feministuri
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                                                      lesbosuri feminizmi
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lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                     elaiza Ceinieri



“radikal lesbo...
lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                   elaiza Ceinieri



lesboselebs, Tav...
lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                   elaiza Ceinieri




erToblivi Ronis...
lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                  elaiza Ceinieri



amgvari politika,...
lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                     elaiza Ceinieri



aqvs sxva qalT...
lesbosuri feminizmi
                                                                elaiza Ceinieri



gamocema da SeZena,...
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lesbosuri_feminizmi_

  1. 1. feministuri biblioTeka lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri 1970-1980-ian wlebSi, SeerTebul StatebSi, kanadasa da britaneTSi, lesbosuri feminizmi dominanturi ideologia iyo politizirebul lesboselebs Soris. lesboselobisa da feminizmis cnebebis Rrma Sinaarsobriv urTierTkavSiris gamo, am ori sityvas xSirad iyenebdnen myar Sesityvebad. lesbosurma feminizmma mkveTrad gaakritika patriarqati da institucionalizebuli heteroseqsualoba. misi mtkicebiT, es mamakacis dominanturobis gamyarebis politikuri iaraRi iyo. praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT lesbosuri feminizmi gamovlinda rogorc erTgvari cxovrebis stili, rac aisaxeboda faqtiurad yvelaferSi - Tmis varcxnilobiTa da CacmulobiT dawyebuli, seqsualur qceviT damTavrebuli. saerTo jamSi misi gavlena sakmaod didi iyo, Tumca Sedegebi araerTgvarovani. warmomavloba gviandel 1960-ian wlebSi, sxva socialur jgufebs Soris, romlebic diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg ibrZodnen, iyvnen lesboselebic. isini, vinc SeuerTdnen geebis ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas, xSirad ganicdidinen imedgacruebas seqsisturi damokidebulebis gamo mamakac wevrTa umravlesobis mxridan. meinstrimuli feminizmic, miuxedavad imisa, rom bevri lesboseli qali iyo feministur organiza- ciebSi gawevrianebuli, ar amJRavnebda keTilganwyobas am jgufis mimarT. isini Riad gaurbodnen imas, rom lesboseli qali feministuri organizaciis saxe gamxdariyo. 1970 wels qalTa nacionaluri organizaciis (NOW) prezidentma beti fridanma lesbosuri sakiTxebis am organizaciis platformaSi CarTva da win wamoweva “farul safrTxed” gamoacxada. amas mohyva reaqcia gloria steimenis mxridan, romelmac Tqva, rom feminizmi revoluciaa da ara saxalxo moZraoba, da 1971 wels qalTa nacionaluri organizaciis wevrebma kenWisyris Sedegad aRiares lesbosuri sakiTxebis CarTvis aucilebloba feministur sakiTxebSi. qalis mier gansazRvruli qali (qalismieri qali) 1970 wels fridanis frazam myisieri gamoxmaureba hpova im qalTa jgufSi, romlebic Tavidan sakuTar Tavs “farul safrTxed” moixseniebdnen, Semdeg ki
  2. 2. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri “radikal lesboselebad” gaxdnen cnobilni. maTi mokle manifesti “qalismieri qali” aRiarebulia, rogorc lesbosur-feministuri politikis pirveli ganacxadi. misi avtorebi acxadeben rom lesboselebi da lesboseloba feministuri moZraobis ara periferiuli, aramed centraluri mniSvnelobis sakiTxia. isini amtkiceben, rom qalis kavSiri qalTan mamakacisgan damoukideblad da qalis mier identificirebuli qali Zalauflebas arTmevs mamakacs da Zirs uTxris patriarqats. sanam qali mamakacis da mamakacuri institutebis Sefasebis gziT ganisazRvreba, igi damoukidebel, avtonomiur arsebobas ver SeZlebs. