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1.1IMPORTANCE OF A TRANSPORT SYSTEMIN SOME MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS           By: Rumaizah Muhamad
Dimension of cube (cm)             1x1x1   2x2x2   4x4x4Total surface area of cube (cm2)Volume of cube (cm3)TSA/V ratioCal...
• In larger multicellular organisms need a  transport system so that dissolved materials  could be moved rapidly to and fr...
1.2CONCEPT OF THE CIRCULATORYSYSTEM
Circulatory system in humans andanimals• Circulatory system (CS) includes:  – Medium  fluid that flows in CS (eg: animal ...
Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes•   Small, biconcave disc•   Have no nucleus•   Great quantities of haemoglobin (which contains iron)         ...
Leucocytes (White blood cells)                 ErythrocytesLeucocytes
Leucocytes (White blood cells)• Less numerous than eryhtrocytes.• Have nuclei• Do not have haemoglobin• Larger than erythr...
Cont.Basic types of leucocytes:           Granulocytes (have granular cytoplasm and           lobed nuclei)           • Ne...
Quizzes1. The neutrophils are _______  A.   Phagocytes  B.   Leucocytes  C.   Lymphocytes  D.   Phosphate2. Which leucocyt...
3. Basophils secrete _________ to prevent blood clotting  A.   Warfarin  B.   Fibrinogen  C.   Heparin  D.   Walfarine4. W...
5. Some lymphocytes produce _________ to aid   in destruction of __________  A.   Antibodies, homogens  B.   Antibodies, p...
Platelets• Small, irregularly  shaped• F(x) : blood clotting• Life span: 5 -9 days
Plasma• Pale, yellow liquid• Made up of 90% water & 10% dissolved solutes  (gases, minerals, hormones, plasma proteins and...
Plasma
Function of blood in transport• Transport oxygen from the lungs to other  parts of the body (form 4)• Transport absorbed f...
Transport of heat,                        hormones & water• Body T can be regulated by blood by  distributing heat from he...
Function of haemolymph• Circulating blood-like fluid found in invertebrates  with open-circulatory systems• Tubular heart ...
Structure of human blood vesselsBlood vessels : tubes that transport blood from one part to another.         Arteries     ...
Artery, vein and capillary
How blood is propelled through the      human circulatory system• Organ responsible to pump the blood : heart
Structure of the human heart
How blood is propelled through the     human circulatory system• VIDEO
Lungs                                                  Pulmonary veins      Vena cava   Right ventricle                   ...
FAQ SPM1. The diagram below shows the external view of the   human heart.What is the blood vessel labeled W?A. Carotid art...
3.
The pumping of the heart Sinoatrial node                                           Bundle of HisAtrio-ventricular         ...
Conducting system of the heart• Video
Contraction of skeletal muscles                  around veins
Circulatory system in insects
2. Valves ensure the haemolymph flow in one direction1. When the heart relax, haemolymph re-enters ostia                  ...
Circulatory system in fish               • Single circulatory                 system.               • Deoxygenated blood  ...
Circulatory system in amphibians               (eg:frogs)• Double circulatory system:  – Pulmonary circulation  – Systemic...
Circulatory systemin humans
FAQ SPM1. The diagram below shows a longitudinal section   of the human heart.  Which of the labeled parts, A, B, C or D, ...
2. The diagram shows the circulatory system of   a fish.   What are the organs P, Q and R?                P        Q      ...
Circulatory system in humans• Double circulatory system (blood passes through the  heart twice for each circuit)   – Pulmo...
Assignment 1.31. Draw and label a longitudinal section of   human heart.2. List the functions of the different types of   ...
1.3THE MECHANISM OF BLOODCLOTTING
The necessities of blood clotting• To prevent:  – serious blood loss  – the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles ...
The mechanism of blood clotting
VIDEO
FAQ SPM1. The conversion of the soluble fibrinogen   present in blood plasma into the insoluble   fibrin is byA. calcium i...
FAQ SPM2. Fibrinogen, fibrin, thrombin and prothrombin  are necessary for blood clotting. Which of the  following is the c...
Impaired blood clotting mechanisms in               human                   The consequences
Assignment 1.41. List the advantages of blood clotting at the   site of damaged blood vessels.2. Draw a schematic diagram ...
