8.4   BIODIVERSITY<br />
Learning Outcomes<br />At the end of lesson, students should be able to:<br />Explain the meaning of ‘biodiversity’.<br />...
Definition<br />Biodiversity refers to the diverse species of plants and animals interacting with one another on Earth.<br />
The Need for Classification of Organisms - Taxonomy<br />Taxonomy: A branch of Biology concerned with identifying, describ...
Kingdoms<br />There are five kingdoms used in the classification of organisms.<br />
Monera<br />Prokaryotic organisms.<br />Unicellular.<br />Have cell walls but lack of both membrane-bound nuclei and organ...
Examples:<br />Bacteria <br />Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)<br />
Protista<br />Eukaryotes – unicellular or multicellular organisms, and each cell has a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.<br...
Examples:<br />Alga<br />Spirogyra sp.<br />Seaweed <br />Amoeba sp.<br />
Fungi <br />Heterotrophic multicellulareukaryotes.<br />Some are unicellular.<br />Cell wall of fungi contain a material c...
Examples:<br />Yeast <br />Mushroom <br />Pin mould<br />
Plantae<br />A kingdom which includes all land plants.<br />Immobile, multicellular eukaryotes.<br />Important sources of ...
Examples:<br />Palm tree<br />Fern <br />Hibiscus plant <br />
Animalia<br />Multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes.<br />Do not have cell wall.<br />Can move form one place to place.<b...
Examples:<br />
Hierarchy in classification of organisms<br />
Linnaeus binomial system<br />Each organism has two names in Latin.<br />First name: begin with a capital letter refers to...
Exercise 8.1 <br />Describe the following modes of nutrition:<br />Saprophytism<br />Parasitism<br />Predation<br />Explai...
(a)saprophytic organism does not synthesize food by itself.<br />
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8.4

  1. 1.
  2. 2. 8.4 BIODIVERSITY<br />
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes<br />At the end of lesson, students should be able to:<br />Explain the meaning of ‘biodiversity’.<br />Explain the need for classification of organisms.<br />State the five kingdoms used in the classification of organisms.<br />Identify the main characteristics of organisms in each kingdom<br />List examples of organisms in each kingdom<br />State the hierarchy in the classification of organisms using examples<br />Explain through examples, the method of naming organisms using Linnaeus binomial system<br />Explain the importance of biodiversity. <br />
  4. 4. Definition<br />Biodiversity refers to the diverse species of plants and animals interacting with one another on Earth.<br />
  5. 5. The Need for Classification of Organisms - Taxonomy<br />Taxonomy: A branch of Biology concerned with identifying, describing and naming organisms.<br />Systematic method to classify plants and animals based on similarities and characteristics.<br />Enables organisms to be identified easily and accurately.<br />Enables communication among scientist.<br />Allow information about a particular organism to be found more readily.<br />
  6. 6. Kingdoms<br />There are five kingdoms used in the classification of organisms.<br />
  7. 7. Monera<br />Prokaryotic organisms.<br />Unicellular.<br />Have cell walls but lack of both membrane-bound nuclei and organelles.<br />Can be photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic.<br />Examples:<br />
  8. 8. Examples:<br />Bacteria <br />Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)<br />
  9. 9. Protista<br />Eukaryotes – unicellular or multicellular organisms, and each cell has a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.<br />Some have cell wall and some do not.<br />Multicellularprotist have no specialised cells to perform specific function.<br />Nutrition: Can be either heterotrophic and autotrophic or both.<br />
  10. 10. Examples:<br />Alga<br />Spirogyra sp.<br />Seaweed <br />Amoeba sp.<br />
  11. 11. Fungi <br />Heterotrophic multicellulareukaryotes.<br />Some are unicellular.<br />Cell wall of fungi contain a material called chitin.<br />Main bodies consist of network of thread-like hyphae called mycelium.<br />Do not contain chlorophyll.<br />May feed saprotrophically.<br />
  12. 12. Examples:<br />Yeast <br />Mushroom <br />Pin mould<br />
  13. 13. Plantae<br />A kingdom which includes all land plants.<br />Immobile, multicellular eukaryotes.<br />Important sources of oxygen, food, clothing, pigments, spices, dyes and drugs.<br />
  14. 14. Examples:<br />Palm tree<br />Fern <br />Hibiscus plant <br />
  15. 15. Animalia<br />Multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes.<br />Do not have cell wall.<br />Can move form one place to place.<br />
  16. 16. Examples:<br />
  17. 17. Hierarchy in classification of organisms<br />
  18. 18. Linnaeus binomial system<br />Each organism has two names in Latin.<br />First name: begin with a capital letter refers to genus.<br />Second name: begin with smaller letter refers to species.<br />Example:<br />Homo sapiens [Homo: genus; sapiens: species]<br />
  19. 19. Exercise 8.1 <br />Describe the following modes of nutrition:<br />Saprophytism<br />Parasitism<br />Predation<br />Explain how the relationship of prey-predator can establish a dynamic equilibrium in the environment. (Give one example in your explanation).<br />
  20. 20. (a)saprophytic organism does not synthesize food by itself.<br />

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