Kotler mm 13e_basic_06

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marketing management 13th edition chapter 6

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Kotler mm 13e_basic_06

  1. 1. Analyzing Consumer Markets Marketing Management, 13 th ed 6
  2. 2. Chapter Questions <ul><li>How do consumer characteristics influence buying behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What major psychological processes influence consumer responses to the marketing program? </li></ul><ul><li>How do consumers make purchasing decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do marketers analyze consumer decision making? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Influences Consumer Behavior? <ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul><ul><li>Personal factors </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Culture? <ul><li>Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behaviors acquired through socialization processes with family and other key institutions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Subcultures <ul><li>Nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>Religions </li></ul><ul><li>Racial groups </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic regions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fast Facts About American Culture <ul><li>The average American: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chews 300 sticks of gum a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goes to the movies 9 times a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes 4 trips per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attends a sporting event 7 times each year </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Social Classes <ul><li>Upper uppers </li></ul><ul><li>Lower uppers </li></ul><ul><li>Upper middles </li></ul><ul><li>Middle </li></ul><ul><li>Working </li></ul><ul><li>Upper lowers </li></ul><ul><li>Lower lowers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Social Classes <ul><li>Within a class, people tend to behave alike </li></ul><ul><li>Social class conveys perceptions of inferior or superior position </li></ul><ul><li>Class may be indicated by a cluster of variables (occupation, income, wealth) </li></ul><ul><li>Class designation is mobile over time </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social Factors <ul><li>Reference groups </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Social roles </li></ul><ul><li>Statuses </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reference Groups <ul><li>Membership groups </li></ul><ul><li>Primary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Aspirational groups </li></ul><ul><li>Disassociative groups </li></ul>
  11. 11. Family Distinctions Affecting Buying Decisions <ul><li>Family of Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Family of Procreation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Factors <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle stage </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brand Personality <ul><li>Sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Sophistication </li></ul><ul><li>Ruggedness </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lifestyle Influences <ul><li>Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Time-starved </li></ul><ul><li>Money-constrained </li></ul>
  15. 15. Table 6.2 LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability) Market Segments <ul><li>Sustainable Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy Lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Health Care </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Development </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key Psychological Processes <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  17. 17. Motivation Freud’s Theory Behavior is guided by subconscious motivations Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Behavior is driven by lowest, unmet need Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Behavior is guided by motivating and hygiene factors
  18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem needs </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization needs </li></ul>
  19. 19. Perception <ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul><ul><li>Selective retention </li></ul><ul><li>Selective distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Subliminal perception </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 6.4 Consumer Buying Process <ul><li>Problem recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Information search </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase decision </li></ul><ul><li>Postpurchase behavior </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sources of Information <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul>
  22. 22. Non-Compensatory Models of Choice <ul><li>Conjunctive </li></ul><ul><li>Lexicographic </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination-by-aspects </li></ul>
  23. 23. Perceived Risk <ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul>
  24. 24. Other Theories of Consumer Decision Making <ul><li>Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration Likelihood Model </li></ul><ul><li>Low-involvement marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Variety-seeking buying behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Representativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring and adjustment </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mental Accounting <ul><li>Consumers tend to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregate gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate smaller losses with larger gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregate small gains from large losses </li></ul></ul>

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