To achieve high-quality performance, organizations have to understand and match job requirements and people.Analyzing jobs and understanding what is required to carry out a job provide essential knowledge for staffing, training, performance appraisal, and many other HR activities.Job analysis: the process of getting detailed information about jobs.The output of a job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications. Let’s discuss each of those in more detail.
Job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.Job description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities, one product of a job analysis. Purpose of Job DescriptionThe main purpose of job description is to collect job-related data in order to advertise for a particular job. It helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and selecting the right candidate for the right job.It is done to determine what needs to be delivered in a particular job. It clarifies what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job opening.It gives recruiting staff a clear view what kind of candidate is required by a particular department or division to perform a specific task or job.It also clarifies who will report to whom.Job specifications A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on, another product of a job analysis.Purpose of Job SpecificationDescribed on the basis of job description, job specification helps candidates analyze whether are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.It helps recruiting team of an organization understand what level of qualifications, qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate to make him or her eligible for the job opening.Job Specification gives detailed information about any job including job responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and much more.It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.Job description and job specification are two integral parts of job analysis. They define a job fully and guide both employer and employee on how to go about the whole process of recruitment and selection. Both data sets are extremely relevant for creating a right fit between job and talent, evaluate performance and analyze training needs and measuring the worth of a particular job.
Skills and competencies should be listed separately from each other, as they are two quite separate things. Skills are activities the candidate can perform based on what they have learned in the past, or from qualifications they have obtained. Competencies are the traits or attributes you expect the candidate to display in the role.An example of a skill is the ability to give effective presentations. It is a skill that can be learned through study and practice. An example of a competency, on the other hand, is strong communication, which is an innate characteristic displayed by a person.The modern trend towards competency-based job descriptions means extra weight is given to behavioural competencies such as leadership, teamwork, flexibility, communication and initiative.
Be specific and direct to the point. As earlier stated, JDs should include what the worker should be doing, how he or she should be doing the assigned tasks, and why.Use clear and concise language. Whenever possible, use words of single meanings. Cite examples or explain words which have varying interpretations.Use non-technical language as much as possible. If technical words cannot be avoided, be sure to define them. A good JD explains the objectives, duties, and responsibilities of a job so that they are understandable even to a layperson.Be brief and avoid unnecessary words. Use simple sentences.Use action words (example: directs, supervises, calculates, calls applicants, etc.)Always use present tense.Whenever possible, describe the desired outcome of the work rather than the method accomplishing that outcome. For example, instead of saying “writes down phone messages” (a task-oriented approach) you may say “accurately records phone messages.” The word “accurately” defines how the job occupant should do his or her work.
Avoid words such as “handles” that do not tell specifically what an employee does. Example: “handles employees’ complaints.” Others you may want to avoid: “checks,” “prepares,” “examines,” “sends.” You may use them but only if they are the most accurate and specific ones available. But if a more specific term would describe the task better, use it.Use generic terms (e.g. photocopying machine) instead of propriety names (e.g. Xerox).Avoid using gender-based language.Qualify whenever possible. Do not just write that a file clerk “Files” materials. Instead, write that he or she “files materials alphabetically or by topic (also answers the “how” question) in order to have a quick retrieval of data as needed (answers the “why” questionGroup tasks with common purpose or objectives into categories. Some do this by key result areas.
DOT – an online database administered by the Department of Labor (US) that provides job duties, skills, education, etc for thousands of jobs. This is a great place to get information on the types of job duties that are characteristics of other similar positions.
An employer creating a new position often composes a job profile as the first step in forming the job description. A hiring manager will submit the job profile to his human resources department, which then designs a more detailed explanation of the position. This detailed explanation is the job description. The job profile is primarily for internal purposes. Human resources may keep a catalog of job profiles, so that as new openings become available, HR can quickly craft a detailed job description.Read more: What Is the Difference Between Job Profile & a Job Description? | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8430283_difference-job-profile-job-description.html#ixzz2E43Umn5O
What are the primary uses of a job description?Performance management. You can use it to set measurable performance goals based on duties in the job description, and then coach your employees to meet these goals as needed.Training and employee development. You can use your employee job descriptions, along with descriptions of possible job promotions, as incentives for employees to pursue classes, seminars and other career development activities.Compensation. Job descriptions can be helpful in developing a standardized compensation program with minimums and maximums for each position.Recognition and rewards. You can use the descriptions as a baseline for performance, and as a tool to encourage employee performance "above and beyond" the job description in order to receive recognition and rewards.Discipline. If you need to, you can use the job description to illustrate that an employee isn't adequately performing job functions.
