Technological University of the Philippines
MARY JOSEPHINE ALICE N. DAYO
Artificial Propagation of Plants
It is the process of making new plants from different plants of
different parts of plants.
METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL PLANT PROPAGATION
This method of propagating readily by means of cutting.
Layerage is the formation of roots from a portion of the stem. Under
this method the roots and stems of a new plat are formed while they
are still attached to the old plant.
A. Marcotting/ Air Layering
It involves scraping the bark from a portion of a tree
branch and wrapping that section in soil or sphagnum moss.
Under the right conditions, the area where the bark was
removed will develop roots. Once this occurs, the branch is cut
from the mother plant and allowed to grow by itself. It is one of
the oldest propagating fruit trees
B. Simple Layering
This is the most simple and common method of rooting
stems that are still attached to the mother plants. It consist of
laying down a branch and covering part of its length with soil,
leaving the tip uncovered. Roots often from more readily if he
buried portion of the branch is notched or girdled. At present,
commercial plant growers use this method in propagating a
number of ornamental shrubs.
C. Tip Layering
It is used mostly for the propagation of trailing ornamental
shrubs and plants, berries, and grapes. The end of the canes is
covered with shovelful of earth during the latter part of the
summer months. The covered portion sends down and form a
plant that can be set to the field during the wet season.
D. Stool or Mound Layering
Consist of building up a mound 10 to 12 inches high after
the mother plants are cut back close to the ground. Mound soil
around the base of the new shoots as they grow with the tips
uncovered. Roots from the base of the new shoots grow into
the mound. Mounds are kept moist throughout the growing
period of the plants until the rooted shoots are cut off or
separated from the mother plant.
It is a natural type of layering. Strawberry roots at every
other node or joint without assistance if the soil is kept moist.
The buds at the rooted nodes send out leaves, thus forming a
new plant which in turn, produced additional runner plants. A
simple strawberry plant may produced fifty to one hundred or
more runner plants in one seasons.
Grafting and budding differ only in one aspect; in grafting, a
shoot several centimeters long and bearing several buds is used to
perpetuate a variety; budding , a single bud, with a bit of bark and
perhaps a bit of wood attached to it, is inserted into the sock.
Methods of Grafting and Budding
A. Cleft Grafting
It is usually
employed to graft a new top on a
young tree. Mature trees may be grafted but the difficulty of the
operation increases with the age of the tree and with the size of
B. Tongue or Whip Grafting
It is a common method of propagating young tree
whose part are too small to be cleft-grafted. Most nurserymen
establish known varieties on seeding roots by this method. Fruit
tree growers use it to graft the trunks of small trees either after
planting or later, and to change the tops of young trees by
working over the branches to the variety desired.
The process of transferring the lateral bud taken from the scion
to the stock of the same family or genus.
It is widely popular for propagating any of our common fruit
trees such as kaimito, avocado, coffee, citrus, and many
ornamental and flowering trees.
Budding maybe done in several ways such as:
A. Shield Budding
Is useful in changing the variety of young fruit trees
and those with small branches on either the trunk or the
branches of young trees
B. Plate Budding
Make two parallel longitudinal cuts of equal lengths
C. Patch Budding
Is commonly used by fruit tree growers in the
country. This type of budding is widely and successfully used
on thick-barked species of trees like the para rubber and santol
It is considered to be one of the oldest methods of
propagating ornamental plants and fruit trees, it involves
uniting two plants while growing on their own roots.
It takes some time for these plants to unite unlike in
the other methods of asexual propagation.