Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Antibiotics Lecture 01


Published on

History of antibiotics

  • Be the first to comment

Antibiotics Lecture 01

  1. 1. Bio 319: Antibiotics Lecture one Topics •Course outline •History of Antibiotics and Classification of Bacteria Dr. G. Kattam Maiyoh Website: http://MAIYOH.1faculty.com03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 1
  2. 2. BIO 319: Antibiotics Course Outline Lecturer: Dr. Kattam Maiyoh E-mail: Phone: 0713-592879 ___________________________________________________ Labs This class will include the following practical sessions. •Sensitivity Testing •Susceptibility testing Textbooks/ Lecture Notes Any textbook of Microbiology (Microbiology by Michael J.P., General microbiology by Roger et al) Lecture notes and other materials will be provided after class03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 2
  3. 3. ExaminationCAT 1 – 15%CAT 2- 15%Assignments – 5%Practicals – 10%Final Exam – 70%Exams will mostly be based on the material presented during classes.It is in your best interest to attend all Lectures, Practical session,CATs and Exams. 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 3
  4. 4. Course outlineIntroduction to history of antibioticsClassification of bacteriaCharacteristics of antibiotics (why they are chemotherapeutic agents)Classification of antibioticsAntibiotics production •Procedure for production •Commercial production •Polyketide biosynthesis •Biotechnology •Peptide antibioticsAntibiotic resistance and quality control •Causes •Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance •How to overcome antibiotic resistance 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 4
  5. 5. OutlineApplication of antibiotics - use•Human disease•Agriculture•Livestock productionMode of action of antibioticsPrinciples of antibiotic selectionBioterrorism and antibiotics stockpiling03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 5
  6. 6. Overview• If bacteria make it past our immune system and start reproducing inside our bodies, they cause disease.• Certain bacteria produce chemicals that damage or disable parts of our bodies.• Antibiotics work to kill bacteria.• Antibiotics are specific to certain bacteria and disrupt their function.03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 6
  7. 7. Importance of Microbes • Life is microbial! (to the first approximation) – Micro-organisms colonise every environment on earth – >80% of life’s history was bacterial – You have more bacterial cells than human cells – Microbes play a key role in the biosphere – Pathogenic microbes globally are the most important cause of human disease and death03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 7
  8. 8. Importance of Infection• Has played a decisive role in history• Still major cause of death and misery worldwide• Examples of public anxieties – Meningitis, Food poisoning – Mad cow disease – Cholera – Emerging infections e.g. Ebola, swine flu• Hospital Infection (Nosocomial infections) – Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 8
  9. 9. History of Antibiotics• (anti, "against"; bios, "life") An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by one organism that is destructive to another.• The word antibiotic came from the word antibiosis a term coined in 1889 by Louis Pasteurs pupil Paul Vuillemin which means a process by which life could be used to destroy life.03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 9
  10. 10. What is an Antibiotic?• An antibiotic is a selective poison.• It is chosen so that it kills the desired bacteria only, but not the cells in your body.• Each different type of antibiotic affects different bacteria in different ways.• For example, an antibiotic might inhibit a bacterias ability to turn glucose into energy, or the bacterias ability to construct its cell wall.• Therefore the bacteria dies instead of reproducing. 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 10
  11. 11. Ancient History• The ancient Egyptians, the Chinese, and Indians of central America all used molds to treat infected wounds.• However, they did not understand the connection of the antibacterial properties of mold and the treatment of diseases. Mould03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 11
  12. 12. Late 1800s• The search for antibiotics began in the late 1800s, with the growing acceptance of the germ theory of disease, a theory which linked bacteria and other microbes to the causation of a variety of ailments.• As a result, scientists began to devote time to searching for drugs that would kill these disease-causing bacteria.03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 12
  13. 13. 1871• The surgeon Joseph Lister, began researching the phenomenon that urine contaminated with mold would not allow the successful growth of bacteria.1890s• German doctors, Rudolf Emmerich and Oscar Low were the first to make an effective medication that they called pyocyanase from microbes.• It was the first antibiotic to be used in hospitals. However, the drug often did not work• Learning check – why do you think the drug did not work some of the time? 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 13
  14. 14. 1928: Fleming and PenicillinSir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacteriumStaphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the moldPenicillium notatum, demonstrating antibacterial properties. 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 14
  15. 15. (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) •German scientist in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy, and Nobel laureate. •He is noted for curing syphilis andPaul Ehrlich research in autoimmunity, •called it "horror autotoxicus". •He coined the term "chemotherapy" and popularized the concept of a "magic bullet". 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 15
  16. 16. 1935- the first sulfa drug discovered •German pathologist and bacteriologist Credited with the discovery of Sulfonamidochrysoidine (KI-730) – the first commercially available antibacterial antibiotic (marketed under the brand name Prontosil)Gerhard Domagk(1895–1964). •1939 Nobel Prize in Physiology/ Medicine 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 16
  17. 17. 1942 •Invented manufacturing process for Penicillin G Procaine. •Penicillin could now be sold as a drug.Howard Florey •Fleming, Florey, and Chain shared(1898–1968) the 1945 Nobel Prize for medicine for their work on penicillin. 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 17
  18. 18. Penicillin • Penicillin was isolated in 1939. • Concerted effort by a number of scientists; • Originally noticed by a French medical student, Ernest Duchesne, in 1896 • Re-discovered by bacteriologist Alexander Fleming – Published investigations in 1929 • Dorothy discoved the molecular layout of penicillin – used x-rays • 1939 Dr. Howard Florey demonstrate penicillins ability to kill infectious bacteria.03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 18
  19. 19. 1943 •American microbiologist made the drug streptomycin from soil bacteria, the first of a new class of drugs called aminoglycosides. •Streptomycin could treat diseases like tuberculosis, however; •The side effects were often too severe.Selman Waksman (1888–1973) 03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 19
  20. 20. 1955 Tetracycline was patented by Lloyd Conover, which became the most prescribed broad spectrum antibiotic in the United States. 1957 •Nystatin was patented and used to cure many disfiguring and disabling fungal infections. •Invented by Elizabeth Lee Hazen and Rachel Fuller Brown •Researchers for the New York Department of Health03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 20
  21. 21. 1981 •SmithKline Beecham patented Amoxicillin or moxicillin/clavulanate potassium tablets. •First sold the antibiotic in 1998 under the trade names of Amoxicillin, Amoxil, and Trimox. •Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic.03/21/13 GKM/BIO319:Antibiotics/Sem02/2013 21