Renaissance travel guide - Maiko Tamura


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Renaissance travel guide - Maiko Tamura

  1. 1. Renaissance Travel Guide Maiko Tamura
  2. 2. Contents 1, what’s Italy? *when 2, which cities to visit *where *Florence *what history *who sightseeing spot *why *Rome history sightseeing spot 3, Arts of Renaissance *Venice *Feature history *History of all arts sightseeing spot *Leonardo da Vinci introduction picture 3 4, Architecture *Michelangelo *About Renaissance Architecture introduction *Characteristics picture and carving plan, facade, columns, detail, domes, wall, arches, ceilings, doors *Florence Cathedral 5, Dante *introduction *Divine Comedy *Vita Nuova *Convivio *Monarchia
  3. 3. 1, What’s Italy? when? Type to enter text why? Renaissance started from in the Renaissance started to be affected 14th century to the 16th century. by a church and culture of classic. Type to enter text who? Leonardo Da Vinci Francessco Petrach Dante Givanni Boccaccio Type to enter text what? where? Renaissance innovated arts, Renaissance happned in Italy, thought and study. It changed and then it happened in the whole from the culture of the Middle Europe. Ages to modern culture.
  4. 4. 2, Which cities to visit Florence About Florence The city-state of Florence in Italy is the location where the Italian Renaissance began. This city is ruled by a wealthy family known as the Medici family. The Medical are effective leaders. They tax both the poor, and the wealthy, and use the funds to built public works such as roads and sewers that benefited everyone. Sightseeing Spot We fall in love with Renaissance. Let’s travel beautiful Chiesa di Santa Maria Novella Battistero di San Giovanni Duomo Chiesa di Santa Croce a Galleria degli Uffizi Museo Nazionale del Bargello Chiesa di Santo Spirito Chiesa di Santa Maria del Carmine
  5. 5. Rome About Rome By the early A.D. 1500s Florence had begun to decline. Political unrest and up risings had led to a loss of power and wealth, so that the Medical Family lost the influence that they once held. In the city-state of Rome, power is held by the Pope, another leaders of the Catholic Church. Sightseeing Spot Let’s see the locations of “Roman Holiday”!! Piazza della Repubblica Spanish Steps Trevi Fountain the Mouth of Truth Roman Forum Colosseum Castel Sant’Angelo Roman Holiday
  6. 6. Venice About Venice By the late A.D. 1500s the center of the Renaissance in Italy began to shift from Rome to the more wealthy city-state of Venice. Venice is located in the Mediterranean Sea among hundreds of tiny island on the northest edge of the Italy Peninsula. Its location make it ideal for trade. sightseeing spot Stazione Santa Lucia Ca’ d’ Oro a Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari Basilica di San Morco Palazzo Ducale Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute Let’s take a gondola!!
  7. 7. 3, Arts of Renaissance Feature Renaissance restored human nature, and make progress rules of perspective. Renaissance painted pictures about many human. History of all arts B. C. 9 century B. C. era Greek Art Roman Art The First Christianity Art 13 century 6 century 3 century Gothic Art Romanesque Art The First Medieval Art 15 century 17 century 18 century Renaissance Baroque Rococo Art 19 century Romanticism, Naturalism, Realism And So On
  8. 8. Leonardo da Vinci He is an Italian polymath, scientist, as the archetype, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. Leonardo is often describe as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity is equaled only by his powers of invention. He is widely. His pictures the Mona Lisa the Last Supper Annunciazione Type to enter text Virgin of the Rocks i Adorazione dei Magi San Giovanni Battista And so on
  9. 9. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni He is Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he takes up is of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci. His pictures and carving Pieta David Sacra Famiglia con san Giovannino Creazione di Adamo Sibilla libbica Giudizio Universale And so on
  10. 10. 4, Architecture About Renaissance architecture Renaissance architecture is the architecture is a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman through and material culture. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replace the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi an one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities and then to France, Germany, England russia and elsewhere. Characteristics of Renaissance architecture The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture are adopted by Renaissance architects. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time. So had the structure of cities. Among the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type that the Romans had never constructed. Neither were there models for the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the 15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormous sporting fixtures and public houses such as the Roman had built. The ancient orders were analysed and reconstructed to server new purposes.
  11. 11. PLAN The plans of renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module. Within a church the module is often the width of an aisle. The need to integrate the design of the plan with the facade was introduced as an issue in the work of Filippo Brunelleschi, but he was never able to carry this aspect of his work into fruition. FACADE Facade are symmetrical around their vertical axis. Church facades are generally surmounted by a pediment and organized by a system of pilasters, arches and entablatures. The columns and windows show a progression towards the center. COLUMNS he Roman orders of columns are used Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system. DETAIL Courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory. The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems, especially at corners. Moldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture. DOMES The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally.