Job description report
Job Analysis Job Description Job Job Title Specification Job Location Qualifications Job Summary Experiences Reporting To TrainingsWorking Conditions Skills Job Duties ResponsibilitiesMachines to be used Emotional Characteristics Hazards Sensory Demands
WHAT IS A JOB DESCRIPTION? Defines the essential function of a job as well as worker requirements for successful job performance. (Aganon, 2008) A formal statement of duties, qualifications, and responsibilities associated with a job. A document that tells employees where their position fits within the department and within the organization
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AJOB DESCRIPTION?Job Title A brief description (1-3 words) of the job which reflects the content, purpose, and scope of the job, and is consistent with job titles of similar jobs at the Company.Position Defines the purpose of the job and summarizes the duties andSummary responsibilities of the job Education Required – Designates the minimum level and type of education needed to be successful at the job as well as any acceptable substitutions (i.e. additional experience in lieu of the required degree).Job Experience Required – Designates the minimum level and type ofRequirements & experience needed to be successful at the job as well as anyQualifications acceptable substitutions (i.e. additional education in lieu of the required experience). License/Certification Required - Designates any licenses or certifications necessary to do the job (i.e. Bus Driver must have a valid Texas Driver’s License). Other Skills Required - List any skills, abilities, or knowledge that an incumbent must have to be successful in the job.
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AJOB DESCRIPTION?Supervisory Describes:Responsibilities • The supervision exercised by the position • The number, type, and titles of employees supervised • The hire/fire authority of the job incumbent • The supervision or guidance the position typically receives (general direction, close supervision, etc.)Fiscal Describes the level and type of budgetary or financial responsibilities of theResponsibilities position.Internal/ External Describes the nature of contact, the people contacted, and the extent toContacts which the incumbent has / makes contact with others within and outside of the Company.Physical Demands Describes the type, intensity (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of physical demands or mental capabilities required by the job.Working Conditions/ Describes irregular or unusual work schedules and any conditions of theEnvironment physical environment that an employee may find unpleasant or hazardous.Job Duties/ Conveys the job expectations, role, and scope by describing the essentialResponsibilities tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job.
COMPETENCY-BASED JOB DESCRIPTION Apart from the list of duties assigned to a position, the skills and behaviors required to successfully perform these duties are also included. Enables the recruiters to fully describe job requirements Helps supervisors adequately explain areas for improvement during reviews Lets employees understand skills they must acquire if they are interested in other positions within the organization.
ERRORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF POOR JOBDESCRIPTIONS Exaggerates or downplays the importance of the job. Lists qualifications that are not really needed for the job Underestimates the qualifications necessary to be successful on the job Job description is out-of-date because the job has changed Candidates without proper qualifications may be hired.
ERRORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF POOR JOBDESCRIPTIONS Recruitment and retention problems may occur because the employer is not accurate in their assessment of the qualifications necessary to successfully perform the job Prospective and current employees may not have an accurate perception of the job’s duties and responsibilities and may experience performance problems or problems with prioritization.
TIPS IN WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Be specific and direct to the point. Use clear and concise language. Use non-technical language as much as possible. If technical words cannot be avoided, be sure to define them. Be brief and avoid unnecessary words. Use simple sentences. Use action words (example: directs, supervises, calculates, calls applicants, etc.) Always use present tense. Whenever possible, describe the desired outcome of the work rather than the method accomplishing that outcome.
TIPS IN WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS Avoid words such as “handles” that do not tell specifically what an employee does. Use generic terms (e.g. photocopying machine) instead of propriety names (e.g. Xerox). Avoid using gender-based language. Qualify whenever possible. Group tasks with common purpose or objectives into categories. Some do this by key result areas.
OTHER RESOURCES Use secondary sources – research (Google it) Have incumbent draft a job description Contact Human Resources D.O.T. Dictionary of Occupational Titles - http://online.onetcenter.org/
JOB DESCRIPTION FORMATS Please refer to your hand outs
WHAT IS JOB PROFILING The job profile outlines the details of an employees job. These are the key components that you hired the employee to accomplish. In a straight-forward, actionable format, the job profile presents a picture of an employees key job duties. A job profile allows more latitude for current goals and expectations.
IN SUMMARY…. Training & Performance Recognition &Recruiting Employee Compensation Discipline Management Awards Development