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Topic 1

  2. 2. TOPIC 1 :CONCRETE MATERIAL AND MIXTURESUB TOPIC – Basic properties of concrete. – Basic knowledge of cement. – Storage method of cement. – Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. – Properties of water used in concrete mixture. – Basic concept of concrete mix. – Fresh concrete. – Additives in concrete mix. – Standard laboratory testing of cement and aggregate.
  3. 3. SUB TOPIC 1.1 Basic properties of concrete - Materials in concrete mixture ( cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate , admixture and water ) - Concrete strength according to materials composition. - Differentiate concrete from other civil engineering materials.
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF CONCRETE Concrete is a substance produced when the cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water are mixed and blended according to mix ratio allowed to harden to form a structural member.
  5. 5. MATERIALS OF CONCRTE MIX Water Cement Aggregate Admixture (fine + coarse)
  6. 6.  Cement It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, and plaster. material produced by burning a mixture of limestone and clay. Is the product obtained by grinding clinker formed by burning raw-materials (argillaceous and calcareous) primarily consisting of lime (CaO), silicate (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and iron oxide (Fe2O3). Have two type is hydraulic or non-hydraulic.
  7. 7.  Argillaceous + Calcareous Silica Lime Alumina Ferum oxideArgillaceous – clay, sandstone, shaleCalcareous – limestone, chalK Hydraulic cement – able to set and harden under water e.g. OPC, Slag Cement, ggbs Non-Hydraulic cement – will not set and harden under water but require air to harden e.g. lime, gypsum
  8. 8.  Aggregate Classified by ASTM C33 is fine and coarse.Fine Aggregate consists of sourse is river sand, mining sand and sea sand. Size less than 5mm.( 2.36,1.18 & 0.600mm )
  9. 9. Coarse Aggregate. consists of sourse is lime stone, granite and sand stone. Size – more than 5mm. (10,20 &40mm )
  10. 10. AGGREGATE Crushed – sharp angular particles, from quarry, rough surface, good bond strength, low workability Uncrushed – round shapes, smooth surface, from river, low bonding properties, high workability
  11. 11.  Water Materials of hydartion process. Clean no (acid, alkali, sulfate, clay, sugar dan chloride) Water cement ratio ( BS 0.45 – 0.65 ) Purpose/Peranan - For hydration and workability. – washing/membasuh. – curing/mengawet.
  12. 12. ADMIXTURE Material added to concrete or mortar to change one or more properties at the fresh/hardened Purpose / Peranan – increased plasticity, accelerating the setting, improving the strength development, and reducing the heat of hydration – some modify workability characteristics and setting rate of fresh concrete, others change the properties both at mixing and hardened stages Introduced before, during or after mixing
  13. 13. ADMIXTURE Water repelling agent Accelerators agent
  14. 14. Concrete strength according to materials composition Quality material - material used . Mix ratio. Grading of aggregates . Volume of water used . Compaction when placed in the mold. Preservation are carried out after hardening. Mixing and transport . Curing.
  15. 15. Differentiate concrete from other civilengineering materials. Strength. Low cost Readily available Malleable Hardy Fire resistance Tidy Not shrink
  16. 16. SUB TOPIC 1.2 Basic knowledge of cement - Types of cement in the market. - Chemical composition of cement. - Hydration process of water in cement. - Function of chemical substances in cement.
  17. 17. Introduction of cement Cement is a substance produced by burning a mixture of limestone and clay. Properties of cement is cohesive and adhesion , which enable it to bind the component materials fine and coarse aggregates to be compact.
  18. 18. Types of cement Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (RHPC) Low Heat Portland Cement (LHPC) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) Modified Portland Cement (MPC) Blast furnace Portland Cement (PBC) High Aluminium Portland Cement (HAPC)
  19. 19. Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) By far the most common cement used in general concrete construction when there is no exposure to sulphates in the soil or groundwater Minimum fineness of 225 m2/kg Rate of hardening is moderate Standards; BS 12, MS 522
  20. 20. RAPID HEARDENING PORTLAND CEMENT ( RHPC ) Rapid strength gain due to higher C3S content (70%) Minimum fineness of 325 m2/kg Used when formwork is to be removed early for reuse or where sufficient strength for further construction is required quickly Should not be used in mass concrete construction or in large structural sections because of its higher rate of heat development
  21. 21. Cont. For construction at low temperatures, the use of RHPC may provide a satisfactory safeguard against early frost damage. The setting time and chemical composition of RHPC and OPC is relatively the same.
