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Auto Cad Course at MUCET, Khairpur


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these are the Notes for Auto Cad 2D as well as for 3D.
Written by: Sir Atif K.K
Taught by:
Majid Ali Wassan at MUCET, Khairpur.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Auto Cad Course at MUCET, Khairpur

  1. 1. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 1 of 66Taught by Majid Ali Wassan at MUCET, Khairpur. Muhammad Atif Khan K.K. Assistant Professor Department Of Mechanical Engineering M.U.E.T. Page 1 of 66
  2. 2. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 2 of 66Defining CAD / CADD  CAD An acronym for Computer Aided Design It is synonymously used for Computer Aided Drafting.  CADD, An acronym for Computer Aided Design & Drafting CAD/CADD refers to the use of software and computer for creating precise engineering drawings and designsWhat is AutoCAD  It is a general-purpose computer-aided drafting application program.  It is the largest selling software for Computer Assisted/Aided /Automated Drafting.  More people use AutoCAD than any other CAD software.  Today, AutoCAD is translated into 18 languages and used by millions of users worldwide.  AutoCAD LT is a "scaled down" version of AutoCAD and It costs less. Compared to the full edition of AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT lacks several features. Most notably, it has no 3D modeling capabilities.  Autodesk has also developed a few discipline-specific enhancements of AutoCAD, such as, AutoCAD Architecture AutoCAD Mechanical, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D, and AutoCAD Map 3D are examples of industry-specific CAD applications built on the AutoCAD platform.AutoCAD-Version history Re Ver Re Date of Official Vers Date of lea Official name sion lea release name ion release se se Version 1.0 1.0 1 1982, December Release 13 N/A 13 1994, November Version 1.2 1.2 2 1983, April Release 14 N/A 14 1997, February Version 1.3 1.0 3 1983, August AutoCAD 2000 15.0 15 1999, March Version 1.4 1.4 4 1983, October AutoCAD 2000i 15.1 16 2000, July Version 2.0 2.0 5 1984, October AutoCAD 2002 15.6 17 2001, June Version 2.1 2.1 6 1985, May AutoCAD 2004 16.0 18 2003, March Version 2.5 2.5 7 1986, June AutoCAD 2005 16.1 19 2004, March Version 2.6 2.6 8 1987, April AutoCAD 2006 16.2 20 2005, March Release 9 N/A 9 1987, September AutoCAD 2007 17.0 21 2006, March Release 10 N/A 10 1988, October AutoCAD 2008 17.1 22 2007, March Release 11 N/A 11 1990, October AutoCAD 2009 17.2 23 2008, March Release 12 N/A 12 1992, JuneScope of AutoCADIt is used to increase speed & accuracy in the production of drawings in any field, such as  Civil Engg  Electrical Engg.  Structural Engg  Construction  Electronics Engg.  Architectural Engg industry  Biomedical  Manufacturing Engg  Geographic  Chemical Engg  Multimedia Information  Petroleum Engg  Land Management Systems  Mining Engg  City & Regional  Surveying  Industrial Engg Planning  Facilities  Metallurgy Engg  & many more……… Management  Mechatronics  Mechanical Engg  Computer Page 2 of 66
  3. 3. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 3 of 66Advantages of AutoCAD over manual/instrumental drafting  Speed  Sharing CADD Drawings.  Neatness  Helps in Engineering Analysis.  Accuracy  Helps in Computer Aided  Legibility improved. Manufacturing (CAM).  Improved Presentations.  High rate of drawing production.  Flexibility in Editing.  Enhanced visualization.  Easy Storage/Transport  & many more….  Easy retrieval/Access of Drawings AutoCAD Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Main screenGraphical user interface (GUI) allow computer users to interact with computer by selecting smallimages called icons to execute instructions, eliminating the need to use text commands.The AutoCAD screen consists of following important areas. These are, Page 3 of 66
  4. 4. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 4 of 66 The drawing area The blank area (On your computers it may be in black color) in the middle of the screen where you draw. You can think of this as a sheet of drafting paper, except that this black piece of paper can be of any size( Infinite size) — even the size of a huge factory or even the size of a city. At the bottom of the drawing area is a tab labeled Model. We will draw on this tab. You use the layout tabs to lay out your drawing for plotting we will learn to draw here later. The UCS icon Notice the symbol with two arrows at the bottom-left corner of the drawing area in Figure above. This symbol is called the User Coordinate System (UCS) icon. The arrows point to the positive directions of the X and Y axes. The crosshairs In the drawing area, notice the two intersecting lines with a small box at their intersection. The small box is called the pickbox because it helps you to select, or pick, objects. The lines are called crosshairs. They show you the location of the mouse cursor in relation to other objects in your drawing. As you move your mouse around, the pickbox and crosshairs move with your mouse. At the bottom of your screen, at the left end of the status bar, you can see the X,Y coordinates change as you move your mouse. The menus and toolbars Beneath the menu bar there are two rows of toolbars. In addition, your screen has two more toolbars, the Draw and Modify toolbar, which is probably docked at the right side of the screen. Use the menus and toolbars together to give AutoCAD commands to draw, edit, get information, and so on. On the Draw toolbar, move the mouse cursor over the first button. You should see a tool tip that says Line. Also notice the status bar, which tells you that this button creates straight-line segments. You use toolbar buttons to execute commands. For example, to draw a line, you click the Line button on the Draw toolbar. The command line All commands can be executed by typing them on the command line. Even if you use a menu item or toolbar button to execute a command, you may see a response on the command line. AutoCAD often provide options that must be typed in from the keyboard. Text that you type appears on the command line. The status bar At the left are the X,Y coordinates. As you move your mouse, these coordinates change. (If they don’t change, click them and move your mouse again.)Note: You can use the CLEANSCREENON command to hide the title bar, toolbars, and status bar,leaving more room for the drawing area. To return to the regular display, use theCLEANSCREENOFF command or press Ctrl+0 to toggle between the two displays. Different ways to start AutoCAD?You can launch AutoCAD with the following methods:  Choose Start-(All)-Programs-Autodesk-AutoCAD 200X-AutoCAD 200X.  Double-click an AutoCAD drawing file.  Double-click the AutoCAD icon on the Windows desktop.  Click the AutoCAD icon on the taskbar’s Start menu.  Click the AutoCAD icon on the Quick Launch toolbar on the Page 4 of 66
  5. 5. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 5 of 66 QSAVE or SAVEQuickly saves the current drawing  Standard toolbar:  File menu: Save or save as  Command line: qsave or saveIf the drawing is named, AutoCAD saves the drawing without requesting a file name. If thedrawing is unnamed, AutoCAD displays the Save Drawing As dialog box (see SAVEAS) andsaves the drawing with the file name you specify. Closing/Exiting AutoCADIf you saved your most recent changes to all open drawings, you can exit AutoCAD without savingthe drawings again. If you have not saved your changes, AutoCAD prompts you to save or discardthe changes. To exit AutoCAD  Click ( X ) close button at upper right corner  From the File menu, choose Exit. OR  Command line: Type QUIT or EXIT & press ENTER Different ways to access/start commandsYou can use any of the following methods to start a command. The easiest way to start a command is totype it in the Command Line window, other methods are  Menu bar  Toolbars, Right clicks on any toolbar, displays all toolbars.  Shortcut menu, right click mouse having cursor at different positions on screen and see different menus, called as shortcut menus. Using Shortcut MenusYou can right-click your pointing device to display shortcut menus from which you can quickly chooseoptions Shortcut menus are context-sensitive. You can display shortcut menus from most of thefollowing AutoCAD window/main screen areas Erasing objects / ERASE command  Modify toolbar:  Modify menu: Erase  Shortcut menu: Select the objects to erase, right-click in the drawing area, and click Erase.  Command entry: erase Select objects: Use an object selection method Page 5 of 66