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom lesboselisa da homoseqsualis kategorias am manifestis avtorebi aRiqvamdnen ara rogorc arsebiT identobis gamoxatulebas, aramed rogorc heteroseqsualuri patriarqatis Sedegs. maT sjerodaT, rom es kategoriebi dakargavdnen Tavis mniSvnelobas, rom ar arsebuliyo qalis Cagvra da yvelas rom hqonoda sakuTari grZnobebis mixedviT cxovrebis SesaZlebloba. “qalis mieri qali” da is naSromebi, romlebic mas mohyva, yuradRebas amaxvilebs zogadad seqsualobis mniSvnelobaze feministur Teoriasa da praqtikaSi da exmianeba feministuri moZraobis ufro farTo masStabis mcdelobebs, romlebic piradi qcevebis politizirebisken iyo mimarTuli, rogoricaa saSinao saqmis, bavSvis movlisa da mSobiarobis kontrolis sakiTxebi. am naSromebSi ara mxolod qaluri homoseqsualobis evoluciis xelaxali pozitiuri gaazrebaa warmodgenili, aramed heteroseqsualobis mZafri kritikac. magaliTad, “soflis xmis” (Village Voice) popularuli Jurnalistis jil jonstonis 1973 wels gamocemuli wigni “lesbosuri sazogadoeba: feministuri gadawyveta” (Lesbian Nation: The Feminist Solution) romantikas narkotiks, gamabruebel saSualebas adarebs, xolo monogamias aRiqvams, rogorc qalis mudmiv, saSinao monobaSi CaTrevis xerxs. “es iwyeba maSin, roca Sen mis mklavebSi iZirebi da mTavrdeba, roca Seni mklavebi mis gankargulebaSia.” ambobs jonstoni da miiCnevs rom yvela qalma unda uaryos Tavisi feminuroba da masTan dakavSirebuli pasiuroba, unda uaryos monogamuroba da ufro agresiulad iswrafvodes seqsualuri siamovnebis Ziebisken. misi azriT es aris gza, romelic qalma unda gaiaros sakuTari avTenturi “me”-s aRmosaCenad. politikuri lesboselebi lesboseli feministebi miiCnevdnen, rom seqsualuri survili ar SeiZleba iyos politikurad ganpirobebuli, magram amave dros lesboselobas gansazRvravdnen, rogorc politikur arCevans. “politikuri lesboselebisTvis” savaldebulo ar iyo qalTan intimuri kavSiris damyareba, magram, rogorc wesi, isini ar qorwindebodnen. ana koerdtis gaxmaurebuli naSromis Semdeg, romelic klitoraluri da vaginaluri orgazmis politikur analizs warmoadgens, lesboseli feministebi mouwodednen 2
  3. 3. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri lesboselebs, Tavi SeekavebinaT iseTi “mamakacuri qcevisgan”, rogoricaa vaginaluri da sxva saxis SeRwevadi seqsi da pornografiis gamoyeneba. mokle varcxniloba, jinsebi, kubokruli perangi da samuSao maRalyeliani fexsac- melebi¬ sakmaod gavrcelda axalgazrda qalaqel qalebs Soris. Cacmulobis amgvari stili, sadac ukugdebulia feminuroba, kargad gamoxatavda lesboseli feministebis esTetikas, romelic emijneba heteroseqsualobasa da klasobriv privilegiebs. “buCi” da “femi” lesboseli feministebi emijnebodnen “buCisa” da “femis” subkulturas. es gaxldaT lesbosuri kulturis erTaderTi arsebuli ganStoeba imdroindel sazogadoebaSi. lesboseli feministebi, rogoricaa del martini, filis lioni, jil jonstoni da britaneli avtori Seila jegrisi, akritikebdnen maT, radgan Tvlidnen rom buCebi mamkacurobasTan axdendnen TviTidentifikacias, xolo femebi qalur pasiur mdgomareobaSi rCebodnen. aseTi roluri qceva ki heteroseqsualuri kavSiris mimbaZveloba iyo, rac patriarqatis ganmtkicebas uwyobda xels da winaaRmdegobaSi modioda feminizmTan. sainteresoa aseve is, rom buCi da femi qalebi sakuTar Tavs geebad moixseniebdnen, radgan termin lesboselis semantikaSi, maTTvis gonebrivad daavadebulis damatebis mniSvnelobac igulisxmeboda. lesboseli feministebi ki ar gaurbodnen am termins, piriqiT, maT miaCndaT, rom mas saamayo etimologia aqvs da iyvnen pirvelni, vinc es sityva socio-seqsualuri identobis pozitiur msazRvrelad