Thar caol as Alternate source of Energy


Published on

This presentation was presented by Muhammad Younas in his course work which was compiled and acknowledged by Majid Khattak M.Phil Scholar

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Thar caol as Alternate source of Energy

  1. 1. Feasibility of Coal Mining in Thar“An alternate source of Energy” PRESENTED TO: DR. ZULFIQAR AHMED BY: MUHAMMAD YOUNAS Compiled and Acknowledged By: MAJID KHATTAK Department of Earth Sciences QAU Islamabad. Email: Cell No: +923459288637
  2. 2. Thar Coal Field Location Map 2
  3. 3. Geology of Thar• The Thar coalfield area is covered by dune sand that extends to an average depth of over 80 meters and rests upon a structural platform in the eastern part of the desert. The generalized stratigraphic sequence in the Thar coalfield area is shown in table. It comprises Basement Complex, coal bearing Bara Formation, alluvial deposits and dune sand. 3
  4. 4. STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE IN THE THAR COALFIELDFormation Age Thickness LithologyDune Sand Recent 14 m to 93 m Sand, silt and clay--------------------------------------------Unconformity-----------------------------------------------Alluvial Sub-Recent 11 m to 209 m Sandstone, siltstoneDeposits (variable) clay stone, mottled.--------------------------------------------Unconformity-----------------------------------------------Bara Formation Paleocene to +52 m Claystone, shale, Early Eocene (variable) sandstone, coal Carbonaceous claystone--------------------------------------------Unconformity-----------------------------------------------Basement Pre-Cambrian ------- Granite and quartz diorite.Complex 4
  5. 5. Hydrogeology of Thar The hydrogeology study examines the effects of surface water and groundwater on the mining site. There are no rivers or significant water courses on the mine site or adjoining lands and there are only significant rains in the monsoon season when surface run off will have to be managed. There are 3 aquifers within the mine site which will require dewatering to enable the mining to proceed to the base of the pit. There is an intermittent aquifer at the base of the upper dune sands which does not contain significant volumes of water. 5
  6. 6. • A second aquifer is located in the Bara Formation above the Lignite and extends throughout the coalfield. Again it does not contain significant volumes of water but will require dewatering in advance of excavation to maintain the stability of the pit walls.• Below the base of the Lignite and confined by the basal granites at depth there is a major aquifer which again extends throughout the coalfield and requires lowering to below the base of the pit to prevent floor heave and other instabilities at the lower levels of the mine. 6
  7. 7. • All the waters in the aquifers is slightly saline or brackish and would require treatment for drinking or irrigation and a Reverse Osmosis plant will be constructed to provide the same 7
  9. 9. Coal’s Significance in Global Energy Scenario  Global energy consumption will rise by 50% by 2030. In non-OECD region, it will rise by 85% (International Energy Outlook Report 2008)  Coal use is likely to grow from 40% to 44%, as a source for power generation, by 2030* due to energy security and price volatility.  Besides use in power generation, various countries have initiated projects to produce Coal-to-Liquids, that entail producing diesel and other liquid products and Coal gasification projects in China, US, India and South Africa.  World Proven Coal Reserves – Over 860 billion tons.* Source IEA Report 2009 9
  10. 10. World Coal Resources billion tonnes %age World Coal reserves 860 – Bituminous & anthracite 405 47 – Sub Bituminous 260 30 – Lignite 195 23 According to Survey of Energy Resources 2010 by World Energy Council – The use of coal to rise by 60% by 2030. – Coal’s Share in Power generation is set to increase from 41% to 44% by 2030* 10* ( Source- 2010 survey of energy Resources- world energy council)
  11. 11. Coal Used in Electricity Generation & Lignite Reserves % age of Electricity Lignite Reserves Billion Generated from Coal tonnes South Africa 94 30.15* Poland 93 1.37 China 81 18.6 Australia 76 37.2 Israel 71 - Kazakhstan 70 12.1 India 68 4.5 Czech Republic 62 0.98 Morocco 57 - Greece 55 3.02 USA 49 30.16 Germany 49 40.6 World Average 41 195.38 Pakistan 0.1 186.2*** Sub bituminous & Anthracite reserves only ( Source,2008, IEA) 11** Thar Coal Resources are 175 billion tonnes Proven Reserve in 9 explored Blocks alone is 20 billion tonnes
  12. 12. A Comparison of Power Generation fuel Mix World PakistanWorld Power Generation fuel Mix 2008-09 Others 2% Coal 41% Hydro 16% Gas 20% Oil 6% 12
  13. 13. Demand & Supply Gap Projection for Pakistan Project Demand Current Installed Capacity (MW) Gap (MW) Year MW 2010 24,474 6,577 2015 36,217 18,320 54,359 36,462 19,566 2020 80,566 62,669 2025 113,695 95,798 2030 Source: Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Future Energy Demand Supply Gap is Alarming! 133
  14. 14. Pakistan’s Coal Reserves Sindh186.560 billion tonnesThar 175 billion tonnes Punjab 235 million tonnes Balochistan 217 million tonnes KP 90 million tonnes Azad Kashmir 9 million tonnes Thar Thar 14
