Critical Skills For The Nurse Educator

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  • Welcome everyone! I’m very happy to be here and be spending the day with you. I hope that you will walk away from this seminar with some new tips and tricks that you can take back to your job. As with all adult learners, you learn best from each other. Let’s start off with some introductions. Introduce myself Have each participant introduce themselves - if paper is available, document number of years in training. Have each participant identify a personal objective they would like to achieve today. Write those down.
  • These are the objectives that should have been listed in your brochure. I would like to spend the morning talking about the roles of the educator - regardless of your setting. Then we’ll progress to look at theory behind adult learning. This afternoon I’d like to focus on different types of strategies useful for adult learners and methods that we can evaluate our training efforts. I would like this to be as interactive as possible. Please do not hesitate to chime in with any of your own thoughts.
  • World Café I’d like to begin by getting you active and getting the energy up in the room. It’s called the World Café and it is a technique that helps you brainstorm different ideas. I’d like to begin this morning by talking about what makes for an excellent educator? We’re going to share our ideas by dividing up into groups. Count off by ______. One person will remain at each table throughout the activity and act as recorder and gatekeeper for the group. This person will hear all ideas and be able to sift through duplicate thoughts and keep the group on task. I will give you approximately 10 minutes at each table. At the end of that time you will be asked to move to a table that you’ve not been to – and with people that you’ve not been with. This will mix you up and assure that we get tons of thoughts. Before we start I want to share with you what the National League for Nursing believes to be the challenges of the future nurse – what the future nurse will need to be able to do. If you are presently not training nurses, do not hesitate to substitute the term “nurse” for the level of care provider you are educating.
  • Since you are the educators of the present and future nurses – what characteristics, abilities and talents does the educator of a nurse need? Give each table at least 10 minutes each – probably total of 20-30 minutes. Have each group report on the top three characteristics – ask each table to insert new and/or different characteristics. I hope you found this activity stimulating – World Café – is really a very good brainstorming technique and gets your participants going. Among these characteristics – which ones do you feel most challenged by?
  • So we’ve just described the characteristics of the educator of nurses – characteristics needed for excellence. So what characteristics mark an excellent program. I wanted to share with you a model developed by the NLN called the Excellence Model. They have identified 8 core elements required to achieve and to sustain the type of education needed by the future nurse. Even though this model speaks directly to nursing education, I think you can correlate this to any area of education.
  • An excellent “program” (again, be it nursing education or staff development) needs to have clear standards and set high expectations for the students/participants/employees. In the nursing education realm, accreditation is expected and becomes one benchmark of excellence. The goal of any educational program needs to incorporate best practice into the training. Utilization of benchmarks helps a program strive for goals beyond what they may be presently achieving.
  • Educators must be well-prepared. It has been my experience in staff development that many nurses enter our profession because they perceive it to be “easier” than direct patient care or are placed into staff development because they are excellent clinicians. Not all expert clinicians make good educators. In nursing education, faculty should be diverse – expert researchers, clinicians, leaders. A good mix of faculty makes for a strong program. Some of you might not feel as prepared as where you would like to be. There is always something to learn – technology continues to change, new knowledge is gained every day. In what areas do you find yourself most prepared? Most ill-prepared?
  • In a nursing education setting, it is important to have administrators who are prepared to manage the educational process. They need to be well-versed in academia, budgeting, creating healthful work environments. That is very challenging since data shows that there is a dwindling number of nurse faculty – many are leaving and retiring from the profession and there are inadequate numbers to replace them. Is this happening in your areas?? Any plans on resolving the problem?
  • Programs need to be evidence-based. Teaching methods must also be evidence-based and current with educational theory. In this type of economy where training is often cut or reduced, the ability to effectively evaluate training is an essential tool for the staff developer/educator.
  • The quality and adequacy of resources is often a sore subject among educators. It seems like there is never enough money, time and help where you need it the most. You can often tell the value that administration places on education when you examine the quality of training/educational resources, both human and material, that are given to training.
  • Do your programs incorporate specific competencies and skills the student/participant must demonstrate? Curriculum needs to keep up with the pace of what today’s nurse/employee needs. Our employees/students are different today than in the past. They demand new and different types of training. Anyone found this to be true?
  • The educator needs to be recognized for their expertise. In staff development, the educator is often (or should) be used as an internal consultant. Many academicians are used as external consultants. In order to achieve everything that educators need to achieve, they tend to wear multiple hats and carry multiple roles. Now I’m not talking about working the floor as well as teaching. In your position, what types of roles do you play? DIRECTED DISCUSSION
  • The Association for Nursing Staff Development developed standards that might help us review those roles. They list these as roles. Let’s review.