  6. 6. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 6 of 66 Enter L (Last) to erase the last object drawn. or Enter all to erase all objects from the drawing. And press ENTER when you finish selecting objectsThe objects are removed from the drawing. Canceling a commandSometimes you might find yourself using a command, and all of a sudden you want to stop using itand switch to a different one. If you don’t want to complete the current command, press Esc or right-click and choose Cancel from the shortcut menu. Repeating last command AutoCAD allows you to repeat the previous command without having to select it from a user interface element again, You can use these methods to repeat a previously used command:  Press Enter when no command is active.  Press the space bar when no command is active.  Press the Up arrow key when no command is active and press Enter. You can Step back to retrieve previously used commands within the current session and not just the most recently used command.  Right-click the drawing window and choose Repeat Command Name.  Right-click the drawing window and choose Recent Input & .command name.  Right-click the Command Line window and choose Recent  Command: command name Changing the color of an object using properties toolbarSelect the objects whose color you want to view or modify,and click color button in the properties toolbar as highlightedin the figure to see available colors. Pick any desired color. Turning the toolbars ON and OFF Displaying the toolbars shortcut menu Right click on any icon/button and choose the toolbar from the list to be displayed as shown in the figure. Displaying the toolbars through keyboard/command line Command: -TOOLBAR Enter toolbar name or [ALL]: Type any toolbar’s name such as Draw or modify or any other toolbar’s name Enter an option [Show/Hide/Left/Right/Top/Bottom/Float] <Show>: Type F for float and press enter Enter new position (screen coordinates) <0,0>: accept the default 0,0 by pressing enter Enter number of rows for toolbar <1>: accept the default by pressing Page 6 of 66
  7. 7. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 7 of 66 Undo command or Correcting mistakesReverses the effect of commands Coordinates systems used in AutoCADIntroductionAs a general rule, everything you draw withAutoCAD will be drawn full size/actual size.This often comes as quite a surprise to thosewho are new to CAD and have spent a numberof years working on a drawing board.When you start drawing with AutoCAD youdo not have to decide upon a drawing scale asyou do when using a drawing board. Whendrawing on paper you must decide do draw atsay, 1:20 or 1:200 depending upon the size ofthe object that you are drawing so that yourscaled drawing will fit on the drawing sheet, be that A3 or A1.In AutoCAD you do not need to decide upon a drawing scale until you come to print the drawing andbecause the scaling of your drawing takes place at the printing stage, you can create drawings at ascale of 1:1. This has particular advantages because you can, for example, measure lengths, areas andvolumes within an AutoCAD drawing and not need to compensate for any scale factor. LINE Command, close, undo and continue options With the Line command you can draw a simple line from one point to another. When you pick the first point and move the cross-hairs to the location of the second point you will see a rubber band line which shows you where the line will be drawn when the second point is picked. Each line segment drawn is a separate object and can bemoved or erased as required. To end this command, just hit the key on the keyboard.Undo & Close options in LINE commandThe undo option erases the last segment only, where as close option draws the last line segment joiningwith the start point and at the same time terminates the line command.Continue option in LINE commandAt any stage you terminated/ended the line command but immediately you decide to continue the linefrom last point of the last segment you just drawn, start line command when it asks for the start pointjust press enter the line will be started from the end point of the last segment drawn, thus continuingthe line.
  8. 8. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 8 of 66 Understanding startup dialog box-TutorialStarting AutoCAD From the start menu choose all programs, and then choose AutoCAD from the menu. If you have shortcut on desktop then directly double click on AutoCAD icon.Exploring the startup dialog boxWhen you start AutoCAD, the startup dialog box may or may not be displayed depending upon thedefault settings & the version of software, If it is not displayed then follow this,Turn ON/OFF the display of startup dialog box  From the Tools menu, choose Options- Or  Type Options at command line & press enter  In the Options dialogue box Choose, System-General options-Startup-select, Show or do not show Startup Dialog box  Choose Apply/OK.Now close the software/AutoCAD and re-start, it you will see the startup dialogue box displayedeach time you start AutoCAD.The dialog box provides you with four different ways to start working in AutoCAD, you can, A. Open an existing drawing. B. Start a drawing from scratch C. Start a drawing based on a template.(This will be discussed later) D. Use wizards to help you setup/start your drawing (This will be discussed later)To open an existing drawing, click In the Startup dialog box, choose “Open a Drawing”, and then choose Browse. OR If AutoCAD is already started, from the File menu, choose Open. In the Select File dialog box, select a files (If there is no recently used file than use browse button to locate the file) & chose Open. Now select VIEW-ZOOM from menu bar and try zoom IN, OUT, ALL, and EXTENT options and observe the difference between them also use PAN REALTIME, and ZOOM WINDOW & ZOOM PREVIOUS from the standard tool bar docked in the top area of GUI/screen.
  9. 9. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 9 of 66Note: Repeat this several times changing the file each time and practicing various zoom options aslisted above. Now close AutoCAD and repeat the same again and again, each time opening adifferent file. When you have practiced this several times, follow the next stepTo create a new drawing using Start from Scratch, click In the Startup dialog box, choose “Start from Scratch”. OR If AutoCAD is already started, from the File menu, choose New, and then choose Start from Scratch in the Create New Drawing dialog box. Select Imperial/English (For making drawing in inches & feet, or. English units) or Metric (For making drawing in millimeters, or metric units), and then choose OK. A new drawing file opens, based on the English/Imperial or metric settings and with the default name drawing1.dwg (Note: By default all AutoCAD drawing files are saved as dwg files, having dwg as file extension). Now turn ON the GRIDS (Small dots displayed on screen, they are not printed they help in visually aligning objects on screen and show the limits of working area.) if they are not visible by pressing GRID button in the status bar at lower part of the GUI/AutoCAD main screen. Make any free hand using line command and mouse, forget the accuracy of the drawing.To save your new drawing From the File menu, choose Save As. In the “Save Drawing As” dialog box under File Name, enter a name for the drawing, select destination in “save in” and choose Save. AutoCAD automatically appends the drawing extension (.dwg) to the new file name.Creating a new drawing using Start from scratch optionA quick way to begin a new drawing is to start from scratch, which starts a drawing that uses settingsfrom a default drawing template file.The setting you select determines default values used for many system variables controlling text,dimensions, grid, snap, and the default line type and hatch pattern file. English/Imperial: Creates a new drawing based on the Imperial measurement system. The drawing is based on the acad.dwt template, and the default drawing boundary, called the drawing limits, is 12 × 9 inches. Metric: Creates a new drawing based on the metric measurement system. The drawing is based on the acadiso.dwt template, and the default drawing boundary is 420 × 297 millimeters. Hints & Guidelines when using AutoCAD commands When using command lineCommands often have options/sub-commands, which are displayed within brackets. To choose anoption, enter the options capitalized letter (uppercase or lowercase) on the command line. If an optionis preceded by a number, such as the CIRCLE command 3Point option, enter the number andcapitalized letter. Commands are not case sensitive. Some commands display dialogue box while others display only options at command line therefore, always keep watching command line for options while working in AutoCAD Space bar can also be used as ENTER / RETURN key If a command is in progress related help can generally be accessed by pressing F1 key. Hitting “ENTER” or “SPACEBAR” at “COMMAND” prompt will re-invoke the last command. Pressing “ESC” key is your best friend for getting out of sticky situations.
  10. 10. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 10 of 66 Accelerator Keys/function keysUse Accelerator Keys/function keys to toggle modes “On” & “OFF”. For example, F1 = Help F2 = Switches state of text window F3 = OSNAP on or off. F6 = COORDINATES on or off. F7 = GRIDMODE on or off. F8 = ORTHOMODE on or off. F9 = SNAPMODE on or off. Save often ! ! ! ! Standard Paper SizesMetric ISO, Imperial ANSI and USA Architectural arethe world’s top standards for paper sizes. Of these metricis number one!An A0 sheet is 1m². This allows paper weights to beexpressed in grams per square meter. Example: 110gsmpaper.The ratio - length to width - of ISO sheets is 1 to the Square Root 2. This relationship of 1:Sq root 2is particularly important for reduction onto microfilm, or reduction and enlargement on photocopiers.All metric equipment including microfilm cameras, microfilm printers, photocopiers, and evendrawing pen sizes, are designed around this ratio. This makes the process of archiving drawings,resizing, and modifying drawings easy.The ISO paper sizes are devised in such a way that each smaller size is exactly half the size of theprevious one. If you cut an A0 sheet in half you get two A1 sheets. Oversize* sheets are used when itis desirable to give extra protection to the drawing sheets by providing a binding or trimming margin.
