Syntax
Productive & Generative Infiniteness Recursiveness
Noam Chomsky
<ul><li>Etymology : </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky , the American linguist, introduced the concept of  generative grammar ...
 
 
<ul><li>This is the horse and the hound and the horn  </li></ul><ul><li>That belonged to the farmer sowing his corn  </li>...
<ul><li>Surface  </li></ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul><ul><li>structure   </li></ul>Form Meaning
Lexical  (polysemy)  one word, several meanings: bank, present, book.. Syntactic / structural Sentence can be interpreted ...
 
<ul><li>Looking at sentence structures as a mathematic equation/ function (dynamic) using the symbols of syntactic descrip...
<ul><li>S  = sentence </li></ul><ul><li>PN  = proper noun </li></ul><ul><li>Art  = article </li></ul><ul><li>NP  = noun ph...
<ul><li>It is a rule that takes one structure as an input and then outputs (produces) another structure. </li></ul><ul><li...
Structural Analysis (SA) The structure of the input  Structural Change (SC) The structure of the output
<ul><li>The man   painted   the wall .  (input)  </li></ul><ul><li>(deep) </li></ul><ul><li>The wall   is painted   by   t...
<ul><li>I am as strong as him.  </li></ul><ul><li>I am not stronger than him.  </li></ul><ul><li>Deep structure </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The bag is too heavy for me to carry. </li></ul><ul><li>The bag is so heavy that I cannot carry it.  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>“ I like photography”, she said. </li></ul><ul><li>(deep) </li></ul><ul><li>She said she liked photography. </li><...
<ul><li>I turned the TV on. </li></ul><ul><li>I turned on the TV.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Imperative form (removing the subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Do your homework.  </li></ul><ul><li>Exclamations </li></...
<ul><li>S </li></ul>NP  VP V  NP  Adv
<ul><li>S </li></ul>NP  VP V  NP  Adv Adv
<ul><li>Provide one more superficially distinct sentence which would each have the same underlying structure . </li></ul><...
Mai Mustafa Fouad Ra’fat Ali 3 rd  year, General Roll No:  40   English Dept.  Faculty of Education Alex Uni
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The Study of Language - Syntax - Theoretical Linguistics

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This is an overview of chapter 10 in George Yule's the Study of Language - Synatx, with some additions.

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  • This Is the House That Jack Built &amp;quot; This Is the House That Jack Built &amp;quot; is a popular British nursery rhyme and cumulative tale . It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 20584. It is Aarne-Thompson type 2035. [1] dates back to the 16 th century, specific year unknown
  • The Study of Language - Syntax - Theoretical Linguistics

    1. 1. Syntax
    2. 2. Productive & Generative Infiniteness Recursiveness
    3. 3. Noam Chomsky
    4. 4. <ul><li>Etymology : </li></ul><ul><li>Noam Chomsky , the American linguist, introduced the concept of generative grammar in the 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most influential syntactic theories in the 20 th C. </li></ul><ul><li>He adopted the term from mathematics. </li></ul>
    5. 7. <ul><li>This is the horse and the hound and the horn </li></ul><ul><li>That belonged to the farmer sowing his corn </li></ul><ul><li>That kept the cock that crowed in the morn </li></ul><ul><li>That waked the priest all shaven and shorn </li></ul><ul><li>That married the man all tattered and torn </li></ul><ul><li>That kissed the maiden all forlorn </li></ul><ul><li>That milked the cow with the crumpled horn </li></ul><ul><li>That tossed the dog that worried the cat </li></ul><ul><li>That killed the rat that ate the malt </li></ul><ul><li>That lay in the house that Jack built. </li></ul>
    6. 8. <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul>Form Meaning
    7. 9. Lexical (polysemy) one word, several meanings: bank, present, book.. Syntactic / structural Sentence can be interpreted in many ways An American history teacher.
    8. 11. <ul><li>Looking at sentence structures as a mathematic equation/ function (dynamic) using the symbols of syntactic description instead of tree diagrams. </li></ul>
    9. 12. <ul><li>S = sentence </li></ul><ul><li>PN = proper noun </li></ul><ul><li>Art = article </li></ul><ul><li>NP = noun phrase </li></ul><ul><li>* = ungrammatical </li></ul><ul><li>sequence </li></ul><ul><li>= consists of </li></ul><ul><li>( ) = optional constituent </li></ul><ul><li>{ } = only one of these </li></ul><ul><li>constituents </li></ul><ul><li>N = noun </li></ul><ul><li>V = verb </li></ul><ul><li>Adv = adverb </li></ul><ul><li>VP = verb phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Pro = pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Adj = adjective </li></ul><ul><li>Prep = preposition </li></ul><ul><li>PP = prepositional </li></ul><ul><li>phrase </li></ul>
    10. 13. <ul><li>It is a rule that takes one structure as an input and then outputs (produces) another structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the pharse structural rules. </li></ul>
    11. 14. Structural Analysis (SA) The structure of the input Structural Change (SC) The structure of the output
    12. 15. <ul><li>The man painted the wall . (input) </li></ul><ul><li>(deep) </li></ul><ul><li>The wall is painted by the man . (output) </li></ul><ul><li>(surface) </li></ul>transformation
    13. 16. <ul><li>I am as strong as him. </li></ul><ul><li>I am not stronger than him. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep structure </li></ul><ul><li>Surface structure </li></ul>same different
    14. 17. <ul><li>The bag is too heavy for me to carry. </li></ul><ul><li>The bag is so heavy that I cannot carry it. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep structure </li></ul><ul><li>Surface structure </li></ul>same different
    15. 18. <ul><li>“ I like photography”, she said. </li></ul><ul><li>(deep) </li></ul><ul><li>She said she liked photography. </li></ul><ul><li>(surface) </li></ul>
    16. 19. <ul><li>I turned the TV on. </li></ul><ul><li>I turned on the TV. </li></ul>
    17. 20. <ul><li>Imperative form (removing the subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Do your homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclamations </li></ul><ul><li>Jeez! </li></ul><ul><li>My God! </li></ul><ul><li>Hurray! </li></ul><ul><li>Boo! </li></ul><ul><li>Yikes! </li></ul>
    18. 21. <ul><li>S </li></ul>NP VP V NP Adv
    19. 22. <ul><li>S </li></ul>NP VP V NP Adv Adv
    20. 23. <ul><li>Provide one more superficially distinct sentence which would each have the same underlying structure . </li></ul><ul><li>No one could deny that she is pretty. </li></ul><ul><li>Sara is not the tallest girl in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>He drove too fast for the police to catch. </li></ul>
    21. 24. Mai Mustafa Fouad Ra’fat Ali 3 rd year, General Roll No: 40 English Dept. Faculty of Education Alex Uni

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