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I T Evolution


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I T Evolution

  1. 1. Policy Awareness & Development in Information Technology Amit K. Maitra Executive Doctor of Management (EDM) Program, Case Western Reserve University Class of 2006
  2. 2. CONTEXT <ul><li>Global Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA Space Station FREEDOM Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA Earth Observing Satellite Polar Ground Network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferable Information Exchange System (TIES) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary moments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Underlying Theme <ul><li>Fully integrated information systems for a shared data environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focus <ul><li>Information, Access, Authorization, Emerging Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Accessibility, Commonality, and Compatibility Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Locale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security & Privacy Assurance </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Global Environment <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographically distributed, dissimilar elements of varying capabilities and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data distributed to and redistributed among system facilities, interconnected by both private and shared public communications networks </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Changing Technologies: NASA Space Station FREEDOM Program TMIS <ul><ul><li>International Partner Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Package Projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Non-Work Package Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSTS Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-Year Duration </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Changing Technologies: NASA Earth Observing Satellite Polar Ground Network <ul><li>Very complex, dynamic system accommodating SW growth and change, technology, and users </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage, processing, and transmissijon capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Open system interconnection to provide data interchange between dissimilar elements within an open worldwide communication system </li></ul><ul><li>The network links various elements in the system – both the ground-based and space-borne components </li></ul>
  8. 8. Innovations: Transferable Information Exchange System (TIES)
  9. 9. Leadership <ul><li>Policy Making </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Policy Making “ Our success depends on agencies working as a team across traditional boundaries to serve the American people, focusing on citizens rather than individual agency needs.” ~ President George W. Bush
  11. 11. Decisions “ This Administration’s goal is to champion citizen-centered electronic government that will result in a major improvement in the Federal government’s value to the citizen.” ~ The President’s Management Agenda
  12. 12. . Business Reference Model (BRM) <ul><li>Lines of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies, Customers, Partners </li></ul>Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Technical Reference Model (TRM) Business and Performance-Driven Approach Performance Reference Model (PRM) <ul><li>Inputs, Outputs, and Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Tailored Performance Indicators </li></ul>Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) <ul><li>Service Domains, Service Types </li></ul><ul><li>Business and Service Components </li></ul><ul><li>Service Component Interfaces, Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies, Recommendations </li></ul>Interoperability / Information Sharing (Business-Context Driven) Processes The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) is a business and performance-based framework to support cross-agency collaboration, transformation, and government-wide improvement Data and Information Reference Model (DRM) <ul><li>Subject Areas, Classifications, Data Elements, </li></ul><ul><li>Data Properties, Data Representations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Processes The Data and Information Reference Model, in particular, was created and validated in partnership with several organizations, best practices, and leading practitioners <ul><li>OMB Bob Haycock </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Justice / GTRI Bob Greeves, Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Advisory Council (AIC) John Dodd </li></ul><ul><li>XML Working Group Marion Royal, Co-Chair </li></ul><ul><li>AIC Emerging Technologies Subcommittee Brand Niemann </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics Management Institute (LMI) Mark Crawford </li></ul><ul><li>Geospatial Community (GIS) Eliot Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Human Services (HHS) Melissa Chapman (CIO) </li></ul><ul><li>Library Community Susan Tarr </li></ul><ul><li>Records Management / NARA Reynold Cahoon </li></ul><ul><li>US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) Holly Higgins </li></ul>Organizations, Practitioners: Best Practices Followed / Leveraged: <ul><li>ISO 11179 </li></ul><ul><li>UN / CEFACT / ebXML </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Business Language (UBL) </li></ul><ul><li>OASIS / e-Gov Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Meta Object Facility (MOF) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF) </li></ul><ul><li>W3C </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>No common framework or methodology to describe the data and information that supports the processes, activities, and functions of the business </li></ul><ul><li>No definition of the handshake or partnering aspects of information exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Existing systems offer diffused content that is difficult to manage , coordinate, and evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Information is inconsistent and/or classified inappropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Without a common reference, data is easier to duplicate than integrate </li></ul><ul><li>No common method to share data with external partners </li></ul><ul><li>Limited insight into the data needs of agencies outside the immediate domain </li></ul><ul><li>Data and Information context is rarely defined </li></ul><ul><li>Stove piped boundaries , no central registry </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of funding and incentive to share </li></ul><ul><li>Data sensitivity and security of data </li></ul><ul><li>New laws/issues result in continuous adding of databases that can not share data </li></ul>Primary Issues and Information Sharing Barriers The Current Situation : The Federal Government is less than efficient in performing its business and meeting customer needs due to data sharing inefficiencies caused by stove-piped data boundaries Stove-Piped Data Boundaries “ As Is State” Have Created HHS INDUSTRY Illustrative CDC DHS TSA USDA DOI ENERGY LABOR FDA INS Denotes data and information sets within agencies.
  15. 15. These inefficiencies have created enormous bottlenecks and problems in agencies’ ability to effectively describe, use, and share information <ul><ul><li>Unclear knowledge of who to contact for specific data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased burden on finding and accessing the right data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased delays to satisfy citizen and stakeholder requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing costs to manage and integrate data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased corruption, sensitivity of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased ability to interoperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated new requests to collect the same data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited understanding of what data exists or where it is located </li></ul></ul>Has Led To Stove-Piped Data Boundaries “ As Is State” Inefficiencies Harder to manage privacy/security issues HHS INDUSTRY CDC DHS TSA USDA DOI ENERGY LABOR FDA INS Illustrative Denotes data and information sets within agencies.