  11. 11. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 11 of 66 In how many different ways can we enter a point or specify a locationAnswer of this question is 3 or even more.1. Entering absolute/real coordinates. Absolute Cartesian Coordinate data entry style is X,Y ( All X , Y & Z values are given w.r.t fixed origin.) The simplest and most elementary form of coordinate values is absolute coordinates. Absolute coordinates conform to the following format: X, Y One problem with using absolute coordinates is that all coordinate values refer back to the origin 0, 0 fixed in the lower left corner.Now, let’s make our first step into drawingand learn about coordinate system by goingover these topics. Try yourself-Tutorial Command: LINE Command: Specify first point: -2,1 Specify next point or [Undo]: 3,4 Specify next point or [Undo]: ENTERIn the example given above, we drew theline, We gave the point information that isasked by AutoCAD by entering real/absolutecoordinates in form of x,y. Let’s continue toconvert it into a triangle. Command: LINE Command: Specify first point: -2,1 Specify next point or [Undo]: 3,4 Specify next point or [Undo]: 3,1 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: -2,1 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 0333-2642151
  12. 12. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 12 of 66 Absolute coordinate input-Tutorial- 1First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and draw it on a graphpaper and try to complete the table first and later draw it on computer, Absolute coordinate input-Tutorial- 2First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, first on a graph paperand later draw it on computer, Absolute coordinate input-Tutorial- 0333-2642151
  13. 13. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 13 of 662. Entering relative coordinates:With absolute coordinates, the origin at 0, 0 must be kept in mind at all times in order for the correctcoordinate to be entered. With complicated objects, this is sometimes difficult to accomplish and as aresult, the wrong coordinate is entered, it is possible to reset the last coordinate to become a neworigin or 0, 0 point. The new point would be relative to the previous point, and for this reason, thispoint is called a relative coordinate.The format is as follows:@X, YIn this format, we use the same X and Y values with one exception: the @ symbol that resets theprevious point to 0, 0 i.e. origin, and makes entering coordinates less confusing.Let’s make the previous example by using relative coordinates. Let’s draw the same triangle bystarting from -2,1 point, going 5 units in right direction and 3 units in upper direction and end insame -2,1 point. Try yourself-Tutorial Command: LINE Command: Specify first point: -2,1 Specify next point or [Undo]: @ 5,0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @3,0 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: CAs you can see, entering relative coordinates is doneby using @ symbol from the last point and enteringΔx,Δy values. @ means that we will enter relativecoordinates. Relative coordinate input-Tutorial- 1First open a new file with metric settings,If AutoCAD is already open, close all files and,Click File menu and choose New, In the NewDrawing dialogue box select start from scratch andchoose metric & click OK, Now ZOOMOUT onceto see all GRID area.If you just started AutoCAD than In the Startupdialogue box select start from scratch and choosemetric & click OKRelative Coordinate System.‘@’ character is used for relative coordinate input.Putting it at the beginning of an entry, the place youare on is considered as the origin and the desiredcoordinate relative to this origin is entered. Briefly,‘@’ character means ‘with respect 0333-2642151
  14. 14. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 14 of 66Start LINE command, Command: LINE Specify first point: pick any point on the screen at lower left corner of GRID area, and follow the steps below.Firstly, draw a 100-unit line. Specify next point or [Undo]: @100,0 ‘Enter’Then, draw a 100-unit line through Y axis. Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,100The 80-unit line is in negative X direction. Specify next point or [Undo]: @-80,0The following movement is in both negative directionsof X and Y axes. Specify next point or [Undo]: @-20,-20The last line is in negative Y direction. Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,-80 Specify next point or [Undo]: Press ENTER Relative coordinate input-Tutorial- 2First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and draw it on a graphpaper and try to complete the table first and later draw it on computer, Relative coordinate input-Tutorial- 0333-2642151
  15. 15. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 15 of 66 Relative coordinate input-Tutorial- 4 Relative coordinate input-Tutorial - 5First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and first draw on a graphpaper and later draw it on computer, Relative coordinate input-Tutorial-6First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and first draw on agraph paper and later draw it on computer, 0333-2642151
  16. 16. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 16 of 66 Relative coordinate input-Tutorial- 7First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and first draw on agraph paper and later draw it on computer,3. Entering Relative Polar Coordinates:Another popular method of entering coordinates is the polar coordinate mode. The format is shownbelow:@ Distance < angle or@ Length < directionAs the preceding format implies, the polar coordinate method requires a known distance and anangle. The @ symbol, resets the previous point to 0, 0. The direction is preceded by the < symbol,which reads the next number as polar or angulardirection.We know that angles increase in counter clockwisedirection in AutoCAD. The example given hereexplains how to enter polar coordinates. Try yourself-Tutorial Command: LINE LINE Specify first point: -2,1 Specify next point or [Undo]: @5<0 Specify next point or [Undo]: @3<90 Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 0333-2642151
  17. 17. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 17 of 66 Polar coordinate input-Tutorial-1Many AutoCAD users have some troubles with angles. The reason beyond this is the lack ofinformation about polar coordinate system. Examining the figure below, let us start to learn polarcoordinate system.First open a new file with metric settings,If AutoCAD is already open, close all files and,Click File menu and choose New, In the New Drawing dialogue box select start from scratch andchoose metric & click OK, Now ZOOMOUT once to see all GRID area.If you just started AutoCAD than In the Startup dialogue box select start from scratch and choosemetric & click OKFirstly, let us draw a coordinate plane and lines with entering length and angles. The formula forpolar coordinate entry is: @length<angle (between the X axis). The length and angles of our lines letbe 100 unit and 45 degrees respectively.To draw the first line, run the linecommand, Command: LINE Specify first point: 0,0 and press enter Specify next point or [Undo]: @100<45The angle for the second line is 45degrees less than 180.Repeat line command and Command: LINE Specify first point: 0,0 ENTER Specify next point or [Undo]: @100<135 and press enterThe angle for the third line is 45 degreesless than 270.Repeat line command, Command: LINE Specify first point: 0,0 ENTER Specify next point or [Undo]: @100<225 and press enterThe angle for our last line is 45 degrees less than 360.Repeat line command, Command: LINE Specify first point: 0,0 ENTER Specify next point or [Undo]: @100<315 and press 0333-2642151
  18. 18. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 18 of 66 Polar coordinate input-Tutorial- 2 Polar coordinate input-Tutorial- 3 Polar coordinate input-Tutorial- 0333-2642151
  19. 19. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 19 of 66 Polar & Relative (Combined) coordinate input-Tutorial- 5First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and first draw on agraph paper and later draw it on computer, Polar & Relative (Combined) coordinate input-Tutorial- 6First open a new drawing with imperial settings by using start from scratch, and first draw on agraph paper and later draw it on computer, Drawing AidsIntroductionDrawing with AutoCAD is really just like drawing on a drawing board. Most new comers toComputer Aided Design assume that they will need to learn how to draw all over again. In fact, manyof the drawing aids that AutoCAD provides are analogous to traditional drafting tools. This meansthat in many respects, the drawing techniques are very similar. If you ever get stuck, think how youwould complete a task on a drawing board and then look for a similar way to do it with AutoCAD.Grid commandStatus Bar (right-click for settings)Pull-down NoneKeyboard GRID or 0333-2642151
  20. 20. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 20 of 66The drawing grid is a regular pattern of dots displayed on the screen which acts as a visual aid; it isthe equivalent of having a sheet of graph paper behind your drawing on a drawing board. These griddots are not plotted. You can control the grid spacing, so it can give you a general idea about the sizeof drawn objects. The grid dots extend over the area you specify as the grid limits. The grid helps youalign objects and visualize the distances between them. If you zoom in or out of your drawing, you mayneed to adjust grid spacing to be more appropriate for the new magnification. Command Sequence/Try yourself Command: GRID Specify grid spacing(X) or [ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect] <10.000>: (enter grid spacing e.g. Type 1 & press enter, also try different values and observe changes in the display) Study yourself & explore other options Although you can use the command line to control the visibility of the grid by using the "ON" and "OFF" options or by using the F7 key or, better still, by clicking the GRID button on the status bar. However, the command line does offer some additional options. The Snap option allows you to automatically set the grid spacing to the current snap spacing You can also change the aspect ratio of the grid. By default, the X and Y spacing of the Grid are the same, resulting in a regular square matrix of grid points. But you can display a grid with different X and Y spacing by using the "Aspect" option. You can access grid settings by right-clicking the Grid button on the status bar and selecting Settings… from the short-cut menu. You can also do this from the pull-down menu, Tools Drafting Settings… and click on the "Snap and Grid" tab.Limits command (Grid Limits)You may have noticed that the grid does not extend infinitely in all directions. In fact, it is onlydisplayed within a finite rectangle. You can control the extent of the visible grid using DrawingLimits.Toolbar NonePull-down Format Drawing LimitsKeyboard LIMITSDrawing Limits is used to define the extent of the grid display The grid is displayed within arectangle defined by two pick points or co-ordinates. Command Sequence/Try yourself Command: LIMITS Reset Model space limits: Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.0000,0.0000>:(enter co-ordinates 2,2) Specify upper right corner <12,9>: (enter co-ordinates 8,7 ) & observe the change in grid 0333-2642151
