1, what’s Italy?
*when 2, which cities to visit
*who sightseeing spot
3, Arts of Renaissance *Venice
*History of all arts sightseeing spot
*Leonardo da Vinci
picture 3 4, Architecture
*Michelangelo *About Renaissance Architecture
picture and carving plan, facade, columns, detail,
domes, wall, arches, ceilings, doors
1, What’s Italy?
when? Type to enter text why?
Renaissance started from in the Renaissance started to be affected
14th century to the 16th century. by a church and culture of classic.
Type to enter text who?
Leonardo Da Vinci
Type to enter text what? where?
Renaissance innovated arts, Renaissance happned in Italy,
thought and study. It changed and then it happened in the whole
from the culture of the Middle Europe.
Ages to modern culture.
2, Which cities to visit
The city-state of Florence in Italy is the location where the Italian Renaissance began.
This city is ruled by a wealthy family known as the Medici family. The Medical are effective
leaders. They tax both the poor, and the wealthy, and use the funds to built public works
such as roads and sewers that benefited everyone.
We fall in love with Renaissance. Let’s travel beautiful
Chiesa di Santa Maria Novella Battistero di San Giovanni Duomo
Chiesa di Santa Croce
a Galleria degli Uffizi Museo Nazionale del Bargello
Chiesa di Santo Spirito Chiesa di Santa Maria del Carmine
By the early A.D. 1500s Florence had begun to decline. Political unrest and up risings had led to
a loss of power and wealth, so that the Medical Family lost the influence that they once held. In
the city-state of Rome, power is held by the Pope, another leaders of the Catholic Church.
Let’s see the locations of “Roman Holiday”!!
Piazza della Repubblica Spanish Steps Trevi Fountain
the Mouth of Truth Roman Forum Colosseum
By the late A.D. 1500s the center of the Renaissance in Italy began to shift from Rome to the
more wealthy city-state of Venice. Venice is located in the Mediterranean Sea among hundreds of
tiny island on the northest edge of the Italy Peninsula. Its location make it ideal for trade.
Stazione Santa Lucia Ca’ d’ Oro a Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Basilica di San Morco Palazzo Ducale Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute
Let’s take a gondola!!
3, Arts of Renaissance
Renaissance restored human nature, and
make progress rules of perspective.
Renaissance painted pictures about many
History of all arts
B. C. 9 century B. C. era
Greek Art Roman Art The First Christianity Art
13 century 6 century 3 century
Gothic Art Romanesque Art The First Medieval Art
15 century 17 century 18 century
Renaissance Baroque Rococo Art
Romanticism, Naturalism, Realism And So On
Leonardo da Vinci
He is an Italian polymath, scientist, as the archetype,
engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect,
botanist, musician and writer. Leonardo is often describe as
the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man whose
unquenchable curiosity is equaled only by his powers of
invention. He is widely.
the Mona Lisa the Last Supper Annunciazione
Type to enter text
Virgin of the Rocks
i Adorazione dei Magi San Giovanni Battista
And so on
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
He is Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Despite
making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he takes up is of such
a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal
Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
His pictures and carving
Pieta David Sacra Famiglia con san Giovannino
Creazione di Adamo Sibilla libbica Giudizio Universale
And so on
About Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture is the architecture is a conscious revival and
development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman through
and material culture.
The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion,
geometry and regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the
architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman
architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of
columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches,
hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replace the more complex
proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi an one of its
innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities and
then to France, Germany, England russia and elsewhere.
Characteristics of Renaissance architecture
The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture are
adopted by Renaissance architects. However, the forms and purposes of
buildings had changed over time. So had the structure of cities. Among
the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type
that the Romans had never constructed. Neither were there models for
the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the
15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormous sporting
fixtures and public houses such as the Roman had built. The ancient
orders were analysed and reconstructed to server new purposes.
The plans of renaissance buildings have a square,
symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually
based on a module. Within a church the module is often
the width of an aisle. The need to integrate the design of
the plan with the facade was introduced as an issue in the
work of Filippo Brunelleschi, but he was never able to
carry this aspect of his work into fruition.
Facade are symmetrical around their
vertical axis. Church facades are generally
surmounted by a pediment and organized
by a system of pilasters, arches and
entablatures. The columns and windows
show a progression towards the center.
he Roman orders of columns are used
Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and
Composite. The orders can either be
structural, supporting an arcade or
architrave, or purely decorative, set
against a wall in the form of pilasters.
During the Renaissance, architects
aimed to use columns, pilasters, and
entablatures as an integrated system.
Courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and
mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance
theory. The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in
their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving
problems, especially at corners. Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being
recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths.
They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture.
The dome is used frequently, both as
a very large structural feature that is
visible from the exterior, and also as a
means of roofing smaller spaces
where they are only visible internally.
External walls are generally of highly-
finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight
courses. The corners of buildings are often
emphasised by rusticated quoins.
Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental. Arches are often
used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a
section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch.
Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered
ceilings. They are not left open as in
Medieval architecture. They are
frequently painted or decorated.