  22. 22. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) This cement has low C3A (3.5%) content so as to avoid sulphate attack from outside the concrete Minimum fineness of 250 m2/kg Active salts are magnesium and sodium sulphates Sulphate attack is greatly accelerated if accompanied by wetting and drying (splash zone) The heat develop by SRPC is not much higher than the low-heat cement, which is an advantage.
  23. 23. Cont. For construction at low temperatures, the use of RHPC may provide a satisfactory safeguard against early frost damage. The setting time and chemical composition of RHPC and OPC is relatively the same.
  24. 24. Low heat portlang cement ( LHPC ) Cement is used to prevent cracks due to the increase in concrete temperature during hydration. This cement has a slower rate of increase in strength but did not change its maximum strength. Cement was used to build large structures
  25. 25. Modified Portland Cement (MPC) Cement produces less heat than normal portland cement, sulphate resistant to the attack is simple. Ordinary portland cement is modified by adding chemicals to be adjusted to the use.
  26. 26. Portland-Blastfurnace Cement (PBC) Made by intergrinding or blending Portland cement clinker with granulated blastfurnace slag. Known as slag cement. Slag contains lime, silica and alumina, but not in the same proportions as in Portland cement. Minimum fineness of 275 m2/kg. Early strength are generally lower than OPC but later strength are similar or even higher.
  27. 27. Cont. Typical uses are in mass concrete because of low heat of hydration and in seawater construction due to better sulphate resistance (lower C3A content) than with the OPC. The amount of slag replacement between 25 to 70% of the mass of the mixture.
  28. 28. High Aluminium Portland Cement (HAPC) contain high aluminia, called cement sparkles. be resistant to chemical attack, quickly hardened the slow freezing of the OPC, but the freeze will apply immediately for a four to five hours and thirty minutes to freeze expired.
  30. 30. Hydaration Processs Cycle When the materials are mixed water and cement together through a chemical process called hydration and produce a cement paste. Cement paste acts as a binder with aggregate to produce a concrete.
  31. 31. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN CEMENT Compound Chemical Abb. Percent Rate of formula (range) reaction with waterTricalcium 3CaO.SiO2 C 3S 35-65% MediumsilicateDicalcium 2Cao.SiO2 C 2S 15-40% SlowsilicateTricalcium 3CaO.Al2O3 C 3A 0-15% FastAluminateTetracalcium 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 C4AF 6-20% MediumAluminoferrite
  32. 32. CHEMICAL FUNCTIONS C3S for faster gain in strength and produces higher heat of hydration. C2S reacts slowly, provide later strength, highly chemical resistance (sulphate, chloride) C3A is undesirable, contribute little or nothing to the strength of cement except at early ages. C4AF does not affect the behaviour of cement hydration significantly.
  33. 33. SUB TOPIC 1.3 Storage method of cement. - Storage method in a factory. i ) Bag cement. ii) Silo / Warehouse
  34. 34.  Cement bag• Stored in a waterproof.• An area that is suitable for good air circulation• The floor is dry• All have opening and closing can be closed• Arranged vertically not more than 1.5m (5 ft )• Space platform from the floor is least 23 cm and 30 cm from the wall.
  35. 35. cement1½m@5 kaki 30 cm 23 cm
  36. 36.  Silo• Stored in dry conditions to prevent freezing of the air.• Should be in a waterproof.• Examination should be done regularly.• An area that is suitable for good air circulation.• Avoid wastage, if the bag of cement leakage or rupture work in a controlled and effective storage.• Silo is a place to store the cement at the concrete mixing plant.
  37. 37. SILO METHOD
  38. 38. SUB TOPIC 1.4 Fine Aggregate and Coarse Aggregate. - Criteria of aggregate. - Properties of aggregate.
  39. 39.  Criteria of aggregate Size. Shape. Surface Texture. Grading.