  21. 21. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 21 of 66 Explore other options by yourself Drawing Limits can also be used to turn Limits mode on or off. Limits mode can be used to control where objects can and cannot be drawn. Limits is turned off by default which means that there is no restriction as to where points can be picked and objects drawn. When Limits is on, AutoCAD will not allow points to be picked or co-ordinates entered at the command line which fall outside of the specified drawing limits. If you try to pick a point outside the drawing limits when Limits mode is turned on, AutoCAD reports to the command line: **Outside limits Limits mode is useful if you know the extent of your plotted drawing sheet and you want to prevent objects being drawn outside of this area. However, Drawing Limits is most commonly used simply to control the extent of the Grid.Ortho command/Ortho ModeStatus BarPull-down NoneKeyboard ORTHO or F8Ortho is short for orthogonal, which means either vertical or horizontal. Like the other options on thestatus bar, Ortho is not really a command; it is a drawing mode which can either be turned on or off.Ortho mode can be toggled on or off in one of three ways. The quickest way is just to click on theORTHO button on the status bar. The appearance of the button tells you whether Ortho is currentlyturned on or turned off. When Ortho is turned on, the ORTHO button appears pressed in. You cansee how this appears by looking at the status bar illustration below. In the illustration, Ortho is turnedon but Grid and Snap are turned off.Ortho can also be toggled on and off using the F8 Function. Finally, you can also type ORTHO at thecommand prompt as in the command sequence below. With Ortho mode turned on you can onlydraw lines which are either vertical or horizontal. Try yourself, Turn Ortho mode on now and draw some lines to get a feeling for how it works. Command: ORTHO Enter mode [ON/OFF] <OFF>: (type ON or OFF) Ortho mode is probably the simplest of all the drawing aids, and historically one of the oldest. It is either on or it is off and there are no special settings to make. You may not be surprised to learn, therefore, that its use has largely been superseded by more recent features, particularly Polar Tracking (You will learn later)Snap Mode/Snap CommandStatus Bar (right-click for settings)Pull-down NoneKeyboard SNAP or 0333-2642151
  22. 22. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 22 of 66Snap mode takes AutoCAD one step further than the drawing board. With Snap mode turned onAutoCAD only allows you to pick points at regular intervals/jumps. The Snap is completelyindependent of the display grid. However, the Grid spacing and Snap spacing are usually set to thesame value for the ease of understanding. Command Sequence Command: SNAP Specify snap spacing or [ON/OFF/Aspect/Rotate/Style/Type] <10.0000>: (enter the required snap spacing in drawing units) Explore yourself Although you can use the Snap command to turn Snap mode on and off, it is much more efficient to use the F9 function key on the keyboard or to click the SNAP button on the status bar. The "Aspect" option can be used to vary the horizontal and vertical snap spacing independently. "Rotate" is used to set the snap grid to any angle. You can force the display grid to conform with the snap grid by setting the display grid spacing to zero. The display grid will then automatically change each time the snap grid is changed. When Snap mode is turned on and the Grid is displayed, the Snap and Grid spacing are the same and the crosshairs will jump from one grid point to another as you move across the screen. This makes it very easy to draw objects which have a regular shape. The Snap command is used to set the snap spacing. All of the Snap variables can also be set using the pull down menu, Tools-Drafting Settings dialogue box. Right-click on the SNAP button and choose Settings… from the short-cut menu. Direct distance input-TutorialObject:Comparing the all coordinate entry methods, by creating thissimple drawing using:  Absolute coordinate method.  Relative coordinate method.  Polar coordinate method.  Direct distance entry methodUsing direct distance entry ( Time saving )A method to specify a second point by first moving the curser toindicate the direction and then entering a distance. If ortho isturned ON (Or Polar tracking is used.) only then we can make accurate horizontal and vertical linesotherwise this method does not give us accuracy in drawing lines.Procedure: Start the software; open a new drawing using start from scratch and English / Imperial option. Turn ON the 0333-2642151
  23. 23. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 23 of 66 Make the object drawing four times (Each time change the color of line when using different methods by using object properties toolbar) by following all four methods separately in the same drawing one over the other. And try to understand difference between these methods. Absolute Method Relative Metho Polar Method Direct Distance Entry Method d Type L or LINE & Press Enter L Enter L Enter L Enter Type 2,2 & Press Enter 2,2 Enter 2,2 Enter 2,2 Enter Type 8,2 & Press Enter @ 6 , 0 Enter @ 6 < 0 Enter Move curser right, type 6, Enter Type 8,4 & Press Enter @ 0 , 2 Enter @ 2 < 90 Enter Move curser up, type 2, Enter Type 6,4 & Press Enter @ -2 , 0 Enter @ 2 < 180 Enter Move curser left, type 2, Enter Type 6,6 & Press Enter @ 0 , 2 Enter @ 2 < 90 Enter Move curser up, type 2, Enter Type 4,6 & Press Enter @ -2 , 0 Enter @ 2 < 180 Enter Move curser left , type 2, Enter Type 4,8 & Press Enter @ 0 , 2 Enter @ 2 < 90 Enter Move curser up, type 2, Enter Type 2,8 & Press Enter @ -2 , 0 Enter @ 2 < 180 Enter Move curser left, type 2 , Enter Type 2 , 2 Enter, Esc/Enter C Enter C Enter C Enter UNITS command/Drawing Units Dialog Box Format menu: Units Command entry: units (or units for transparent use)Defines the unit and angle formats.LengthSpecifies the current unit of measurement and the precision for thecurrent units. Type Sets the current format for units of measure. The values include Architectural, Decimal, Engineering, Fractional, and Scientific. The Engineering and Architectural formats produce feet-and- inches displays and assume that each drawing unit represents one inch. The other formats can represent any real-world unit. Precision Sets the number of decimal places or fractional size displayed for linear 0333-2642151
  24. 24. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 24 of 66Note:-How to enter different units for length (Syntax)Enter feet and inches using the following format/syntax:feet-inches" or feet’ inches" or feet inchesYou can separate feet, inches, and fractional inches with a dash, a space, or nothing. You can use anyof the following syntax cases to enter valid feet-inch formatted values: • 5’ or 60” • 5’-9” or 5’ 9” or 5’9” • 5’-1/2” or 5’ 1/2” or 5’1/2” • 5’-9-1/2” or 5’ 9-1/2” or 5’9-1/2” • 5’-9 1/2” or 5’ 9 1/2” or 5’9 1/2”To designate inches for linear calculations, entering double quotes (“) is optional. For example,instead of entering 5’9-1/2”, you could enter 5’9-1/2.Warning With imperial units, CAL interprets a minus or a dash (-) as a unit separator rather than asubtraction operation. To specify subtraction, include at least one space before or after the minussign. For example, to subtract 9” from 5’, enter 5’ -9” rather than 5’-9”.Angle Specifies the current angle format and the precision for the current angle display. Type Sets the current angle format. Precision Sets the precision for the current angle display. Clockwise Calculates positive angles in the clockwise direction. The default direction for positive angles is counterclockwise.Insertion ScaleControls the unit of measurement for blocks and drawings that are inserted into the current drawing.A block or a drawing that is created with units that are different from the units specified with thisoption is scaled when inserted. The insertion scale is the ratio of the units used in the source block ordrawing and the units used in the target drawing. Select Unitless to insert the block without scaling itto match the specified units.Sample OutputDisplays an example of the current settings for units and angles.DirectionDefines the angle for 0 degrees and specifies the direction in whichangles are measured. When prompted for an angle. Base Angle East, North, West & South, Sets the direction of the zero angle. Other Specifies a direction different from the points of the compass. Angle Specifies a value for the zero angle when other is selected, you can specify the angle by entering a value. Pick an Angle Button Defines the zero angle in the graphics area based on the angle of an imaginary line that connects any two points you specify with the pointing device. Available only when other is 0333-2642151
