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  1. 1. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching Adapted from Yueh-chiu Helen Wang’s PPT
  2. 2. Analyzing Methods <ul><li>There are ten questions we can ask about methods: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are the goals of teachers who use this method? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? </li></ul><ul><li>6. How is language viewed? How is culture viewed? </li></ul><ul><li>7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What is the role of the students’ native language? </li></ul><ul><li>9. How is evaluation accomplished? </li></ul><ul><li>10. How does the teacher respond to student errors? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Suggestopedia/Dessugestopedia <ul><li>Desuggestopedia , i.e., the application of the study of suggestion to pedagogy, has been developed to help students eliminate the feeling that they cannot be successful or the negative association they may have toward studying and, thus, to help them overcome the barriers to learning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Principles <ul><li>Learning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. The classroom is bright and colorful. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can learn from what is present in the environment, even if their attention is not directed to it (peripheral learning). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>If students trust and respect the teacher’s authority, they will accept and retain information better. (The teacher speaker confidently.) </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher gives the students the impression that learning the target language will be easy and enjoyable. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The students choose new names and identities and feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of a different person. </li></ul><ul><li>The dialogue that students learn contains language they can use immediately. Songs are useful for ‘freeing the speech muscles’ and evoking positive emotions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Fine art provides positive suggestions for students. </li></ul><ul><li>One way that meaning is made clear is through native language translation. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Communication takes place on ‘two planes’: on one the linguistic message is encoded; and on the other are factors which influence the linguistic message. On the conscious plane, the learner attends to the language; on the subconscious plane, the music suggests that learning is easy and pleasant. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>When there is a unity between conscious and subconscious, learning is enhanced. </li></ul><ul><li>A calm state, such as one experiences when listening to a concert, is ideal for overcoming psychological barriers and for taking advantage of learning potential. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The fine arts (music, art, and drama) enable suggestions to reach the subconscious. The arts should, therefore, be integrated as much as possible into the teaching process. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher should help the students ‘activate’ the material to which they have been exposed. Novelty aids acquisition. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. If they trust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily. </li></ul><ul><li>In an atmosphere of play, the conscious attention of the learner does not focus on linguistic forms, but rather on using the language. Learning can be fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors are corrected gently, not in a direct, confrontational manner. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is the role of teacher? <ul><li>The teacher is the authority in the classroom. In order for the method to be successful, the students must trust and respect her. Once the students trust the teacher, they can feel more secure. If they feel secure, they can be more spontaneous and less inhibited. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? <ul><li>The posters are change every few weeks to create a sense of novelty in the environment. Students select target language names and choose new occupations. During the course they create whole biographies to go along with their new identities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? <ul><li>The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of students and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course. </li></ul>
  16. 16. How are the feelings of the students dealt with? <ul><li>If students are relaxed and confident, they will not need to try hard to learn the language. It will just come naturally and easily. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How is language viewed? <ul><li>Language is the first two planes in the two-plane process of communication. In the second plane are the factors which influence linguistic message. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How is culture viewed? <ul><li>The culture which students learn concerns the everyday life of people who speak the language. The use of fine arts is also important in Desuggestopedic classes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What areas of language are emphasized? <ul><li>Vocabulary is emphasized. Grammar is dealt with explicitly but minimally. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What language skills are emphasized? <ul><li>Speaking communicatively is emphasized. Students also read in the target language (for example, dialogs) and write (for example, imaginative compositions). </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is the role of the students’ native language? <ul><li>Native-language translation is used to make the meaning of the dialog clear. The teacher also uses the native language in class when necessary. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How is evaluation accomplished? <ul><li>Evaluation usually is conducted on students’ normal in-class performance and not through formal tests, which would threaten the relaxed atmosphere considered essential for accelerated learning. </li></ul>
  23. 23. How does the teacher respond to student errors? <ul><li>Errors are corrected gently, with the teacher using a soft voice. </li></ul>