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)
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Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)

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Biology form 5 chapter 1 (1.1 - 1.3 only!).
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Chapter 1: Transport (1.1 - 1.3)

  1. 1. 1.1IMPORTANCE OF A TRANSPORT SYSTEMIN SOME MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS By: Rumaizah Muhamad
  2. 2. Dimension of cube (cm) 1x1x1 2x2x2 4x4x4Total surface area of cube (cm2)Volume of cube (cm3)TSA/V ratioCalculate the TSA/V ratio.
  3. 3. • In larger multicellular organisms need a transport system so that dissolved materials could be moved rapidly to and from all parts of the body.
  4. 4. 1.2CONCEPT OF THE CIRCULATORYSYSTEM
  5. 5. Circulatory system in humans andanimals• Circulatory system (CS) includes: – Medium  fluid that flows in CS (eg: animal : blood; insects: haemolymph) – Vesels  arteries, veins and capillaries – Pump  muscular heart
  6. 6. Erythrocytes
  7. 7. Erythrocytes• Small, biconcave disc• Have no nucleus• Great quantities of haemoglobin (which contains iron) (Cells become bright red)• Site of production: bone marrow• Life span: 120 days• Site of destruction: liver and spleen (by phagocytes)• Ratio of erythrocytes to leucocytes  1000 : 1 (in normal person)
  8. 8. Leucocytes (White blood cells) ErythrocytesLeucocytes
  9. 9. Leucocytes (White blood cells)• Less numerous than eryhtrocytes.• Have nuclei• Do not have haemoglobin• Larger than erythrocytes and do not have fixed shapes.• Site of production : bone marrow• Site of growth and development: thymus gland or lymph nodes
  10. 10. Cont.Basic types of leucocytes: Granulocytes (have granular cytoplasm and lobed nuclei) • Neutrophils • Eusinophils • Basophils Agranulocytes (clear cytoplasm and no lobed) • Monocytes (largest) • Lymphocytes (smallest)
  11. 11. Quizzes1. The neutrophils are _______ A. Phagocytes B. Leucocytes C. Lymphocytes D. Phosphate2. Which leucocytes that help to control allergic reaction? A. Basophils B. Eosinophils C. Monocytes D. Neutrophils
  12. 12. 3. Basophils secrete _________ to prevent blood clotting A. Warfarin B. Fibrinogen C. Heparin D. Walfarine4. Which leucocytes that can move to the body tissues to become phagocytic macrophage? A. Basophils B. Neutrophils C. Eosinophils D. Monocytes
  13. 13. 5. Some lymphocytes produce _________ to aid in destruction of __________ A. Antibodies, homogens B. Antibodies, pathogens C. Hormones, pathogens D. Enzymes, pathogens
  14. 14. Platelets• Small, irregularly shaped• F(x) : blood clotting• Life span: 5 -9 days
  15. 15. Plasma• Pale, yellow liquid• Made up of 90% water & 10% dissolved solutes (gases, minerals, hormones, plasma proteins and excretory wastes)• BOOD SERUM : plasma without fibrinogen (clotting factors).
  16. 16. Plasma
  17. 17. Function of blood in transport• Transport oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body (form 4)• Transport absorbed food materials from the digestive tract to body tissues (form 4)• Transport waste products (form 4) – Eg: carbon dioxide from body tissues to the lungs – Urea to the kidneys• Transport heat, hormones and water
  18. 18. Transport of heat, hormones & water• Body T can be regulated by blood by distributing heat from heat-producing sites (eg:muscles) to the skin.• Hormones (eg:insulin & glucagon) produced by endocrine glands (pancreas) transported by blood to target organs (liver).• Water is important to provide medium for biochemical reaction.
  19. 19. Function of haemolymph• Circulating blood-like fluid found in invertebrates with open-circulatory systems• Tubular heart pumps the haemolymph into haemocoel.• Haemolymph – bathes the tissues and internal organ directly.• Nutrients and hormones diffuse from haemolypmh into the cells• Waste products diffuse out from the cells into haemolymph.