  25. 25. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 25 of 66  CIRCLE Command Along with Line and Polyline, the Circle command is probably one of the most frequently used. Fortunately it is also one of the simplest. However, in common with the other commands in this section there are a number of options that can help you construct just the circle you need. Most of these options are self explanatory. The Circle command, for example, offers 6 ways to create a circle, Try yourself-Tutorial Command: CIRCLE Specify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: (pick P1 anywhere or type 6,6) Specify radius of circle or [Diameter] (pick P2 anywhere or type 2.5 as radius) Explore and practice various circle command options For example, the circle command gives you three extra options to define a circle. 3P which uses any three points on the circumference, 2P which uses two points on the circumference to form a diameter and Ttr which stands for Tangent Tangent Radius. Obviously to use this last option you need to have drawn two lines which you can use as tangents to the circle. Try these options out to see how they work. Note that to invoke a command option; you need only type the upper-case part of the option name. For example, if you want to use the Ttr option, you need only enter "T". There are two more circle options on the pull-down menu that enable you to draw a circle by defining the center and diameter or by using 3 tangents. Exercise 0333-2642151
  26. 26. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 26 of 66 RECTANGLE Command TheRectangle command is used to draw a rectangle whose sides arevertical and horizontal. The position and size of the rectangle are defined by picking two diagonalcorners. The rectangle isnt really an AutoCAD object at all. It is, in fact, just a closed polyline which isautomatically drawn for you.Try yourself-Tutorial, First, Open an imperial file by using start from scratch option, Command: RECTANG Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: (pick P1 or Type 0 , 0) Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: (pick P2 or type 12 , 9) Notice that, instead of picking a second point to draw the rectangle, you have the option of entering dimensions. Say you wanted to draw a rectangle 8 drawing units long and 5 drawing units wide. The command sequence would look like this:Try yourself-Tutorial Command: RECTANG Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/Elevation/ Fillet/Thickness/Width]: (pick a point P1 anywhere or type 2,2) Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: D Specify length for rectangles <0.0000>: 8 Specify width for rectangles <0.0000>: 5 Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: (pick a point to fix the orientation) Selecting objects or Defining selection setIntroductionBefore you start to use the AutoCAD Modify commands, you need to know something about selectingobjects. All of the Modify commands require that you make one or more object selections. A selectionset can consist of a single object, or it can be a more complex grouping. You can create the selection seteither before or after you choose an editing command. You can make several changes to the sameselection set. AutoCAD has a whole range of tools which are designed to help you select just the objectsyou need. This tutorial is designed to demonstrate the use of many of the selection options. As with somany aspects of AutoCAD, developing a good working knowledge of these options can drasticallyimprove your drawing speed and efficiency.Before you can edit objects, you need to create a selection set of the objects. Use one of the followingmethods to create selection sets.Selecting Objects by Picking/Pointing with mouse.When you start a Modify command such as ERASE, two things happen. First, the cursor changes fromthe usual crosshairs to the pickbox and second, you will see the "Select objects" prompt on the commandline. Both of these cues are to let you know that AutoCAD is expecting you to select one or more objects. 0333-2642151
  27. 27. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 27 of 66To select an object, place the pickboxover a part of the object and left-click themouse. When the object has beenpicked it is highlighted in a dashed lineto show that it is part of the currentselection and the command linereports "1 found". You will now see the"Select objects" prompt on the command line again. At this point you can continue adding more objects tothe current selection by picking them or you can press or the Space Bar to complete the selection. Draw a circle using the CIRCLE command, the size and position of the circle does not matter. Erase the Circle, Try yourself-Tutorial Tutorial Erase the circle using the ERASE command, Modify Erase from the pull-down or from the Modify toolbar. Command: ERASE Select objects: (place the pickbox over a circle circumference and left-click) 1 found Select objects: (press to complete the selection and erase the object)Creating selection sets by picking objects can become quite tedious if you want to select a large numberof objects. Just imagine having to pick a hundred or more objects in a large drawing. FortunatelyAutoCAD provides a number of selection options which can help you select objects more efficiently.When you pick one or more objects in response to the "Select objects" prompt, you are effectivelycreating a selection set. Selection sets are an important concept in AutoCAD because they can be used togreat effect, especially when drawings become large or complicated.Window Selection/ Window or W, optionThe Window option is invoked by typing W in response to the "Select objects" prompt. Window allowsyou to define a rectangle using two points in exactly the same way as the RECTANGLE command. Oncethe window is defined, all objects which lie entirely within the window will be selected. Try yourself-Tutorial First draw several circles of any size as shown in figure and than, start ERASE command, Command: ERASE Select objects: W First corner: (pick first corner of selection window) Specify opposite corner: (pick second corner of the selection window) Select objects: (at this point you can either select more objects or to complete the selection set and continue with the current command.) 0333-2642151
  28. 28. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 28 of 66Crossing Window Selection/Crossing or C optionThe Crossing Window option is invoked by typing C at the "Select objects" prompt and is a variationof the Window command, A crossing selection is displayed as dashed line. The command sequence isexactly the same but objects are selected which lie entirely within the window and those which crossthe window borderThe Undo optionIt often happens that you inadvertently add objects which you dont want to a selection set during itscompilation. When this occurs in the middle of a complicated selection it can be pretty annoying.Fortunately AutoCAD allows you to undo the last selection made during the compilation of aselection set. All you need do is enter U at the next "Select objects" prompt to remove the objectspreviously added.Selects all objects /All optionThe All option is invoked by typing ALL at the "Select objects" prompt. You can use this option to selectall the objects in the current drawing, no picking is required. Objects on Locked or Frozen layers are notselected but objects on layers which are simply turned off are selected. Use of OBJECTSNAP/OSNAP to locate points [ F3 ] Making drawings accuratelyIntroduction Tools menu: Drafting Settings Shortcut menu: Right-click Snap, Grid, Polar, Osnap, Otrack, or Dyn on the status bar andclick Settings. Command entry: dsettings (or dsettings for transparent use)The Object Snaps (Osnaps for short) are drawing aids which are used in conjunction with othercommands to help you draw accurately. Osnaps allow you to snap onto a specific object location whenyou are picking a point. For example, using Osnaps you can accurately pickthe end point of a line or the center of a circle. Osnaps in AutoCAD are soimportant that you cannot draw accurately without them. For this reason, youmust develop a good understanding of what the Osnaps are and how theywork. This tutorial describes the use of all the osnaps. There are anumber of worked examples which demonstrate Osnaps in use.Using OSNAP through keyboard or OSNAP toolbar 0333-2642151
  29. 29. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 29 of 66 ENDpoint The Endpoint Osnap snaps to the end points of lines and arcs and to polyline vertices. This is one of the most useful and commonly used Osnaps Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Endpoint Keyboard END (when picking). MIDpoint The Midpoint Osnap snaps to the mid points of lines and arcs and to the mid point of polyline segments. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Midpoint Keyboard MID (when picking) INTersection The Intersection Osnap snaps to the physical intersection of any two drawing objects (i.e. where lines, arcs or circles etc. cross each other) and to Polyline vertices. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Intersection Keyboard INT (when picking) CENter The Center Osnap snaps to the centre of a circle, arc or polyline arc segment. The cursor must pass over the circumference of the circle or the arc so that the centre can be found. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Center Keyboard CEN (when picking) QUADrant The Quadrant Osnap snaps to one of the four circle quadrant points located at north, south, east and west or 90, 270, 0 and 180 degrees respectively. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Quadrant Keyboard QUA or QUAD (when picking) TANgent The Tangent Osnap snaps to a tangent point on a circle. This osnap works in two ways. You can either draw a line from a point to the tangent point (see illustration) or you can draw a line from a tangent point, the latter is referred to as the "Deferred Tangent" snap mode. 0333-2642151
  30. 30. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 30 of 66 Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Tangent Keyboard TAN (when picking) PERpendicular The Perpendicular Osnap snaps to a point which forms a perpendicular with the selected object. As with the Tangent Osnap, Perpendicular can be used to draw a line to a perpendicular point, as in the illustration or from a perpendicular point, known as the "Deferred Perpendicular" snap mode. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Perpendicular Keyboard PER or PERP (when picking) PARallel The Parallel Osnap is used to draw a line parallel to any other line in your drawing. In operation, this osnap is slightly less intuitive than some of the others. To draw a parallel line, first start the Line command, specify the first point when prompted and then start the Parallel Osnap. Hover the cursor over an existing line until you see the Parallel snap marker. Now, move the cursor close to a parallel position and a dotted line will appear, indicating the parallel. You can now pick the second point of your line. The Snap Tip also includes a relative polar co-ordinate. Toolbar Object Snap Pull-down Shift + Right Click Parallel Keyboard PAR or PARA (when picking) Exercises 0333-2642151