Doors usually have square lintels. They may be set within an
arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment.
Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and
frequently have a large or decorative keystone.
The dome has a diameter of more
than 40 meters and more than 100
The top of the dome has a
ball and a cross of 80 tons.
The belfry is 85 meters high
and it has a bell in the building.
The chapel has more
than 150 meters long.
Dante was born in 1265 in Florence. At the age of 9
he met for the first time the eight-year-old Beatrice
Portinari, who became in effect his Muse, and
remained, after her death in 1290, the central
inspiration for his major poems. Between 1285, when
he married and began a family, and 1302, when he
was exiled from Florence, he was active in the cultural
and civic life of Florence, served as a soldier and held
several political offices.
The action takes place in 1300. It begins in the Forest of
Darkness on Good Friday, the day commemorating the
crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ, and ends the following
Thursday. When Dante starts his journey, he is 35 years old–
exactly half the biblical life span of "three score years and ten."
From the Forest of Darkness, Dante proceeds through Hell
and Purgatory, then ascends into Heaven.
Dante: The main character, or protagonist, of the poem is the author himself. No other
epic poets before him–including Homer and Vergil–had made themselves the main
characters of their poems.
Vergil (Virgil): The Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, or Vergil, escorts Dante
through Hell and Purgatory. He symbolizes human reason. Vergil (70-19 B.C.), a poet
Dante admired, wrote the great Latin epic The Aeneid, which chronicled the exploits of
the legendary Trojan hero Aeneas, who escaped Troy after the Trojan War and settled
in Italy. There, his descendants founded Rome.
Beatrice: Beatrice Portinari (1265-1290), believed to be the daughter of banker Folco
Portinari, guides Dante into the celestial realm. Beatrice, who represents faith and grace,
was Dante's first love, and he never forgot her even after he married Gemma Donati and
Beatrice married Simon de Bardi.
St. Bernard: A French Cistercian monk and abbot, St. Bernard of Clairvaux
(1090-1153) guides and instructs Dante when the poet reaches the highest region of
heaven. Bernard supported the ascendancy of Pope Innocent II against Anacletus II, an
antipope. He preached in favor of the Second Crusade, strongly opposed heresy, and
wrote many hymns that remain popular today.
The Vita Nuova is an anthology of Dante’s early poems collected together and linked with a
frame in prose, which is also a comment on the poems. It’s divided into 42 chapters and is
written in Italian language. The title means "new life" or better "life renewed by love". In fact this
work is about Dante’s love for Beatrice (Bice di Folco Portinari); this love is described with the
Stilnovo criterion and produces a spiritual renew in Dante. It is also a sort of poetical
autobiography, which documents young Dante’s adhesion to Stilnovo ideals. The work begins
with Dante’s first encounter with Beatrice, when she’s nine years old. Nine years later she will
first greet him. From that moment on, Dante decides to begin praising her with his poems. He
has many visions of her, which reveals him that she will prematurely die and she will ascend to
Heaven. When it happens, Dante decides to stop writing poems about her until he will be able to
write higher poetry.
The Convivio is a philosophical essay composed in the years between 1304 and 1307 (after Dante’s
exile). Some parts are in poetry and some others in prose and it’s written in Italian language. It’s
formed by four parts (four treatises) and is unfinished. The title means "banquet": in fact, in the first
book, Dante metaphorically represents this work as a banquet made of wisdom, where the parts in
poetry represent the courses and the ones in prose are the bread. The guests to this banquet are all
the ones who are eager for knowledge but are too busy doing politics to study. That’s why Dante has
written the Convivio in Italian, so that everybody can understand it (at those times, the essays were
usually written in Latin language). (See also the Cicero and Dante page for info about Cicero’s
influence on Dante’s Convivio). In the second book, Dante explains that, just after Beatrice’s death,
he has begun studying deeply philosophy and loving this subject. So, he personifies the philosophy
in a gentle woman, who he imagines to love. In the third book he carefully describes this woman,
again using Stilnovo criteria. He also defines philosophy as a loving use of wisdom (book III, XII,
12). In the fourth book, he first defines nobility as something you don’t inherit but you must gain
from God, acting well and being pure. Then, he anticipates some political ideas, which will be then
improved in the Monarchia.
The Monarchia is a political essay written in Latin language, divided into three books. The title is the
Latin word for "monarchy" (it is also the Italian word for the same thing, even if in Italian it is
pronounced with a different stress). The monarchy is in fact Dante’s political choice: he thinks that the
best form of government is a universal monarchy or, in other words, a universal empire. In the first
book, Dante states that the Empire is necessary, since it’s the only way peace can be maintained. In fact
the Emperor owns every material good and so has no greed (cupidigia), which is the real cause for wars
and struggles. The second book is about the Roman Empire: according to Dante it was founded by
divine will. The third book explains how the power must be divided. According to Dante, God directly
gives the power both to the Pope and to the Emperor: to the former the religious or spiritual power, to
the latter the political or temporal power. There must be no interference of each auctoritas to the other.
Therefore, the Emperor must assure the earthly happiness to the man, while the Pope must prepare
him for after-life happiness.