9. Physical Security <ul><li>Large mainframe systems have always had adequate physical security </li></ul><ul><li>The transition from LAN to WAN to Internet has caused new interest in these methods </li></ul><ul><li>Physical security means locked doors and security personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Options are to host on a secure ISP/ASP ( InternetHosting .com ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. IT Security Basics <ul><li>Avoidance – preventing a security breach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a firewall system to frontend your intranet (or LAN) to the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimization – early warning signals and action plans so as to reduce exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to access secure directories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery - regular backups should be made and recovery periodically tested </li></ul>
  11. 11. Using a Firewall <ul><ul><li>A firewall server or router acts as an electronic security cop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No machine other than firewall is directly accessible from Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May also function as a “proxy” server allowing intranet systems to access only portions of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet security methods are focused at the firewall reducing cost and admin overhead </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Security through HTTPS Browser Client 1 Server A HTTP TCP/IP HTTP Server App. Server Fire Wall Server Server C Server B
  13. 13. IT Security Basics <ul><li>Passwords (and potentially User Ids) should be forced to change periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Passwords should be difficult to guess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to create passwords such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Be or Not To Be  2bon2b </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Databases should be secured in terms of access rights to data (usually by individual or group) </li></ul>
  14. 14. IT Security Basics <ul><li>Software, particularly low layer components such as the operating system and DBMS, should be kept to recent patch levels </li></ul><ul><li>Access from dial-in lines should be limited and if possible call-back systems can be used </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cryptography <ul><li>Cryptography or ciphering is an ancient method of encoding a message — only a receiver with a key can decipher the content </li></ul><ul><li>A single (symmetric) secret key is used to encrypt and decrypt </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the communication of the key between sender and receiver! </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of nuclear war-head command and control security </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>14-15-17-12 </li></ul><ul><li>12-14-1-14-9-25-9-2-14 </li></ul><ul><li>17-12 </li></ul><ul><li>11-1-23-12-9 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Public Key Cryptography <ul><li>In 1976 Diffie & Hellman at Stanford U. developed public-key cryptography </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private key – kept secret by owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public key – distributed freely to all who wish to send </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated by computer algorithm, so a mathematical relation exists between them ... however ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is computationally difficult to determine the private key from the public key, even with knowledge of the encryption algorithm </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Public Key Cryptography <ul><li>The keys come in the form of tightly coupled pairs which anyone can generate using methods such as RSA, SHA-1, DSA (RSA is most common) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Javascript demo: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is only one public key corresponding to any one private key and vice versa </li></ul><ul><li>Sender encodes data using public key of receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver decodes data using unique private key, no one else can do the same </li></ul><ul><li>This ensures integrity of the data </li></ul>
  19. 19. Authentication <ul><li>How can you be sure that the person sending the encrypted data is who they say they are </li></ul><ul><li>This requires some method of authenticating the identity of the sender </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is for the sender to “sign” the data using his/her private key – the data is encrypted using the sender’s private key </li></ul><ul><li>The receiver validates (decrypts the data) the “signature” using the sender’s public key </li></ul><ul><li>This will work as long as receiver can be sure the sender’s public key belongs to the sender and not an imposter … enter PKI </li></ul>
  20. 20. Integrity and Authentication <ul><li>Example: Consider a merchant wants to send a secure message to a customer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant encrypts message using customer’s public key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchant then signs message by encrypting with their private key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer decrypts using the merchants public key to prove authenticity of sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer decrypts using their private key to ensure integrity of message </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PKI – Public Key Infrastructure <ul><li>Integrates PK cryptography with digital certificates and certificate authorities (CA) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital certificate = issued by a CA, includes user name, public key, serial number, expiration date, signature of trusted CA (message encrypted by CA’s private key) </li></ul><ul><li>Receipt of a valid certificate is proof of identity – can be checked at CAs sight </li></ul><ul><li> is major player </li></ul>
  22. 22. Model for Network Security Information Channel Message Secret Information Message Secret Information Sender Receiver Trusted Third Party Authentication or Certificate Authority Opponent
  23. 23. Security and HTTPS <ul><li>Certificate is an entity’s public key plus other identification (name, CA signature) </li></ul><ul><li>SSL – Secure Socket Layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies between TCP/IP and HTTP and performs encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTTPS is the HTTP protocol that employs SSL – it uses a separate server port (default = 443) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Security through HTTPS Browser Database Server Client 1 Server A URL HTTP TCP/IP HTTP Server App. Server index.html Bank Server Dedicated prog.jsp HTTPS port = 80 port = 443
  25. 25. SSL – Secure Socket Layer <ul><li>Client makes HTTPS connection to server </li></ul><ul><li>Server sends back SSL version and certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Client checks if certificate from CA </li></ul><ul><li>Client creates session “premaster secret”, encrypts it and sends it to server and creates “master secret” </li></ul><ul><li>Server uses its private key to decrypt “premaster secret” and create the same “master secret” </li></ul><ul><li>The master secret is used by both to create session keys for encryption and decryption </li></ul>
  26. 26. SET – Secure Electronic Transfer <ul><li>Developed by Visa & Mastercard </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to protect E-Comm transactions </li></ul><ul><li>SET uses digital certificates to authenticate customer, merchant and financial institution </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants must have digital certificate and special SET software </li></ul><ul><li>Customers must have digital certificate and SET e-Wallet software </li></ul>
  27. 27. Major Architectural Components of the Web Internet Browser Database Server Client 1 Server A Server B Bank Server URL HTTP TCP/IP Browser Client 2 HTTP Server App. Server index.html Bank Server prog.jsp
  28. 28. Resources / References <ul><li>RSA demos: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  29. 29. THE END [email_address]