Miningmethods 1228473621975095-9

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Miningmethods 1228473621975095-9

  1. 1. Mining Methods5th December 2008VENKAT M. PlotMakerTeam Lead – Minex, INDIA
  2. 2. Mining Methods• Coal is mined by two main methods - surface or ‘opencast’ mining and ‘underground’ mining.• The choice of method is largely determined by the depth, geology of the coal deposit and other factors.• The majority of the worlds coal production is coming from Opencast mines.• This scenario is same in India also.
  3. 3. Mining Process OPENCAST Drilling Drill machines (rotary/percussive) | | Blasting SMS, emulsion, Primer, Nonel, etc | | Loading Shovels, Draglines, etc | | Hauling Front-end loader, etc | | Transporting Dumpers, Conveyors, etc | |Processing/Washing Coal washeries…
  4. 4. Mining Process OPENCAST Drilling | Blasting | Loading | DRAG LINE Hauling | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  5. 5. Mining Process OPENCAST Drilling SURFACE MINER | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  6. 6. Mining Process OPENCAST Drilling | Blasting | Loading IN-PIT CRUSHING & | CONVEYING Hauling | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  7. 7. Mining Process UNDERGROUND Drilling Coal drill | | Blasting Permitted explosivesSupporting | |Ventilation Loading Manual/ SDL/ LHD/ScraperPumping | | Hauling Manual/ SDL/ LHD/Scraper | | Transporting Tubs, Conveyors, etc | | Processing/Washing Coal washeries…
  8. 8. Mining Process UNDERGROUND Drilling ROAD HEADERS | CONTINUOUS MINERS Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  9. 9. Mining Process UNDERGROUND Drilling | Blasting | Loading | SDL/ LHD/ Hauling SCRAPER | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  10. 10. Mining Process UNDERGROUND Drilling | Blasting | Loading LONGWALL | Hauling | Transporting |Processing/Washing
  11. 11. Selection of Mining Equipment• Stripping Ratio – in case of Opencast.• Life of the mine• Infrastructure available• Proposed annual output• Technology available
  12. 12. OPENCAST MINING
  13. 13. Different OC Machinery1. Shovel + Dumper2. Dragline3. Surface Miner4. Bucket Wheel Excavator5. In-pit crushing + Spreader
  14. 14. Schematic diagram of Opencast
  15. 15. Heavy blasting in open cast benches
  16. 16. Shovel + Dumper1. Multi seam extraction2. More flexibility3. Can work in steep gradients upto 1 in 5
  17. 17. Shovel + Dumper
  18. 18. Rope Shovel and Dumper
  19. 19. Hydraulic Shovel and Dumper
  20. 20. Surface Miner1. Selective mining.2. Particularly suitable for coal having compressive strength below 250 kg/cm2.3. Suitable in gradient of 1 in 10 and flatter.
  21. 21. Surface Miner
  22. 22. Surface Miner
  23. 23. Bucket wheel excavator1. Used mainly for lignite extraction.2. Particularly suitable for coal having low compressive strength upto 100 kg/cm2.
  24. 24. Bucket wheel excavator
  25. 25. DRAGLINE1. Gradients flatter than 1 in 6.2. Seams should be free of faults & other geological disturbances.3. Deposits with Major Strike length.4. A hilly property is not suitable.5. Deposit should have atleast 15 years life.
  26. 26. DRAGLINE
  27. 27. Giant Dragline bucket
  28. 28. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  29. 29. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  30. 30. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  31. 31. UNDERGROUND MINING
  32. 32. Incline entry into a seam.
  33. 33. Entry through a shaft
  34. 34. Entrythrough a shaft
  35. 35. Man riding systems in the mines
  36. 36. A well supported underground roadway
  37. 37. Coal train - 1919, Pennsylvania
  38. 38. Drilling operation in the coal face
  39. 39. MANUAL COAL LOADING
  40. 40. LOAD HAUL DUMPER Capacity – 2/2.7 Cu.M Production – 150/200 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 6 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m
  41. 41. SIDE DUMP LOADER Capacity – 1.0 Cu.M Production – 120 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 3.5 m
  42. 42. MECHANISED DRIVAGE MACHINESRate of drivage –6 meters/dayProduction –150 Tonnes/dayFor seams of 1 in 4 gradient and flatterThickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m
  43. 43. Continuous MinerRate of drivage –50 meters/dayProduction –1500 Tonnes/dayFor seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatterThickness of 3.0 m to 4.0 m
  44. 44. Mechanised Roof Bolter Bolting -240 bolts/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 5.0 m
  45. 45. LONGWALL GENERAL LAYOUT TOP Gate FACE Dip direction Bottom Gate- Longwall mining method includes drivage of two long roadways in coal and joining them at the end by a perpendicular drivage forming a face.
  46. 46. LONGWALL MINING
  47. 47. SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE
  48. 48. SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE
  49. 49. POWERED ROOF SUPPORT AT LONGWALL FACE
  50. 50. LONGWALL MAIN GATE
  51. 51. NEW CONCEPTS(Going to be implemented in INDIA)
  52. 52. Highwall Mining Bench MiningTrench Mining
  53. 53. Highwall Mining
  54. 54. Highwall Mining
  55. 55. Punch Longwall
  56. 56. Punch Longwall Advantages • Step change in cost and productivity • More production capacity • High productivity & low cost • Longer term and higher % of reserves extraction • Easy logistics – near surface • High gate road development rates feasible • Higher and faster returns on investment • Total investment ~ $100 million – compared with > $300 millions UG
  57. 57. Punch Longwall
  58. 58. Punch Longwall
  59. 59. Erection of Arches
  60. 60. Erection of Arches
  61. 61. Meshing & Lagging with special sleepers
  62. 62. Punch Longwall
  63. 63. Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) Technical Principle Of Top Caving Rock stress 1st pressure Low stress Stress 2nd pressure Compact peak abrupt drop peak stress Pressure curve of top coalseam Fracture Virgin 5600 Coal Broken Coal coal goaf caving 2800 Working Height Front AFC Rear AFC back
  64. 64. Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC)
  65. 65. PED schematic operation Antenna (Surface or Underground) Link Data Link PC for Modulator Transmitterentering Ultra Low Frequency Transmissionmessages. Through Rock PED Receivers can be: • BeltPED Personal Receiver (shown) • AutoPED Vehicle Receiver • ControlPED for Equipment Switching • BlastPED for Remote Blast Initiation
  66. 66. PED receiver cap lamps
  67. 67. Questions… Please
  68. 68. VENKAT M.TL-Minex-INDIA

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