  15. 15. Uses of Lignite Combustion (Steam) Electricity (Steam Turbines)Lignite EthanolCoal Jet Fuel Gasification CH4 CO Crude Oil - Refinery Diesel CO2 H2 Petrol Paraffin H2 Coal to Liquid Chemicals (Ethylene  Ash H2S Fisher Tropsch Polymers Tar Synthesis Naphta NH3 Phenol Catechols Carbon Dioxide Ammonia Dephenolized Cresylic Acid Fertilizer ExplosivesSource: Syngas and Coal Technology, R & D, SASOL – Mr Johannes Van Heerdeen 15
  16. 16. Social Benefits from Thar Development
  17. 17. Benefit to Economy – Reduction in Power Generation Cost• NPV of savings from Block II alone is over Rs. 3.2 Trillion
  18. 18. Annual Savings in Foreign Exchange from Thar Block II• Cumulative savings of over USD 87 Billion from Block II alone
  19. 19. Vision for Thar Coal“To develop Thar Coal as a major source of power generation for Energy & Economic Security of the country and as a Hub of Petro Chemical Industry” Goal To generate at least 10,000 MW by 2020 19
  20. 20. Incentives for Thar Coal DevelopmentSpecial Economic Zone• Thar Coalfield is declared as Special Economic Zone, and the projects of development of Thar (also including coal mining and power generation) declared as ‘Projects of National Security’Rate of Return• 20% ($ Based) IRR to firms which achieve Financial Close before 31st December 2015 for Mine & Power Plants based on indigenous coal and additional half a percentage IRR i.e. 20.5% IRR for firms which Financial Close by or before 31st December 2014. 20
  21. 21. INFRASTRUCTURE AVAILABLE AT THARROAD NETWORK70 tonnes load carrying capacity metalled road is availableup to Coal field area.ELECTRICITY11 KV feeder emanating from Islamkot to Thar CoalProject areas with 200 watts transformer is available.COMMUNICATIONTelephone & Internet communication through Optic fibercable is available up to Thar Coalfield area.DRINKING WATER29 Reverse Osmosis Plants in Thar are available forprovision of portable water to residents as well as projectstaff free of cost.RESCUE STATIONRescue Station in coal mining area at Thar coalfieldcovering an area of 8,200 sq. ft. is completedLIBRARYA Coal library is situated at office of Sindh Coal Authority,Karachi. 21
  22. 22. INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNED AT THARTRANSMISSION LINENTDC is conducting feasibility study for lying of TransmissionLine for evacuation of 10,000 MW from Thar. In the first Phasethey are planning to evacuate 1200 MW.AIRPORTThe GoS has approved a scheme at the cost of Rs.972.070million for the construction of Airport at Thar for Coal Fields ofSindh by the Civil Aviation Authority.PROVISION OF HEAVY DUTY ROADThe W&S Deptt. is upgrading the road from Karachi toIslamkot through Hyderabad- Mirpurkhas- Naukot forfacilitating transportation of heavy machinery by Dec. 2012.RAILWAY LINKPRACS has been engaged by GoS to prepare feasibility forbroad gauge rail link from Port Qasim to Islamkot.LODGE AT THARLodge at Thar with 20-bedded accommodation to facilitateforeign and local investors is being constructed at Islamkot.PROVISION OF CANAL WATER:The GoS has planned to construct a water carrier to provide 300 22Cusecs water to Thar.
  23. 23. Investment Options1. Coal Mining Investors interested only in mining may applyfor a mine lease for mining the coal.2. Integrated Coal & Power Generation Project Investors may also opt for investing anintegrated coal mining and power generationprojects.3. Mine Mouth Power Project Thar coalfields present best opportunity formine mouth power projects in view of the greatdemand for energy in the country. 23
  24. 24. Investment Options4. Coal Gasification Investors may propose to convert coal into gas and market the syngas and bye products in open market, or may develop a forward integrated project on any one or more bye products from gasification project5. Coal to Liquid Projects Investors may propose to convert coal into Liquid and market the byproducts in open market, or may develop a forward integrated project on any one or more bye products from CTL project 24
  25. 25. Conclusion• It is clearly established that Thar Coal has immense potential, not only to meet Pakistan’s primary Energy requirements for Power generation (IGCC, CCPP), Transport fuels (CTL, FTD), Natural gas (SNG), fertilizers, petro chemicals etc ramping up from 2012 to 2030, but sufficient quantities can be produced for bridging the gap in Asian Energy markets.• Thar Coalfield has not been developed due to incorrect project development approach, which has been based on one, or two 1000 MW power plant set-up. 25
  26. 26. Continued……….• It is essential that a new modality be followed now and a Master Plan be prepared, for full field development and downstream multiple applications based on highest economic returns.• On successful demonstration of a production mine with proper engineering, mining methodology and analysis of bulk samples, a full Thar coalfield development bankable feasibility and Master Plan will be prepared to undertake the multibillion dollar project in phases from 2010-2030 26
  27. 27. Thar today 27
  28. 28. Thar TomorrowThank You 28