  40. 40. Properties of aggregatesA number of physical and mechanical properties affect durability, strength, and performance of construction products manufactured using aggregates The aggregate particles should retain their strength, shape, and texture when used with materials such as cement
  41. 41. Physical Crushed – sharp angular particles, from quarry, rough surface, good bond strength, low workability Uncrushed – round shapes, smooth surface, from river, low bonding properties, high workability
  42. 42. Mechanical Compressive strength Specific gravity Bulk density Porosity Voids Absorption Modulus of elasticity Moisture content Shrinkage Grading and fineness Chemical reactivity
  43. 43. SUB TOPIC 1.5 Properties of water used in concrete mix. - Quality of water in concrete mixture. - Role of water in concrete mixture.
  44. 44. Quality of water in concrete mixture The water used for mixing and curing should be clean and free from alkalis, acid, oils, salt, sugar, organic materials. Water is filt drink or taken from an approved source. The pH value of water should be not less than 6.
  45. 45. THE ROLE OF WATER IN CONCRETE MIXTURE spreading water cement (or lime) for each item covered by the meeting stone . water to give pleasure working on concrete mix Water is a chemical reaction of the cement to bind all the stones in the concrete mix.
  46. 46. SUB TOPIC 1.6 Basic concept of concrete mix. - Define of concrete mixture. - Types of mix ratio. - Relation of mix ratio and strength. - Types of mixture :- i ) Standard Mix / Fixed Mix. ii) Design Mix. iii) Nominal Mix.
  47. 47. Concrete MixtureDefine Concrete mix design is a process of selecting the appropriate constituents of concrete materials to produce concrete mixes that can be strong, high workability and economical.
  48. 48. TYPES OF MIX RATIO Ratio used wall on site in for the working1: 5: 10 hard soil, box culvent 1: 3: 6 concrete floor, body1: 2: 4 reinforced concrete footing, slab, columns, beams and other.1: 1.5: 3 Pre stressed concrete, tanks, and others.
  49. 49. The Relation of Mix Ratio and StrengthConcrete Grade Strength (N /mm ²) Uses7 7 Concrete without reinforc10 10 ement15 15 Reinforced concrete with lightweight aggregates20 20 Reinforced25 25 concrete with aggregate v olume30 30 First reinforced concrete firm40 40 Stressed reinforced50 50 concrete
  50. 50. STANDARD MIX Mixing based on the weight Refer spec. on BS (CP 110) At the construction site contractor must be followed the consultan based the BS( CP 110 ).
  51. 51. DESIGN MIX Mixing rate based on volume The contractor is responsible for selecting the mixing ratio for the strength and level of work performed. Some of the mixture should be modified in the mix.
  52. 52. Nominal Mix Mixing based on the volume and weight. Mix set was to have only minimum strength. Not recommended at construction site. Can be carried out with the weight if the density have given. Density ( D ) = Mass ( M ) / Volume ( V )
  53. 53.  Example 1 Calculate the mass of material which is needed for nominal mix with ratio of 1:2:4 based on 150 kg cement, where mixing is done based on mass:Given the density of materials :Cement - 1440 kg/m3Fine aggregate - 1640 kg/m3Coarse aggregate - 1390 kg/m3
  54. 54. • Solution V=M M=V×D D a) Volume of Cement= 150 kg = 0.104m3 1440 kg/m3 b) Volume of fine aggregate =0.104×2 (mix ratio) = 0.208m3 Mass of fine aggregate = 1640 kg/m3 × 0.208m3 = 341 kg c) Volume of Coarse aggregate = 0.104m3 × 4 ( mix ratio ) = 0.416m3 Mass of Coarse aggregate = 0.416m3 ×1390kg/m3 = 578 kg d ) Volume of water = 0.55 x 150kg( cement ) = 82.5 kg @ liter
  55. 55. SUB TOPIC 1.7 Fresh Concrete - Describe fresh concrete and workability - The factor influencing workability: a) Water / cement ratio b) Aggregate / cement ratio c) Shape and texture d) Additivies substance
  56. 56. Fresh concrete concrete mix design is a process of selecting the materials in concrete mix and can be strong,durable,high workability and economical. Workability work from mixing to placed concrete in the mould. It represent the ability of concrete to be mixing,transported,casting and casting.