  31. 31. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 31 of 66 TRIM commandModify toolbar: Modify menu: Trim Command entry: trimTrims objects at a cutting edge defined by other objectsTo trim an object 1. Click Modify menu » Trim. 2. Current settings: Projection = current Edge = current Select cutting edges... Select objects or <select all>: Select one or more objects to serve as cutting edges and press ENTER, or press ENTER to select all displayed objects 3. Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or [Fence/Crossing/Project/Edge/eRase/Undo]: Select the objects to trim. 0333-2642151
  32. 32. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 32 of 66 FILLET commandFilleting connects two objects with a smoothly fitted arc of a specified radius. Although in real worldan inside corner is called a fillet and an outside corner is called a round, AutoCAD treats both asfillets.Setting the Fillet Radius first To set the fillet radius 1. From the Modify menu, choose Fillet. 2. Enter r (Radius). 3. Specify the fillet radius. 4. Press ENTER to reenter the FILLET command. 5. Select the objects to fillet. CHAMFER commandChamfering connects two nonparallel objects by extending or trimming them to intersect or to joinwith a beveled line. You can chamfer lines, polylines, xlines, and rays. With the distance method, youspecify the amount that each line should be trimmed or extended.The chamfer distance is the amount each object is trimmed or extended to meet the chamfer line or tointersect the other object. If both chamfer distances are 0, chamfering trims or extends the two objectsuntil they meet but does not draw a chamfer line.The default setting for the first distance is the last distance specified. The default setting for thesecond distance is whatever you choose for the first distance, because symmetrical distances arecommon. However, you can reset the chamfer distances.To chamfer by specifying distances 1. From the Modify menu, choose Chamfer or 2. Command line CHAMFER 3. Enter d (Distance). 4. Enter the first chamfer distance. 5. Enter the second chamfer distance. 6. Press ENTER to reenter the CHAMFER command. 7. Select the lines for chamfering. The Ellipse CommandToolbar DrawPull-down Draw Ellipse Axis, EndKeyboard ELLIPSE short-cut ELThe Ellipse command gives you a number of different creation options. The default option is to pick thetwo end points of an axis and then a third point to define the eccentricity of the ellipse. After you havemastered the default option, try out the others.Try yourself-Tutorial 0333-2642151
  33. 33. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc Page 33 of 66 Command: ELLIPSE Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center]: (pick P1) Specify other endpoint of axis: (pick P2) Specify distance to other axis or [Rotation]: (pick P3) OFFSET commandOffset creates a new object whose shape parallels the shape of a selected object. Offsetting a circle or anarc creates a larger or smaller circle or arc, depending on which side you specify for the offset.A highly effective drawing technique is to offset objects and then trim or extend their ends.You can offset  Lines  Arcs  Circles  Ellipses and elliptical arcs  2D polylines  Construction lines (xlines) and rays  SplinesTo offset an object by specifying a distance 1. Click Modify menu » Offset. 2. Specify the offset distance. You can enter a value or use the pointing device to specify the distance/gap 3. Select the object to offset. 4. Specify a point on the side where you want to place the new objects. 5. Select another object to offset, or press ENTER to end the command. Exercise – Oval Wash Basin (Assume missing dimensions, if any) 0333-2642151
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  35. 35. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 35 of 66 Exercise – Fancy Door (Assume missing dimensions, If any) The Rectangular ArrayToolbar ModifyPull-down Modify ArrayKeyboard ARRAY short-cut ARThe Array command makes multiple copies of selected objects ina rectangular matrix (columns and rows) or a polar (circular) pattern.The illustration on the right shows the results of a rectangular arraywith two columns and three rows. The distance between rows isindicated with the dimension DR and between columns with DC.When creating rectangular arrays it is important to remember that newrows are created above the original object and new columns arecreated to the right of the original object. The resulting array is, therefore, always created with the originalobject in the bottom left hand position with respect to the current co-ordinate system. In the illustration, theoriginal object is shown in dashed line and the new objects in continuous lines.Note: It is possible to create arrays which do not align with the World Co-ordinate System by setting a UserCo-ordinate System first 0333-2642151 Page 35 of 66
  36. 36. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 36 of 66Try yourself-TutorialTry creating this array yourself. First open anew file with metric settings, draw a rectangle20 drawing units wide and 10 drawing units tallsomewhere in the lower left quarter of thedrawing area.Now start the Array command. First of all, makesure that the Rectangular Array button isselected and that you are looking at theRectangular Array dialogue box and now followthe steps below: 1. Click the Select objects button. The dialogue box will temporarily disappear enabling you to select the rectangle you just drew. Press enter button on your keyboard to complete the selection. You are now returned to the dialogue box and the message immediately below the Select Objects button should read "1 objects selected". 2. Enter the number of rows required in the Rows edit box. For this example, enter the value "3". Notice that the schematic preview on the right hand side of the dialogue box updates to reflect the values you are entering. 3. Enter the number of columns required in the Columns edit box. Enter the value "2". 4. Enter the row offset in the Row Offset edit box. This is the distance DR as discussed earlier. Note that is not the distance between rows. In this example, our rectangle is 1 units high and we will enter a row offset of 15. The result will be a 5 unit gap between rows of rectangles. 5. Enter the column offset in the Column Offset edit box. The same parameters apply as for the row offset. Enter a value of 25 to give a 5 unit gap between our rectangles. 6. Click on the Preview button. Once again, the dialogue box disappears and the specified array is temporarily drawn so that we can preview it. We are now offered 3 choices. If the array isnt quite right, click the Modify button to return to the Array dialogue box. If you are happy with the array, click the Accept button, the array will be permanently drawn and the command is ended.You should now have an array that looks similar to the one in the illustration above consisting of 6 rectanglesarranged in 3 rows and 2 columns. As you can se, this command is very powerful and can save lots of time ifused carefully.Note: Try negative values specifying DR ( -15 ) & DC ( -25 ) in step no.4 & 5 , and see the different arraysyou get with such combinations. 0333-2642151 Page 36 of 66
  37. 37. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 37 of 66 Exercise – Ventilation PanelComplete the drawing of the ventilation panel. Use the Array command with the Rectangular option to createa total of 8 rows and 5 columns. Exercise The Polar ArrayThe polar array works in a similar way to the rectangular array. The main difference is that rather thanspecifying the number and offset for rows and columns, you must specify a center point and the total numberof objects in the array (including the original object).Try yourself-TutorialYou can try this for yourself by drawing anotherrectangle as described above. This time, though, locatethe rectangle in the centre top half of thedrawing area. Now, start the Array command, clickthe Polar Array button and follow the steps below: 1. Same as earlier 2. Specify the center point for the array. This is the point C in the illustration below. You can do this by entering x and y co- 0333-2642151 Page 37 of 66
  38. 38. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 38 of 66 ordinates into the appropriate edit boxes if you know what these values should be. However, this is rarely the case and most often you will want to click the Pick Center Point button to pick a point from the drawing area. Pick a point somewhere below the rectangle you have just drawn. 3. Enter a value for the total number of items. For this example, enter the value "6". Notice that once again, the schematic preview updates to reflect the values you have entered. 4. Make sure that the Rotate items as copied checkbox is checked/selected 5. Same as step six in earlier exampleThe array you have just drawn should looksomething like the one illustrated below,left. Take some time to play around withthe other options in the Array dialogue box tosee what they can do.The illustration shows the results of a polararray using an original rectangle copied sixtimes about a centre point C, through an angleof 360 degrees. The only differencebetween the array on the left andthe one on the right is that the Rotate items as copied checkbox was not checked in the right hand example.All new objects created with the Array command will inherit the object properties of the original object. Exercises – Polar array Exercises (Door, Window & Chair) 0333-2642151 Page 38 of 66
  39. 39. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 39 of 66 The Copy and Move CommandsWith Copy command you can create Copies/duplicates of objects at a specified distance in a specifieddirection 0333-2642151 Page 39 of 66
