HOW DID THEY APPEAR? Benjamin Bloom (1956) developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior in learning. This taxonomy contained three overlapping domains: the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Within the cognitive domain: six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These domains and levels are still useful today as you develop the critical thinking skills of your students.
The Three Types of LearningWhat IS Critical Thinking?
What IS Critical Thinking? Critical thinking can be defined several ways. One definition is “an active, organized, cognitive process”. Another definition is “a process for identifying underlying assumptions and variables in order to draw conclusions and make decisions”. You could even use the definition “a process used to explore alternatives to determine what is important”.
brainteaser When I was going to St. Ives I met a man with seven wives Every wife had seven sacks Every sack had seven cats Every cat had seven kittens; Kittens, cats, sacks and wives How many were going to St. Ives?
What IS Critical Thinking? Exploring encourages you to identify all the variables within a situation. Analyzing is the process of studying each variable to understand its meaning and its relationship to the other variables. Prioritizing requires you to weigh the relative importance of each variable to the others, at a given point in time.
What IS Critical Thinking? Explaining the variables involves the exercise of amplifying each variable to understand its meaning in the situation and to the involved parties. Deciding means to choose a specific course of action. Evaluating requires the thinker to assess how correct the thinking process was, and if further action is needed.
WHICH ONES ARE THEY? Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning: skills such as comparison, classification, sequencing, cause/effect, patterning, webbing, analogies, deductive and inductive reasoning, forecasting, planning, hypothesizing, and critiquing. Creative thinking involves creating something new or original. It involves the skills of flexibility, originality, fluency, elaboration, brainstorming, modification, imagery, associative thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking, forced relationships. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.
ANALYSISanalyze arrange connect divide infer separateclassify compare contrast explain select orderbreakdown correlate diagram discriminate focus illustrate pointsinfer outline prioritize subdivide prioritize outExamples: recognize and explain patterns andmeaning, see parts and wholes
HOW TO DEVELOP THEM Setting activities in which the student is the centre of the learning activity Students are asked to classify objects according to their own judgement: by colours, size, use, topics,etc. : Learning centres. They discriminate words according to their ending, beginning, or middle sounds and are asked to join them so as to create a chant, a poem or rhymes.
Other ways of practicing grammarMake sentences, use have and dont have
Characteristics ofCritical Thinkers CT’ers look at self honestly/aware of prejudices CT’ers know their attitudes/values influence CT’ers are fair/respectful CT’ers are willing to change thinking CT’ers are not easily manipulated CT’ers are question askers CT’ers are independent thinkers CT’ers look for connections CT’ers based decisions on evidence
WHAT ABOUT GAMES? Word games: create associations, relationships among different elements ( listing words ) Visual thinking games: develop visualization through shapes and forms, abstract images to discuss whta they see. Drawing games: Includes both visualization and word games , drawing squiggles and ask them what they see.
5 Ways To Help Kids Think1. Provide a thoughtful classroom environment2. Make the invisible – visible3. Scaffold and cue (use tools)4. Provide continuing direct instruction5. Integrate thinking instruction with content …move it around
WEBLIOGRAPHYwww.livestrong.comwww.accessexcellence.orgwww.criticalthinking.orgwww.buzzle.com ( exercises for children )www.vforteachers.com ( exercises &experiments for children )