  • I find it interesting that they do include the educator as a “career developer.” You are looked at by others as a mentor and often, a career counselor.
  • The educator needs to be the voice of evidence-based practice – not the holder of “this is the way we’ve always done it.” Is there anything else as educator that you feel you are responsible for in your role?
  • This might be an area that you do not feel comfortable with – it might become a professional development goal of yours to learn more about research and how you can help your nurses incorporate research into their daily practice. Regardless of your practice area, it’s important to start getting nurses curious – what is the best practice? Why do we do the things that we do?
  • One way to start to get nurses involved into research is to start bringing evidence-based literature into the facility – maybe a journal club is the first step.
  • Hopefully, your clinical managers and leaders take advantage of your skills as educator to help them solve competency problems in the workplace.
  • Let’s switch from roles and responsibilities of the educator to what is learning? Let’s use this as our starter definition.
  • One of your most important responsibilities as educator is to assess your learner – and you need to assess the learner on these 3 counts: What does the learner really need to know? What do they need to know to do their jobs effectively – or to satisfactorily achieve the course objectives? This will frame the majority of your plans for the staff/students. Try to be as specific as you can since it will help you plan for how you are going to help the learners achieve it. You need to assess whether the learner is receptive to learning or their readiness to learn. I teach a medical-surgical class on Thursdays and Friday evenings from 8-11 pm. It doesn’t take much to determine their readiness to learn. I also teach a nursing leadership class – and they are struggling at this point. They’re not always sure why they need to know this “stuff.” And lastly you need to determine how your learner learns? This will help you design teaching strategies that correlate to their learning style.
  • Let’s look at general concepts of adult learning and why it’s important to understand how adults learn. Most of these principles are taken from Malcolm Knowles who is considered one of the pioneers in adult learning. When you are educating adults your focus needs to become learner directed. In grade school and in teaching children, education is very focused in on what the educator thinks is important – children have no basis to judge what they need to know. As the child grows into adulthood, they know what they need to know to achieve their goals. It’s essential to understand this point. Adults need to know why they need to learn something before they learn it. Content needs to make sense to them. Adults are usually much more practical and focused in on what they need to know. Most adults feel responsible for their own lives – of having some control. This flows into the learning environment as well.
  • If you want adults to be engaged in the learning process, you need to help them understand how they can use the information you are providing in their everyday lives. And because they come to you with a greater volumne and different quality of life experiences, it is critical to use that experience in your program planning.
  • GROUP ACTIVITY 1. I’d like you to spend some time on how your program and training recognizes and incorporates these types of principles. How have you incorporated these principles of adult learning into your training?
  • I suspect that some of you are familiar with Patricia Benner’s theory of learning. She describes five levels of clinical practice that nurses progress through during their career and skill development. Begins at graduation from nursing school. Benner’s theory is very useful in helping the educator individualize their approach to orientation and to training.
  • The first level is NOVICE – usually from graduation to 6 months post graduation. Typically, these graduates tend to be fairly rigid in their approach to their practice because they have nothing to really back them up except for formal education. Their discretionary judgment is poor since they haven’t had the practical experience. They focus on the pieces rather than the whole. The ADVANCED BEGINNER usually extends to their 2 nd year of practice. They have some experience under their belt but still needs help in setting priorities and nursing judgment. The COMPETENT nurse extends to the 4 th year of practice. By this time, the nurse should be able to identify all relevant facts of a situation, deliberately plan, should be able to set priorities and should develop their critical thinking skills. The PROFICIENT nurse has 4-5 years of experience. They are able to see the “big picture.” and can identify what is most important in a situation. They should be able to spot deviations from norm. Decision-making should be less labored and base decisions more on guidelines rather than strict rules of conduct. The EXPERT NURSE has had at least 5-7 years of practice – they often utilize more intuitive processes rather than rules or strict guidelines. Their analytical thinking is strong when problems occur or novel situations occur. They are able to vision a new reality. Benner’s theory is a very useful tool in designing individualized approaches to orientation. GROUP DISCUSSION - have any of you utilized this theory in your orientation programs? I’d like for you to get into groups of 2 or 3 and discuss how you orient (or at least how should your assigned group should be oriented). Group 1: Novice Group 2: Advanced beginner Group 3: Competent Group 4: Proficient Group 5: Expert
  • Many of you are in situations where You are faced with employees or students who demonstrate reading difficulties. DO SOME RESEARCH ON THIS>
  • Critical Skills For The Nurse Educator

    1. 1. Gail M. Maier, Ph.D., R.N.