  40. 40. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 40 of 66Try yourself-TutorialFirst start a drawing with imperial settings, draw the figure show below,Command: RectangleSpecify first corner point or[Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width]: pick a point P1 anywhereSpecify other corner point or [Area/Dimensions/Rotation]: Type @2, 1 and pressenterNow start Line commandCommand: _line Specify first point: Select the lower left corner of rectangle P1as start point of lineSpecify next point or [Undo]: Select the upper right corner of rectangle P2as end of lineSpecify next point or [Undo]: Press enter to end the Line commandStart Circle command to draw the circleCommand: circleSpecify center point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr (tan tan radius)]: Pick the mid point of the diagonal lineSpecify radius of circle or [Diameter] <0.3126>: Type 0.25To create a copy/duplicate of the rectangle at a gap of one inch from the previous rectangle.Start Copy command by any one of the following methodsCommand: copySelect objects: Select the rectangle onlySelect objects: Press enter to end selectionSpecify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: Select lower left corner of the rectangle P1Specify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Type @3, 0 and press enterSpecify second point or [Exit/Undo] <Exit>: (If you want to create more copies specify next location) Butnow press enter to end copy commandWith Move command you can move objects at a specified distance and direction from the originals. 0333-2642151 Page 40 of 66
  41. 41. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 41 of 66The Move command works in a similar way to the Copy command except that no duplicate/copy is made, theselected object(s) is simply moved/shifted from one location to another.To move/shift the diagonal line and circle start move command by any one of the following methods,Command: moveSelect objects: Select the diagonal lineSelect objects: Now select the circleSelect objects: Press enter to end move commandSpecify base point or [Displacement] <Displacement>: Select the upper right corner P2 of the rectangleSpecify second point or <use first point as displacement>: Select upper right corner P3 of the copied rectangleon the right side POINT Command Points are very simple objects and the process of creating them is also very simple. Points are rarely used as drawing components. They are normally used just as drawing aids in a similar way that Construction Lines and Rays are used. When adding points to a drawing it is usually desirable to set the point style first because the default style can be difficult to see.The point command will insert a point marker in your drawing at a position which you pick in the drawingwindow or at any co-ordinate location which you enter at the keyboard. The default point style is a simple dot,which is often difficult to see but you can change the point style to something more easily visible or elaborateusing the point style dialogue box. You can snap to points using the Node object snap (You will learn this whendoing Object Snap tutorial for details)Points can be used for "setting out" a drawing in addition to construction lines. You can Snap to points usingthe Node object snap.Try yourself-Tutorial (Draw some points at various locations) Command: POINT Current point modes: PDMODE=0 PDSIZE=0.0000 Specify a point: (pick any point or type the coordinates where you want to draw a point) 0333-2642151 Page 41 of 66
  42. 42. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 42 of 66 Strangely, in Multiple Point mode (the default for the Point button on the Draw toolbar) you will need to use the escape key (Esc) on your keyboard to end the command. The usual right-click or enter doesnt work. You can start the point style command from the keyboard by typing DDPTYPE or you can start it from the pull-down menu at Format Point Style… The command starts by displaying a dialogue box offering a number of options. To change the point style, just pick the picture of the style you want and then click the "OK" button. Any new points createdafter the style has been set will automatically display in the new style.One interesting aspect of points is that their size can be set to an absolute value or relative to the screen size,expressed as a percentage. The default is for points to display relative to the screen size, which is very usefulbecause it means that points will remain the same size, irrespective of zoom factor. This is particularlyconvenient when drawings become complex and the drawing process requires a lot of zooming in and out. The Construction Line CommandThe Construction Line command creates a line of infinite length which passes through two picked points. Construction lines are veryuseful for creating construction frameworks or grids within which to design.Construction lines are not normally used as objects in finished drawings, it is usual, therefore,nto draw all yourconstruction lines on a separate layer which will be turned off or frozen prior to printing. Because of their nature,the Zoom Extents command option ignores construction lines.Try yourself-Tutorial First open a new drawing using start from scratch with imperial settings, zoom out once and add/draw some line using xline command, Command: XLINE Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: (pick a point anywhere or type 0,0) Specify through point: (pick a second point anywhere or type 12,9) Specify through point: (to end ) You may notice that there are a number of options with this command. For example, the "Hor" and "Ver" options can be used to draw construction lines that are truly horizontal or vertical. In both these cases, only a single pick point is required because the direction of the line is predetermined. To use a command option, simply enter the capitalized part of the option name at the command prompt. Follow the command sequence below to see how you would draw a construction line using the Horizontal option. Exercise - 0333-2642151 Page 42 of 66
  43. 43. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 43 of 66 The Polyline commandThe Polyline or Pline command is similar to the line command except that the resulting object may becomposed of a number of segments which form a single object. In addition to the two ends a polyline is said tohave vertices (singular vertex) where intermediate line segments join. In practice the Polyline command worksin the same way as the Line command allowing you to pick as many points as you like. Again, just hit toend. As with the Line command, you also have the option to automatically close a polyline end to end. To dothis, type C to use the close option instead of hitting .You may be wondering, if Polylines are so useful, why bother using ordinary lines at all? There are a number ofanswers to this question. The most frequently given answer is that because of their complexity, polylines use upmore disk space than the equivalent line. As it is desirable to keep file sizes as small as possible, it is a good ideato use lines rather than polylines unless you have a particular requirement. You will also find, as you work withAutoCAD that lines and polylines are operationally different. Sometimes it is easier to work with polylines forcertain tasks and at other times lines are best. You will quickly learn the pros and cons of these two sorts of linewhen you begin drawing with AutoCAD.Follow the command sequence below to see how this works. Polylines can also be given line widths to makethem appear solid. The figure shows a number of polylines to give you an idea of the flexibility of this type ofline.Try yourself-Tutorial Command: PLINE Specify start point: (pick P1) Current line-width is 0.0000 Specify next point or [Arc/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: (pick P2) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: (pick P3) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: (pick P4) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: (pick P5) Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: (or C to close)The figure on the left was created by hitting the key after the fifth point was picked. The figure on the rightdemonstrates the effect of using the Close option. Try experimenting with options such as Arc and Width andsee if you can create polylines like the ones in the illustration above. 0333-2642151 Page 43 of 66
  44. 44. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 44 of 66Polylines can be edited after they are created to, for example, change their width. You can do this using thePEDIT command which will be discussed/taught later. The Donut CommandThis command draws a solid donut shape. AutoCADasks you to define the inside diameter i.e. the diameter ofthe hole and then the outside diameter of the donut. Thedonut is then drawn in outline and you are asked to pickthe centre point in order to position the donut. You cancontinue picking centre points to draw more donuts oryou can hit to end the command. Surprisingly,donuts are constructed from single closed polylines composed of two arc segments which have been given awidth. Fortunately AutoCAD works all this out for you, so all you see is a donut.Try yourself-Tutorial First open a new imperial drawing file, and try this Command: DONUT Specify inside diameter of donut <0.5000>: (type 2 as inside/hole diameter) Specify outside diameter of donut <1.0000>: (type 4 as outside diameter ) Specify center of donut or <exit>: (pick P1 anywhere or type 2,2) Specify center of donut or <exit>: (to end or continue to pick for more donuts) Curiously enough AutoCAD doesnt seem to mind if you make the inside diameter of a donut larger than the outside diameter, try it and see. Exercise - Printed CircuitComplete the printed circuit board. Use Donut with an inside diameter of 0.1 and an outside diameter of 0.2 tocreate the pads. Use Pline with a width of 0.12 to complete the traces. Use a 0.25 Grid and Grid Snap to place allpads (Donuts) on a point. 0333-2642151 Page 44 of 66