gamoiyenes. marTlac, am gziT lesboselma feministebma didi wvlili Seitanes socio-politikuri kavSirebis gaZlierebis saqmeSi, rac mniSvnelovnad uwyobda xels izolaciis, stigmis da im sakanonmdeblo problemebis daZlevas, romlebsac xSirad awydebodnen homoseqsualebi. droTa ganmavlobaSi seqsualobis komponenti lesbosur feminizmSi ukana planze iwevs. Sarlota banCis 1972 wlis statia “lesboselTa amboxi” lesbosur feminizms warmoaCens, rogorc ganurCevlad yvela qalis Cagvrisgan gaTavisuflebi gzas. igi amtkicebs, rom “leboseloba safuZvels uryevs mamakacis upiratesobas” ara imitom, rom qalebi erTmaneTTan seqsualur kavSirs amyareben, aramed imitom, rom xdeba Zalauflebrivi berketebis Camocileba mamakacisgan. banCi Cagvrisgan gamaTavi- suflebeli sxva moZraobebis gavlenasac ganicdida, mas sjeroda, rom mamakacis dominantobis rRvevis Sedegad daiZleoda rasizmi, kapitalizmi da imperializmi. 1973 wels, Sarlotam rita mae braunTan da sxva lesbosel feministebTan erTad daarsa Jurnali (quest: a feminist quarterly), romelic miznad isaxavda debatebis provocirebas da feministuri Teoriis gaviTarebas. Jurnali gamodioda sam TveSi erTxel 1974 wlidan 1984 wlis CaTvliT da lesbosuri feminizmis erT-erTi wamyvani Teoriuli gamocema iyo. 3
  4. 4. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri erToblivi RonisZiebebi da lesbosuri separatizmi qalebis, geebisa da lesboselebis gamaTavisuflebel brZolaSi erToblivi Zalisxmevebi da RonisZiebebic Sedioda. maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovani amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciasTan (APA) Catarebuli samuSaoa. am asociaciis klinikuri praqtika da diagnostika homoseqsualobas paTologiad moiazrebda. qalebis, geebisa da lesboselTa jgufis saerTo aqtivizmis pirdapiri Sedegi iyo is, rom amerikis fsiqiatriuli asociaciis yovelwliuri Sexvedrebis ganmavlobaSi, 1971-dan 1973 wlamde, moxerxda homoseqsualobis gonebrivi daavadebebis siidan amoReba. erToblivma RonisZiebebma sagrZnoblad iklo 1972 wlis rita mae braunis gamosvlis Semdeg, romelSic man lesbosuri feminizmi avtonomiur moZraobad gamoacxada, xolo gansxvaveba heteroseqsual qalebsa da lesboselebs Soris aRwera, rogorc “gansxvaveba reformasa da revolucias Soris”. misi azriT intimuri urTierTobis SenarCuneba mamakacTan mterTan TanamSromlobis tolfasi iyo. braunis es gamosvla lesbosuri separatizmis dasawyisi gaxda. man didi gamoxmaureba hpova britaTis, Sotlandiisa da avstriis lesboselebs Soris da gadaizarda kulturul moZraobasa da ideologiaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis farglebs gareT lesboseli feministebi ufro midrekilni iyvnen qalTa moZraobasa da geebis moZraobasTan TanamSromlobisken, “qalis mier gansazRvruli qalis” cnobierebam, rac qalis gaTavisuflebis gzad esaxeboda lesbosur- separatistul feminizms, mTels inglisurenovan feministur sazogadoebaSi hpova gamoZaxili. lesbosuri sazogadoebis Seneba kulturuli industriebis SeqmniT daiwyo, sadac qalis unarebi da SesaZleblobebi ufro gamovlindeboda da dafasdeboda. 1972 wels daarsda “olivia rekordsi”, romelmac daiwyo iseTi popularuli lesboseli feministi momReralebis Cawera, rogoricaa holi niari da loren segato, romelic mxolod qalTa sazogadoebisTvis marTavda warmodgenebs. daarsda “naiad presi” (1973-2004), sadac intensiurad ibeWdeboda lesbosuri poezia, mxatvruli Tu sxva saxis literatura. qalaqebSi gaCnda wignis maRaziebi da sazogadoebrivi centrebi, romlebsac lesbosuri sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi xelmZRvanelobdnen. kulturisa da politikis Serwymis erT-erTi warmatebuli magaliTi iyo aseve miCiganis musikaluri festivalis daarseba, romelic mxolod qalebisTvisaa gankuTv- nili da 1976 wlidan moyolebuli