  12. 12. WALLS External walls are generally of highly- finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses. The corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins. Arches Arches are semi-circular or (in the Mannerist style) segmental. Arches are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. CEILINGS Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated. DOORS Doors usually have square lintels. They may be set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone. Florence Cathedral The dome has a diameter of more than 40 meters and more than 100 meters. The top of the dome has a ball and a cross of 80 tons. The belfry is 85 meters high and it has a bell in the building. The chapel has more than 150 meters long.
  13. 13. 5, Dante Introduction Dante was born in 1265 in Florence. At the age of 9 he met for the first time the eight-year-old Beatrice Portinari, who became in effect his Muse, and remained, after her death in 1290, the central inspiration for his major poems. Between 1285, when he married and began a family, and 1302, when he was exiled from Florence, he was active in the cultural and civic life of Florence, served as a soldier and held several political offices. Divine Comedy Settings The action takes place in 1300. It begins in the Forest of Darkness on Good Friday, the day commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ, and ends the following Thursday. When Dante starts his journey, he is 35 years old– exactly half the biblical life span of "three score years and ten." From the Forest of Darkness, Dante proceeds through Hell and Purgatory, then ascends into Heaven. Characters . Dante: The main character, or protagonist, of the poem is the author himself. No other epic poets before him–including Homer and Vergil–had made themselves the main characters of their poems. Vergil (Virgil): The Roman poet Publius Vergilius Maro, or Vergil, escorts Dante through Hell and Purgatory. He symbolizes human reason. Vergil (70-19 B.C.), a poet Dante admired, wrote the great Latin epic The Aeneid, which chronicled the exploits of the legendary Trojan hero Aeneas, who escaped Troy after the Trojan War and settled in Italy. There, his descendants founded Rome. Beatrice: Beatrice Portinari (1265-1290), believed to be the daughter of banker Folco Portinari, guides Dante into the celestial realm. Beatrice, who represents faith and grace, was Dante's first love, and he never forgot her even after he married Gemma Donati and Beatrice married Simon de Bardi.  St. Bernard: A French Cistercian monk and abbot, St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) guides and instructs Dante when the poet reaches the highest region of heaven. Bernard supported the ascendancy of Pope Innocent II against Anacletus II, an antipope. He preached in favor of the Second Crusade, strongly opposed heresy, and wrote many hymns that remain popular today.
  14. 14. Vita Nuova The Vita Nuova is an anthology of Dante’s early poems collected together and linked with a frame in prose, which is also a comment on the poems. It’s divided into 42 chapters and is written in Italian language. The title means "new life" or better "life renewed by love". In fact this work is about Dante’s love for Beatrice (Bice di Folco Portinari); this love is described with the Stilnovo criterion and produces a spiritual renew in Dante. It is also a sort of poetical autobiography, which documents young Dante’s adhesion to Stilnovo ideals. The work begins with Dante’s first encounter with Beatrice, when she’s nine years old. Nine years later she will first greet him. From that moment on, Dante decides to begin praising her with his poems. He has many visions of her, which reveals him that she will prematurely die and she will ascend to Heaven. When it happens, Dante decides to stop writing poems about her until he will be able to write higher poetry. Convivio The Convivio is a philosophical essay composed in the years between 1304 and 1307 (after Dante’s exile). Some parts are in poetry and some others in prose and it’s written in Italian language. It’s formed by four parts (four treatises) and is unfinished. The title means "banquet": in fact, in the first book, Dante metaphorically represents this work as a banquet made of wisdom, where the parts in poetry represent the courses and the ones in prose are the bread. The guests to this banquet are all the ones who are eager for knowledge but are too busy doing politics to study. That’s why Dante has written the Convivio in Italian, so that everybody can understand it (at those times, the essays were usually written in Latin language). (See also the Cicero and Dante page for info about Cicero’s influence on Dante’s Convivio). In the second book, Dante explains that, just after Beatrice’s death, he has begun studying deeply philosophy and loving this subject. So, he personifies the philosophy in a gentle woman, who he imagines to love. In the third book he carefully describes this woman, again using Stilnovo criteria. He also defines philosophy as a loving use of wisdom (book III, XII, 12). In the fourth book, he first defines nobility as something you don’t inherit but you must gain from God, acting well and being pure. Then, he anticipates some political ideas, which will be then improved in the Monarchia. Monarchia The Monarchia is a political essay written in Latin language, divided into three books. The title is the Latin word for "monarchy" (it is also the Italian word for the same thing, even if in Italian it is pronounced with a different stress). The monarchy is in fact Dante’s political choice: he thinks that the best form of government is a universal monarchy or, in other words, a universal empire. In the first book, Dante states that the Empire is necessary, since it’s the only way peace can be maintained. In fact the Emperor owns every material good and so has no greed (cupidigia), which is the real cause for wars and struggles. The second book is about the Roman Empire: according to Dante it was founded by divine will. The third book explains how the power must be divided. According to Dante, God directly gives the power both to the Pope and to the Emperor: to the former the religious or spiritual power, to the latter the political or temporal power. There must be no interference of each auctoritas to the other. Therefore, the Emperor must assure the earthly happiness to the man, while the Pope must prepare him for after-life happiness.