  45. 45. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 45 of 66 The Polygon CommandThe Polygon command can be used to draw any regular polygon from 3 sides up to1024 sides. This command requires four inputs from the user, the number of sides, apick point for the centre of the polygon, whether you want the polygoninscribed (Inside a circle) or circumscribed(Outside a circle) and then a pick pointwhich determines both the radius of this imaginary circle and the orientation of thepolygon. The polygon command creates a closed polyline in the shape of the requiredpolygon.Try yourself-Tutorial Command: POLYGON Enter number of sides <4>: 5 Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: (pick P1 anywhere or type 12,0) Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>: (to accept the inscribed default) Specify radius of circle: (pick P2 anywhere or type 2 as a radius)Try yourself-Tutorial Enter number of sides <4>: 5 Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: (pick P1 anywhere or type 12,9) Enter an option [Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle] <I>: ( type C for circumscribed) Specify radius of circle: (pick P2 anywhere or type 2 as radius)Try yourself-Tutorial Command: POLYGON Enter number of sides <4>: 5 Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: (type E to define by edge length) Specify first end point of Edge: (pick P1 anywhere or type 6,4.5) Specify first end point of Edge: (pick P2 or specify length by any method) 0333-2642151 Page 45 of 66
  46. 46. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 46 of 66 Exercises The Arc Command The Arc command allows you to draw an arc of a circle. There are numerous ways to define an arc, the default method uses three pick points, a start point, a second point and an end point. Using this method, the drawn arc will start at the first pick point, pass through the second point and end at the third point. Once you have masteredthe default method try some of the others. You may, for example need to draw an arc with a specific radius.All of the Arc command options are available from the pull-down menu.Try yourself-Tutorial Command: ARC Specify start point of arc or [Center]: (pick P1 anywhere) Specify second point of arc or [Center/End]: (pick P2 anywhere) Specify end point of arc: (pick P3)Note: It is also possible to create an arc by trimming a circle object. In practice, many arcs are actuallycreated this way. Exercise – Drawing ARCS 0333-2642151 Page 46 of 66
  47. 47. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 47 of 66 Exercise – Bath Tub 0333-2642151 Page 47 of 66
  48. 48. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 48 of 66 ROTATE CommandTry yourself-TutorialFirst draw a figure similar to the one shown on right, or draw any other figure,Start ROTATE command by using any one of the following methods Command: _ROTATE Current positive angle in UCS: ANGDIR=ccw ANGBASE=0 Select objects: Select Entities (Select the arrow only) Specify base point: Select the point around which you will rotate the entities.(Select the center of the circle) Specify rotation angle or [Copy/Reference]: Enter angle (Type 120 degree angle & press enter) Loading different line types into drawing file using Linetype Manager Format menu: Linetype Command entry: linetype (or linetype for transparent use) Loads linetypes and sets the current linetype. Load Displays the Load or Reload Linetypes dialog box, in which you can load into the drawing selected linetypes and add them to the linetype list. Current Sets the selected linetype to be the current linetype. Delete Deletes selected linetypes from the drawing. You can delete only unused linetypes. The BYLAYER, BYBLOCK, and CONTINUOUS linetypes cannot be deleted. Exercises – Bed, Desktop Phone set & Slotted Flat Head Screw 0333-2642151 Page 48 of 66
  49. 49. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 49 of 66 Creating & formatting Multiline / Paragraph textDraw toolbar: Draw menu: Text » Multiline Text Command entry: mtextTo create multiline text1. Click Draw menu » Text » Multiline Text.2. Specify opposite corners of a bounding box to define the width of the multiline text object. The In-Place Text Editor is displayed as shown above.3. If you want to use a text style other than the default, click the arrow next to the Text Style control on the toolbar and then select a style.4. Enter text.Note Text that would otherwise be difficult to read (if it is very small, very large, or is rotated) is displayed ata legible size and is oriented horizontally so that you can easily read and edit it.5. To override the current text style, select text as follows:  To select one or more letters, click and drag the pointing device over the characters.  To select a word, double-click the word.  To select a paragraph, triple-click the paragraph.6. On the toolbar, make format changes as follows:  To change the font of the selected text, select a font from the list.  To change the height of the selected text, enter a new value in the Height box. 0333-2642151 Page 49 of 66
  50. 50. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 50 of 66  To format text in a TrueType font with boldface or italics, or to create underlined or overlined text for any font, click the corresponding button on the toolbar. SHX fonts do not support boldface or italics.  To apply color to selected text, choose a color from the Color list. Click Other to display the Select Color dialog box.7. To save your changes and exit the editor, use one of the following methods:  Click OK on the toolbar.  Click in the drawing outside the editor.  Press CTRL+ENTER.To insert symbols or special characters in multiline text1. Double-click a multiline text object to open the In-Place Text Editor.2. On the expanded toolbar, click Symbol.3. Click one of the options on the menu, or click Other to display the Character Map dialog box. To access the Character Map dialog box, you must have charmap.exe installed. See Microsoft® Windows® Help for information about adding programs to your system.4. In the Character Map dialog box, select a font.5. Select a character, and use one of the following methods: S To insert a single character, drag the selected character into the editor. T To insert multiple characters, click Select to add each character to the Characters to Copy box. When you have all the characters you want, click Copy. Right-click in the editor. Click Paste.2.To save your changes and exit the editor, use one of the following methods: T Click OK on the toolbar. C Click in the drawing outside the editor.Press CTRL+ENTER. The Mirror CommandThe Mirror command allows you to mirror selected objects in your drawingby picking them and then defining the position of an imaginary mirrorline using two points.Try yourselfFirst create a figure similar to the shown above and use mirror command Command: MIRROR Select objects: (pick object to mirror, P1) Select objects: (to end selection) Specify first point of mirror line: (pick P2) Specify second point of mirror line: (pick P3) Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: (for No to keep the original object)Notice that in the command sequence above, pressing the key whenasked whether to "Delete source objects?" resulted in a "No" response.This is because "No" is the default option. AutoCAD always shows the default option within triangular 0333-2642151 Page 50 of 66
  51. 51. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 51 of 66brackets, in this case "<N>". Many AutoCAD commands offer default options. They are usually the mostcommonly used and you need only right-click and select "Enter" from the menu or press on the keyboard toaccept them.In order to create perfectly horizontal or vertical mirror lines use Ortho. Exercise – Mirror the PulleyDraw one side of the pulley shown in Figure. Use the Mirror command to complete the other side, Save thedrawing as PULLEY. Exercise – Mirror the elevationPractice drawing half of the figure shown below and than use mirror command to create the opposite half.Assume any appropriate dimensions/sizes. Creating Layers, using Layer manager dialogue box-TutorialObjectCreate following layers, assign color and line type to eachlayer by using the layer and line type properties dialogue box.IntroductionLayers are like transparent overlays on which you organize andgroup different kinds of drawing information. The objects youcreate have common properties including colors, Linetypes, andlineweights. An object can assume these properties from thelayer it is drawn on, or properties can be specifically assigned toindividual objects. Color helps you distinguish similar elements in your drawings, enhancing your drawing 0333-2642151 Page 51 of 66
  52. 52. 2dmuetcourse-110113030257-phpapp01.doc 52 of 66and increasing legibility. Organizing layers and the objects on layers makes it easier to manage theinformation in your drawings.You can assign properties to layers as well as toindividual objects in a drawing. If you want aspecific object to have a different color, Linetype,lineweight than the layer it is drawn on, you canchange the object property setting.Common layers mostly used in drawings are walls,doors, windows, plumbing, electrical, fixtures,structural elements, notes (text), dimensions, ceiling,insulation, posts, title block, center, hidden, hatch, object and so on.ProcedureThe formation of layers in a drawing involves the following steps.First open a new drawing file using start from scratch and imperial settings. Give it a name (Layer practice) byusing Save as option in the file menu.Creating and Naming Layers Use any one of the following methods to display the Layer properties manager dialog as shown. Layers toolbar: Format menu: Layer Command entry: layer (or layer for transparent use or –layer to avoid dialogue box) Listed in the box is only one layer which is default Layer. Generally drawings are not created on 0 layer, instead it should be created on newly created layers. To create these Layers, click on the “New Layer” button and notice a layer is automatically added to the list of layers. This layer is given a default name “Layer 1” but you can type Object here as this is the layer which we want to create. Pressing/Typing/Entering a comma at the end of the layer’s name, allows more layers to be added to the list of layers. Once the comma was entered after the layer “Object” and the new layer appears, enter the new name of the layer as “Hidden”. Repeat this procedure of using comma to create other desired layers. The layer listing will be as shown above in figure except the circle on the color swatch. 0333-2642151 Page 52 of 66