yoveli wlis agvistos TveSi imarTeba lesbo- selTa mcire jgufis mier Sesyidul teritoriaze. aTasobiT qali Camodis sxvada- sxva qveynidan festivalze dasaswrebad. maT SeuZliaT monawileoba miiRon politi- kur da pirovnul sakiTxebze mowyobil samuSao SexvedrebSi. yvelas eZleva imis Se- saZlebloba, rom wvlili Seitanos yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi, iqneba es mzareuloba, dasufTaveba Tu sxva saxis saqmianoba... uzrunvelyofilia moqnili sagadasaxado sistema da bavSvebze zrunvis servisi, magram mamrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenel baSvebs 6 wlis asakidan, calke, sqesobrivad segregirebul sivrceSi uvlian. festivalis 4
  5. 5. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri amgvari politika, romelic gamoricxavs sadomazoxisturi praqtikis gamtarebel sazogadoebas da mxolod qalebisTvisaa, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi kritikis da davis sagans warmoadgens. miuxedavad amisa, cnobili multiplikatori elison beCdeli am festivals aRwers, rogorc “wliur utopias” qalebisaTvis. kulturuli feminizmi lesbosuri feminizmis kidev erTi ganStoeba _ kulturuli feminizmia, romelic miuxedavad sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT gaviTarebisa, mainc im saerTo mosazrebebsa da varaudebs efuZneba, romelsac misi radikalurad ganwyobili winamorbedebi iziarebdnen. kerZod, es aris rwmena imisa, rom mamakacuri kulturidan Tavis daRweva, patriarqatis rRveva sxva saxis Cagvrisganac gaaTavisuflebs sazogadoebas, rom aqedan unda daiwyos anti-seqsistur, anti-rasistul, anti-kapitalistur da anti-imperialistur utopiebze fiqri. kulturul feminizmSi farTod ganixileba es sakiTxi. Teorizacia eyrdnoba mosazrebas, rom Tavad bavSvis gaCenis unari gansazRvravs qalis bunebas da Rirebulebebs, es unari ubiZgebs mas pacifizmi amjobinos oms, rom qalisTvs ucxoa mogebis motivi da is dgas upirobo siyvarulis mxares. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, xdeba upirobo siyvarulis genderizacia, da qaluri bunebis, rogorc ufro upiratesisa da amaRlebulis aRiareba. xSirad erTmaneTSi erevaT lesbosuri separatizmi da kulturuli feminizmi. separatistebi qalisa da mamakacis aliansis daSlis gziT mamakacisTvis Zalauflebis CamorTmevas emxrobodnen, raTa ptriarqati daemxoT. kulturuli feminizmi ki axdens qalis Tvisebebis, rogorc biologiuri determinantebis esencializacias da damoukidebeli qaluri kulturis Seqmnas sTavazobs sazogadoebas. kulturul feminizimTan yvelaze xSirad asocirdeba amerikeli poeti da eseisti edrian riCi. misi nawerebi dedis rolze sakmaod didi gavleniT sargeblobda yvelanairi politikuri poziciis mqone feministebs Soris, magram gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi 1980 wels dawerili statia "savaldebulo heteroseqsualoba da lesbosuri arseboba". seqsualobis miseuli kritika dResac did gavlenas axdens seqsualobis Teoriebze, xolo mis mier SemoRebuli lesbosuri kontinuumis cneba safuZvlad daedo kulturul feminizms. separatistebisgan gansxvavebiT, romlebic lesboselobas upiratesad patriarqatis dasamxobad strategiulad mobilizebul politikur poziciad warmoaCendnen, riCi lesboselobas axasiaTebs rogorc uwyvet kontinuums, anu uwyvet jaWvs qalebs Soris, romelic aerTianebT maT. riCi ambobs, rom kavSiris Sesusteba moxda kacebis moTxovnilebebisa da qalis Sromaze kontrolis gamo da qalis gza pirovnuli srulyofisa da gaTavisuflebisaken swored am kavSiris aRdgenaze gadis. riCiseuli lesbosuri kontinuumis interpretirebisas damkvidrda lesboselis cnebis Semdegi mniSvneloba, rom yvela qali visac emociurad intimuri urTierToba 5