  16. 16. The Solution: The Data and Information Reference Model (DRM) The DRM provides: <ul><li>A framework to enable horizontal and vertical information sharing that is independent of agencies and supporting systems </li></ul><ul><li>A framework to enable agencies to build and integrate systems that leverage data from within or outside the agency domain </li></ul><ul><li>A framework that facilitates opportunities for sharing with citizens, external partners and stakeholders </li></ul>Subject Area Data Object Data Property Data Representation Data Classification
  17. 17. The DRM supports each of the other FEA Reference Models Data and Information Reference Model (DRM) Business Reference Model (BRM) <ul><li>Lines of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies, Customers, Partners </li></ul>Service Component Reference Model (SRM) Technical Reference Model (TRM) Performance Reference Model (PRM) <ul><li>Inputs, Outputs, and Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Uniquely Tailored Performance Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Service Domains, Service Types </li></ul><ul><li>Business and Service Components </li></ul><ul><li>Service Component Interfaces, Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies, Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Maps data to inputs and outputs that support Performance Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Maps data to processes by Lines of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Maps data to Service Components by information flows </li></ul><ul><li>Maps data to the infrastructure to plan for interoperability </li></ul>
  18. 18. ... and “inner-connects” the FEA to provide a targeting framework to support the identification, integration, and implementation of cross-agency, cross-governmental information sharing initiatives Health and Human Services (HHS) (Federal Health Architecture) States Industry DHS FDA CDC PRM BRM SRM TRM DRM Public Health Monitoring - Infectious Diseases- Outbreaks reported by Public Health Authorities Stockpiles, Research Data Increased threats of bio-terrorism Disease Outbreak Data Adverse Event Reporting Web Services Web Services Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) FEA Reference Models Enterprise Architecture Conceptual
  19. 19. The DRM provides for increased business performance through efficiency gains by reducing the data burden for both the business manager and the technologist <ul><li>Government-Wide </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates open / standard-based interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Global identification of security and privacy issues and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Supports electronic exchange and interoperability of information </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for Electronic Form design and generation </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates electronic reporting, and G-to-G, B, C interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization / integration of data along functional lines of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Provides clear data ownership and stewardship </li></ul><ul><li>Agency-Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidated, standard data for Enterprise Resource Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the discovery and use of existing data components </li></ul><ul><li>Increased efficiency in data storage and access to/retrieval of data </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated implementation of GPEA and PRA </li></ul><ul><li>Compliant with OIRA requirements </li></ul>Business Benefits Technical Benefits <ul><li>Government-Wide </li></ul><ul><li>Common data vocabulary and data standardization to build integration adaptors and systems </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent means to categorize and classify data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic registries and repositories for data components </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create cross-agency, interoperable data architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Agency-Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates the design of Target Enterprise and Solution Architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Controls for proper protection of data can be defined </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated systems integration and interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Re-use of data components as opposed to duplication </li></ul>Complementary Benefits
  20. 20. What the DRM is, and what it isn’t… <ul><li>A framework to support the classification of data and information in respect to how it supports the lines of business and functions within the BRM </li></ul><ul><li>A registry that provides multiple levels of granularity to satisfy the re-use of data schemas from multiple stakeholder views </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of interrelated (or woven), context-driven XML Schemas </li></ul><ul><li>A framework that builds upon existing XML Schemas, Data Definition Libraries, and initiatives that exist across the Government (e.g., UN/CEFACT, UBL, ISO 11179, OASIS, current e-Gov initiatives) </li></ul>What it is: What it isn’t: <ul><li>A government-wide data model, or entity relationship diagram (ERD) </li></ul><ul><li>A replacement for ISO 11179 or other government-wide initiatives such as OASIS, UN/CEFACT, UBL, ebXML, etc </li></ul><ul><li>An all-encompassing mark-up language that describes the Federal Government (e.g., GOVML) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Responsibility for the creation and ongoing maintenance of the DRM, Subject Areas, Business Objects and Data Components / Elements rests with various organizations... BRM Function & Sub-Functions Data Classification Data Object Data Property Definition Ownership Stewardship (defines) (owns) (manages)* Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* FEA-PMO FEA-PMO FEA-PMO/AIC AIC/Agencies AIC/Industry/ Agencies/ISO * Thousands of data elements have already been defined within ISO 11179 that the Federal Government can adopt / take advantage of AIC/Agencies Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* Conceptual Data Representation Data Type Value Domain (Namespaces) ISO ISO ISO Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* Agencies/ISO* Business Subject Area FEA-PMO/Agencies Agencies Agencies
  22. 22. MODEL DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>A virtual representation of all physical data sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Applications are to be decoupled from data sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Details of data storage and retrieval are to be abstracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Are to be easily extended to new information sources </li></ul></ul>Revolutionary Moments: The Mandate
  23. 23. The Structure META OBJECT FACILITY
  24. 24. The Tools
  25. 25. Department of Homeland Security and Federated Data Management Approach
  26. 26. The Result: Interagency Information Federation
  27. 27. Paradigm Shift <ul><li>MDA is fundamental change </li></ul><ul><li>MDA rests on MOF </li></ul><ul><li>It is the best architecture for integration </li></ul><ul><li>It shifts data architecture from Entity Relationship Diagramming (ERD) to a Business Context (Interoperability/Information Sharing) </li></ul>Business & Performance Driven Approach
  28. 28. Concerns <ul><li>To what extent the government agencies, Customers, Partners are willing to participate along the Lines of Business (LOB), thereby underscoring the importance of working toward a common goal: Collective Action IAW National Security/National Interests criteria </li></ul><ul><li>These need to be tested and validated against uniquely tailored performance indicators: Inputs, Outputs, and Outcomes </li></ul>