• First element in the process is source of
communication i.e from where the
• Source can be- a person or even a machine.
• The source(sender) initiates the
communication as he has some need, thought,
idea or information, that he wishes to other
person or machine.
• The next step in process is encoding the information
that has to be transmitted.
• Encoding of the thoughts produces a message which
can be either verbal or non-verbal.
• Verbal messages are in the form of words and
• Non-verbal would be in the form of body gestures like
wink, smile, wave of hand etc..
• The next element in the process of communication is the
channel through which the communication is transmitted.
• In organizations the channels could be-face to face
conversation, written memos , reports , telephonic
exchanges, meetings etc….
• Other channels can be letters, magazines, tv shows, radio
• For communication to be effective the channel used
should be appropriate.
• Decoding and understanding the message constitute
the last two elements in the process of communication
from sender to receiver.
• The receiver first receives the message and decodes
it ,interprets and translates it into thoughts,
understanding and desired response.
• A successful communication occurs when the receiver
decodes the message and attaches the meaning to it
which the sender wished to transmit.
• Response and feedback complete the two-way
process of communication.
• Only through feedback the sender comes to
know whether the message has been received
correctly or not.
• Communication is a linking process of
Communication is the way managers conduct the
managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing,
directing, and controlling. Communication is the heart of all
• Communication is the primary means by which
people obtain and exchange information.
Decisions are often dependent upon the quality and quantity
of the information received. If the information on which a
decision is based is poor or incomplete, the decision will often
• The most time-consuming activity a manager engages in is
Managers spend between 70 to 90 percent of their time communicating
with employees and other internal and external customers.
• Information and communication represent power in
An employee cannot do anything constructive in a work unit unless he
or she knows what is to be done, when the task is to be accomplished, and
who else is involved. The staff members who have this information
become centers of power.
• Communication enhances coordination and co-operation.
• The basic aim of communication is transmission of
meaning or understanding.
• Yet , most of the communications fail to convey the
meaning or develop an understanding of the
• The failure in communication arises because of certain
blockages or barriers between sender and the receiver .
• In order to make a communication effective, it must
be ensured that these barriers are removed.
A)Semantic Barriers- Most of the difficulties in
communication arise because the same word or symbol
means different things to different individuals.
• Same words are interpret in different ways.
B) Psychological barriers- These are the prime
barriers in inter-personal communication.
• The meaning of the message depends upon the
emotional or psychological status of both the parties.
C) Organizational Barriers- The structure of the
organization itself acts as a barrier against the free
flow of communication between employees and levels
in the org.
• When the information is channeled through levels of
organisation, it become altered as people interpreted
D) Emotions - How the receiver feels at the time of
receipt of communication message will influence how
he or she interprets it.
• The same message received when you are angry is
likely to be interpreted differently when you are in a