  6. 6. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri aqvs sxva qalTan, SeiZleba CaiTvalos lesboselad. lesboselis es modeli gvxvdeba istorikos lilian fadermanis SromaSi, sadac aRwerilia XIX saukune da XX saukunis adreuli wlebSi arsebuli urTierTobebi qalebs Soris. Tavis mxriv, federmans akritikeben imis gamo, rom mis naSromSi bundovnadaa gadmocemuli fizikuri siaxlovis mniSvneloba identobis Camoyalibebis sakiTxSi. reaqcia da kritika droTa ganmavlobaSi lesboseli feministebis saubrebi universalur qalur erTianobaze kritikis obieqti gaxda. feradkaniani da muSaTa klasis warmomadgeneli qalebi damatebiT rasobriv da klasobriv diskriminacias ganicdidnen da Tvlidnen rom feminizmi maT problematikas saTanado yuradRebas ar aqcevda. Ceri moragasa da gloria anzalduas Sroma "es xidi Cemi zurgia: radikali feradkaniani qalebis nawerebi" (This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, 1981) akritikebs lesboseli da sxva feministebis naSromebs da arasrulyofils uwodebs maT, radgan isini ver axdendnen mravalmxrivi Cagvris problematikis saTanado gaazrebas da amiT ufro uwyobdnen xels rasobriv da kla- sobriv segregacias, miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi struqturebis rRvevis momxreni iyvnen. am kritikam mniSvnelovani debatebi gamoiwia feminist aqtivistebsa da inte- leqtualur wreebSi. amis Sedegad Seiqmna axali politikuri strategiebi, romelic uaryofda separatistul politikas da koaliciis Senebisken iyo mimarTuli. 1970-ian wlebSi lesbosel feministTa mtkice seqsualuri politikisagan frustraciam konfrontaciebi gamoiwvia, romlis mTavari sagani seqsualuri TviTgamoxatva da transgenderuli sakiTxebi iyo. lesbosel sadomazoxist feministTa jgufs, romelsac samoistebad moixseniebdnen, ar misces san franciskos qalTa gaerTianebis wevrobis ufleba. sapasuxod samois jgufis wevrma patrik kalifia-raisma (pet kalifia) sajarod ganacxada, rom lesboselTa seqsualuri politika seqsuluri represiis erT-erT formas warmoadgenda. cota xnis Semdeg lesbosel feministTa jgufma scada, CaeSalaT akademikosTa mier organizebuli konferencia, romelic miznad isaxavda qaluri seqsualobis analizs, rac cenzurisa da aratolerantobis gamovlinebad CaiTvala. 1990-ian wlebSi transeqsualebi da qvier aqtivistebi regularulad aprotestebdnen arabiologiuri qalebis gamoricxvis politikas "mxolod qalebisTvis" Catarebuli RonisZiebebidan. daskvna lesbosurma feminizmma didi gavlena moaxdina araerTi Taobis warmomadgeneli qalis rogorc pirad, aseve politikur mdgomareobaze. 1972 wels ukve moxda qalebs Soris intimuri kavSiris institucionalizacia, 1973 wels SesaZelebeli gaxda lesbosel momReralTa audio Canawerebis da lesbosur Temaze Seqmnili wignebis 6
  7. 7. lesbosuri feminizmi elaiza Ceinieri gamocema da SeZena, daswreba mxolod qalebisTvis gankuTvnil RonisZiebebze. sainteresoa, rom bevri dResac axdens lesbosur feminizmTan TviTidentifikacias. magram Sida dapirispirebebma rasobriv da seqsualur politikas Soris lesbosel feministebSi Tavisave ideologiur SezRudvebTan Sejaxeba gamoiwvia. 1990 wels feministTa axali Taoba modis, romelic sakuTar Tavs "mesame talRas" uwodebs. igi inarCunebs feministuri moZraobis ramdenime adreul Sexedulebas, magram prioritetuls xdis anti-rasistul, anti-kolonialur, qvier da genderze dayrdnobil Teoriul brZolas. am cvlilebebis miuxedavad, miCiganis qalTa musikaluri festivali dRemde warmatebiT imarTeba, im mosazrebaze dayrdnobiT, rom "mxolod qalebisTvis" gankuTvnili sivrcis survili jer kidev arsebobs. miuxedavad amisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom lesbosuri feminizmi, rogorc politikuri ideologia, dRes ufro nakleb qalSi poulobs gamoZaxils, vidre es 1970-1980ian wlebSi xdeboda. inglisuridan Targmna nino xarCilavam 7

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