  57. 57. FACTORS INFLUENDING WORKABILITYii. Water / cement ratio to produce concrete mixes that are plastic and easily worked. water should be used more than the limit, the strength and density of concrete is reduced. if the water used is too less, the concrete will be difficult to do and the hydration process is not perfect. relationship between the ratio of water and cement in the concrete mix is known as the ratio of water - cement.
  58. 58.  Aggregate / cement ratio fine and coarse aggregates shall consist of a variety of sizes to produce a minimum hole. cement consumption should be sufficient to fill the holes in the sand and cement and sand enough to cover the hole in the coarse aggregates.
  59. 59. ii. Shape and texture Aggregates a smooth surface can provide a good workability, but has a low bond is strength. Aggregates a rough surface produces a low workability, but the bond is strength
  60. 60. i. Additives substance additive can given mixed into the concrete during the mixing progress. to increase or modify the standard work on the concrete. both these materials, additives and ingredie nts added to the concrete advantages.
  61. 61. SUB TOPIC 1.8 Additives ( admixture) in concrete mixture - Define of admixture. - Types of admixture a) Catalyzing Subtances. b) Retarding Subtances. c) Water Decreasing Subtances. d) Plasticizing Subtances. e) Air Trapping Additives.
  62. 62. Define of Admixture Agent chemical are include in concrete or mortar to change the properties at the fresh and hard concrete Have 2 group is chemical and mineral. Function : i) to modify the workability characteristic ii) to setting(hydration) rate of fresh concrete. iii) to change the propeties of concrete.
  63. 63. Types of admixturea) Catalyzing Subtances. Accelerator materials are calcium chloride to increase the rate of concrete strength Adverse effects of corrosion on the bars of bones.
  64. 64. b) Retarding Subtances Act delay the process of chemical reaction during the hydration process. helpful for concrete to be transported to long distance. Used at hot area location Admixture is calcium sulphate and gypsum
  65. 65. c) Water Decreasing Subtances Admixture is calcium sterat. To increase the workability so that placing the concrete it ease. To increase the volume of water in concrete mix. Designed to resist cracking
  66. 66. d) Plasticizing Subtances Active at the surface that helps cement the more effective spread in the water. When the material is blended in the concrete it will speed up the properties of cohesion. Small quantities have to use 0.2% by weight of cement.
  67. 67. e) Air Trapping Additives As small quantity include in mixture. This agent can shape are bubble to i) increase the workability. ii) reduce of bleeding and segregation. iii) improve the strength of concrete.
  68. 68. Materials of agent is :a) Natural materials ( wood resin )b) Oilly plant ( fat , oil zaitun , acid fat )c) Fresh agent (alkali salt & organic suphate)d) Water soluble salts (resin acids & fat acids of plants.e) Sodium salt of sulphuric acid ( petroleum, hydrogen peroxide and aluminium )
  69. 69. Serbuk aluminium Asid Stearic Hidrogen peroksida Zaitun Oil Asid Oleic Fat
  70. 70. SUB TOPIC 1.9 Standard Laboratory Testing for cement and Aggregate. a) Laboratory testing for cement i ) Fineness test ii ) Mortar test ( Cube cement test ) iii ) Softtening point
  71. 71. b) Laboratory testing for fine aggregate i ) Silt @ Dust test ii ) Sieve test (Particle Size Distribution)c) Laboratory testing for coarse aggregate i ) Sieve test (Particle Size Distribution)
  72. 72. a) Laboratory testing for cementi ) Fineness test Fineness of cement is tested in two ways : (a) By sieving. (b) By determination of specific surface (total surface area of all the particles in one gram of cement) by air-premeability appartus. Expressed as cm2/gm or m2/kg. Generally Blaine Airpermeability appartus is used.
  73. 73. Objective : to determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031 (Part 1) –1996. Apparatus : - 90µm IS Sieve, - Balance capable of weighing 10g to the nearest 10mg, - a nylon or pure bristle brush, - preferably with 25 to 40mm, - bristle for cleaning the sieve.
