Wireless TechnologyBhushan Jadhav – BSD IndiaPrepared By :
Outlines• Introduction• Types of Wireless Technology• What is Wi-Fi?• Wi-Fi Standards• Hotspots• Wi-Fi Network Elements• How a Wi-Fi Network Works• Advantages and Limitations of Wi-Fi• Wi-Fi Security• Conclusion
What is Wireless Technology ?The term "wireless" refers, in the most basic and obvious sense, tocommunications sent without wires or cables. It is a broad termthat encompasses all sorts of wireless technologies and devices,including cellular communications, networking betweencomputers with wireless adapters, and wireless computeraccessories. Wireless communications travel over the air viaelectromagnetic waves (radio frequencies, infrared, satellite, etc).
Types of Wireless Technology Wi-Fi Cellular WiMAX BluetoothGSM,3GSM,GPRS,CDMA,CDMA2000,CDPD (CellularDigital Packet Data),TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access)802.11a/b/g/n802.15802.162004, e & f
What is Wi-Fi?Imagine working on your laptop or checking e-mailfrom anywhere in your home.Imagine being able to connect to your office networkfrom an airport or coffee shop.Now, imagine doing all these things easily andquickly, without worrying about finding a wirednetwork connection.That is Wi-Fi !
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) is a generic term that refers to theIEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.11communications standard for Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN). Wireless technology is an alternative to WiredTechnology, which is commonly used, for connecting devicesin wireless using radio waves. Allows you to access the Internet while on the move; you canremain online while moving from one area toanother, without a disconnection or loss in coverage.
IEEE 802.11 Standards In 1997, the IEEE drafted the 802.11 standardfor wireless local area networking. In 1999, networking hardware companiesaccepted the standard and beganmanufacturing product using the 802.11bprotocol which operated in the 2.4 GHz rangeand was capable of transmitting at speeds of 1Mbps. The 802.11a protocol was also released in1999, operating at 5 GHz with transmissionsspeeds of 54 Mbps, but its cost was high.
IEEE 802.11 Standards (Cont.)NetworkStandardMaximumSpeed(Mbps)Range(feet)Frequency(GHz)PowerDrainCost802.11b 11 100-150 2.4 Moderate Low802.11a 54 60-100 5 High High802.11g 54 150-250 2.4 Moderate Moderate802.11n 200 Up to 300Feet2.4 & 5 Moderate Moderate
Hotspot• What is a Hotspot ?A Hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi networkaccess is made publicly available.Hotspots are equipped with a Broadband Internetconnection, and one or more Access points thatallow users to access the Internet wirelessly.Hotspots can be setup in any public location thatcan support an Internet connection. All thelocations discussed below are examples ofHotspots.
Elements of a Wi-Fi NetworkAccess Point (AP) – The AP is a wireless LANtransceiver or “base station” that can connectone or many wireless devices in the same time tothe Internet.Safeguards – Firewalls and anti-virus softwareprotect networks from uninvited users and keepinformation secure.Wi-Fi cards (Adapters) – They accept the wirelesssignal and relay information. They can be internaland external.
How a Wi-Fi Network Works ?• A Wi-Fi network makes use of radio waves to transmitinformation across a network. The computer shouldinclude a wireless adapter that will translate data sentinto a radio signal. This same signal will be transmitted,via an antenna, to a decoder known as the router. Oncedecoded, the data will be sent to the Internet througha wired Ethernet connection. As the wireless networkwill work as a two-way traffic, the data received fromthe Internet will also pass through the router to becoded into a radio signal that will be receipted by thecomputer‘s wireless adapter.
Advantages of Wi-FiNo Wires – A truly wireless networkingSolutionNo Waiting – Fast, easy deployments.No Worries – A wireless networking systemthat secure, easy to manage, and built to growwith youEase of Installation – Quick, easy setup.Fast data transfer rates
Limitations of Wi-Fi• Limited range.• Data security risks : a huge challenge for Wi-Finetworks.• Interference from other devices : Such astelephones, microwave ovens.• High power consumption : making battery lifeand heat a concern.
Basic Wi-Fi Security TechniquesWEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) : The originalencryption technique specified by the IEEE802.11 standard.WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) : A newstandard that provides improved encryptionsecurity over WEP.WPA2 : is an improved version of WPA thatuses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)technology.
Basic Wi-Fi Security Techniques(Cont.)Securing Method Security Level NotesWEP Low No longer used; it is can behacked easilyWPA High Provides improvesencryption security overWEPWPA2 Very High An improved version ofWPA that uses AdvancedEncryption Standard
Conclusion• Wi-Fi is a simple, cost-effective way to connect to theInternet, without the need to physically connectingwires.• In 1997 IEEE drafted the 802.11 standard for wirelesslocal area networking.• Hotspot is a geographic area setup in any publiclocation, and has a readily accessible wireless network.• Security is a huge challenge for Wi-Fi Networks, manySecurity Techniques are used to improve it.• Wi-Fi Network have a several limitations that should beconcerned.