  20. 20. Structure of human blood vesselsBlood vessels : tubes that transport blood from one part to another. Arteries Capillaries VeinsTransport blood away from Connect arterioles to Transport blood to thethe heart venules heartTransport oxygenated Act as the sites for Transport deoxygenatedblood (except pulmonary exchange of substances blood (except pulmonaryartery) with the cells vein)Thick muscular wall Thinnest wall, one cell Thinner wall thicknessNo valves except semilunar No valves Valves present to preventvalves at the base of the back flow of bloodaorta and pulmonaryarteryBlood flows in pulses under No pulses. Pressure lower No pulses. Blood flowshigh pressure than arteries but higher under lower pressure than than veins arteries.
  21. 21. Artery, vein and capillary
  22. 22. How blood is propelled through the human circulatory system• Organ responsible to pump the blood : heart
  23. 23. Structure of the human heart
  24. 24. How blood is propelled through the human circulatory system• VIDEO
  25. 25. Lungs Pulmonary veins Vena cava Right ventricle Left atriumTricuspid Bicuspid valve deO2 blood O2 blood valve Right atrium Left ventricle Aorta Pulmonary artery Whole body
  26. 26. FAQ SPM1. The diagram below shows the external view of the human heart.What is the blood vessel labeled W?A. Carotid arteryB. Coronary arteryC. Subclavian arteryD. Systemic artery
  27. 27. 3.
  28. 28. The pumping of the heart Sinoatrial node Bundle of HisAtrio-ventricular containing node Purkinje tissue Interventricular septum
  29. 29. Conducting system of the heart• Video
  30. 30. Contraction of skeletal muscles around veins
  31. 31. Circulatory system in insects
  32. 32. 2. Valves ensure the haemolymph flow in one direction1. When the heart relax, haemolymph re-enters ostia Material exchange occurs here. Haemolymph in haemocoel carry nutrients and waste products
  33. 33. Circulatory system in fish • Single circulatory system. • Deoxygenated blood Sinuses leaves the heart at high pressure and passes through the gills where the gaseous exchange occurs. • Oxygenated blood flows through the organs and blood pressure drops.
  34. 34. Circulatory system in amphibians (eg:frogs)• Double circulatory system: – Pulmonary circulation – Systemic circulation• Have three-chambered heart (2 atria & 1 ventricle)• Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in ventricle. The mixed blood enters the systemic circulation.
  35. 35. Circulatory systemin humans
  36. 36. FAQ SPM1. The diagram below shows a longitudinal section of the human heart. Which of the labeled parts, A, B, C or D, receives blood from the lungs?
  37. 37. 2. The diagram shows the circulatory system of a fish. What are the organs P, Q and R? P Q R A Gills Lungs Stomach B Stomach Lungs Gills C Gills Heart Stomach D Stomach Heart Gills
  38. 38. Circulatory system in humans• Double circulatory system (blood passes through the heart twice for each circuit) – Pulmonary circulation – Systemic circulation• Two divisions of heart: – Right side  pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs – Left side  pump oxygenated blood to the body (except lungs)• Advantage: blood returns to the heart to be pumped again will increase the blood pressure and flow rate, thereby speeding up delivery O2 to the tissues and organs.
  39. 39. Assignment 1.31. Draw and label a longitudinal section of human heart.2. List the functions of the different types of leucocytes.
  40. 40. 1.3THE MECHANISM OF BLOODCLOTTING
  41. 41. The necessities of blood clotting• To prevent: – serious blood loss – the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles into the blood• To maintain: – normal blood pressure – circulation of blood in a a closed circulatory system
  42. 42. The mechanism of blood clotting
  43. 43. VIDEO
  44. 44. FAQ SPM1. The conversion of the soluble fibrinogen present in blood plasma into the insoluble fibrin is byA. calcium ionB. thrombinC. thromboplastinsD. vitamin K
  45. 45. FAQ SPM2. Fibrinogen, fibrin, thrombin and prothrombin are necessary for blood clotting. Which of the following is the correct sequence for the involvement of these four substances during blood clotting?A. Prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrinB. Thrombin, prothrombin, fibrin, fibrinogenC. Fibrinogen, fibrin, prothrombin, thrombinD. Fibrin, fibrinogen, thrombin, prothrombin
  46. 46. Impaired blood clotting mechanisms in human The consequences
  47. 47. Assignment 1.41. List the advantages of blood clotting at the site of damaged blood vessels.2. Draw a schematic diagram to illustrate the mechanism of blood clotting.3. What would happen if a blood clot forms a) In the brain b) In the coronary artery

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