  74. 74. PROCEDUREiv) Weigh approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0.01g and place it on the sieve.v) Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more fine material passes through Weigh the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1,of the quantity first placed on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent.vii) Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve.viii) Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Then calculate R as the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the results differ by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third sieving and calculate the mean of the three values.
  75. 75.  Blaine Airpermeability
  76. 76. ii ) Mortar test ( Cube cement test ) Objective : to determine the cement sample is tested to meet standards and can be used in concrete mix. Theory : Standard cube strength of cement tested is must not be less than 23 N/mm2 after 28 days. Apparatus : - amount of cement - 50 x 50 x 50 mm mould
  77. 77. Procedure• Mix 1kg of cement for testing with water.• Include the mixture into the 3 cube and compacting the cement at 3 layer with 1 layer 25time. Let the mix harden for 1 day.• After a day open the mould and then soaked the 3 cube in water for 28 days.• After 28 days the cube can testing with compression mechine.
  78. 78. No of (mm )cube 1 2 3Weight of cube(gm)Compression machinereading(kn)Compressive strength(N/mm2)Average compressivestrength (N/mm2)
  79. 79. iii ) Softtening point. Objective : to determine the most suitable water content for cement mixer. Apparatus : - Ordinary portland cement (400g) - vicat apparatus. - distilled water. - cement mixing equipment
  80. 80. Procedure Weigh 400g of ordinary portland cement and placed on glass plates. Provide 28% = 122ml of distilled water. Mix with cement until the distribution. Do penetration test and record the reading of the penetration distance. Remove the mixture and place on plate. Add 2% = 8ml distilled water and then insert it into the mold. Add water by 2% until the penetration of the needle stop at a distance of 5mm from the bottom of the mold.
  81. 81.  Vicat apparatus
  82. 82. b) Laboratory testing for fine aggregatei ) Silt @ Dust testObjective: to determine the dust content of sand is tested to meet standards and can be used in concrete mix.Theory: According with British standard for dust content in the fine aggregate is should not exceed 8 %Apparatus: Cylinder measurement 250 ml Sand sample tested Salt water mix Rubber hammer
  83. 83. PROCEDURE : 1) Prepare the sand to be tested. 2) Include the sand into the cylinder until the past of level 130ml. 3) Include the salt water into the cylinder until the past of level sand. 4) Shake the mixture until blended and add more salt water to the 250ml level. 5) Put the cylinder on a flat surface and tap slowly with a rubber hammer. 6) Sprinkle water around the inside of the cylinder so the sand sticks to the cylinder can be cleaned completely. 7) Let until the water in the cylinder to be clear and the dust fully settle. 8) Record high reading the levels of sand and dust.
  84. 84.  Results: Bil Content Measurement(mm) 1 Height level of dust (A) 5 mm 2 Height level of sand (B) 125 mm % Dust in sand = a/b x 100% =4% British Standard : Dust contant less than 8 %
  85. 85. ii ) Sieve test (Particle Size Distribution) of fine aggregate.Purpose : To determine the sample refer the British Standard.Apparatus : Set sieving BS 410 – Table 3 ( 10,5,2.36,1.18,0.60,0.30 dan 0.150 ) Vibrator machine. Scales dan trays.
  86. 86. Procude : Prepare the amount of aggregate (min 500g). Weigh the aggregate to 1gm nearly. Include the aggregate into the BS sieve. Vibrate the aggregate at 3 - 5 minute. Weigh the aggregate weight at each set BS sieve. Calculate the percentages of retained and passing. Plot the graf top and bottom specific.
  87. 87. Set sieving and vibrator machine
  88. 88. c) Laboratory testing for coarse aggregate i ) Sieve test (Particle Size Distribution)Purpose : To determine the sample refer the British Standard.Apparatus : Set sieving BS 410 – Table 2 ( 37.5,20,14,10 dan 5 ) Vibrator machine. Scales dan trays.
  89. 89. Procude : Prepare the amount of aggregate ( min 2kg). Weigh the aggregate to 1gm nearly. Include the aggregate into the BS sieve. Vibrate the aggregate at 3 - 5 minute. Weigh the aggregate weight at each set BS sieve. Calculate the percentages of retained and passing. Plot the graf top and bottom specific.
  90. 90. Set sieving and vibrator machine