    2. 2. <ul><li>Summarize the six roles of the nurse educator. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a continuing education program utilizing effective teaching strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a poster session or presentation for a professional conference. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Integrate appropriate adult learning theories into educational planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Design an appropriate evaluation tool for an educational program. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the ethical and legal principles that are essential to your role as a nurse educator. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Understand the principles that underlie their practice </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to find, manage and use information </li></ul><ul><li>Be comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Be leaders and agents for change </li></ul><ul><li>Think critically and communicate effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Function effectively in the face of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Manage constant change, including technological developments </li></ul>
    5. 13. <ul><li>Educator </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Change agent </li></ul>
    6. 14. <ul><li>As educator may </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure learners are involved in learning process and outcome evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that educational standards are upheld </li></ul><ul><li>Assist others to develop, maintain, and refine portfolio throughout career </li></ul>(Scope and Standards, 2002).
    7. 15. <ul><li>As educator may </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor others related to research and using evidence based practice </li></ul><ul><li>Develop, plan, and present educational programs </li></ul><ul><li>Need to identify appropriate teaching strategies for the learner. </li></ul>
    8. 16. <ul><li>As facilitator may </li></ul><ul><li>Help identify learner needs and identify appropriate teaching strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as a role model </li></ul><ul><li>Foster team-making </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage positive attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Promote life-long learning </li></ul>(Scope and Standards, 2002).
    9. 17. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with delegating both human and financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in the communication process both horizontally and vertically along an organization’s leadership tier </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate ethical and legal principles applicable to a variety of situations </li></ul>(Scope and Standards, 2002).
    10. 18. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>Need to assure that provided education aligns with an organization’s mission </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate professional accountability by keeping competencies up to date, joining professional organizations, and other external activities </li></ul>
    11. 19. <ul><li>Leads by example </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors others </li></ul><ul><li>Influencer </li></ul><ul><li>Attend conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing education </li></ul><ul><li>Expand knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Asks questions, shares knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul>
    12. 20. <ul><li>Posters </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Any time frame </li></ul><ul><li>15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>½ hour </li></ul><ul><li>1 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-by and smile (poster presentation) </li></ul>
    13. 21. <ul><li>At work </li></ul><ul><li>With colleagues, both in department and out of department </li></ul><ul><li>At any event </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars, conferences, teleconferences </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out to experts in a specific area </li></ul><ul><li>Hand out business cards </li></ul>
    14. 22. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>Help to incorporate new research into practice </li></ul><ul><li>Assist new staff develop and refine research skills </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate outcomes and track learner outcomes from provided education </li></ul>
    15. 23. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>“ Integrate relevant research outcomes into nursing professional development practice through effective learning activities” (Scopes and Standards, page 9). </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor others by serving as principal investigators, consultants, or collaborators </li></ul>
    16. 24. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>Serve either formally or informally </li></ul><ul><li>Support assimilation of learning into clinical or practice areas </li></ul><ul><li>Offer expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Help to: define problems, identify resources, provide feedback </li></ul>
    17. 25. <ul><li>As </li></ul><ul><li>Change Agent </li></ul><ul><li>must </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of changes in National Patient Safety Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Updates or changes in Core Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of any changes to state Practice Act </li></ul>
    18. 26. <ul><li>“ Acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information”. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia (2009). Facilitator. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facilitator </li></ul>
    19. 27. <ul><li>Learning needs ( what the learner needs to learn) </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to learn ( when the learner is receptive to learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style ( how the learner best learns)” </li></ul><ul><li>Bastable (2003), p. 77. </li></ul>
    20. 28. <ul><ul><li>Focuses on learner directed learning as opposed to educator directed learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults need to know why they need to learn something before they learn it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own lives… </li></ul></ul>
    21. 29. <ul><ul><li>Adults become ready to learn things they need to know or….cope effectively with their real life situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults come into an educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of life experiences </li></ul></ul>
    22. 30. <ul><ul><li>While adults are responsive to some extrinsic motivators (better jobs, salary, pay, the more potent motivators are the intrinsic motivators (desire for increased self-esteem, quality of life, responsibility) </li></ul></ul>
    23. 31. <ul><ul><li>Adults must see a reason to learn something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults need to be shown respect. They should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and should be able to freely voice their opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults focus on the part of a lesson that will be most useful to them in their job. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 32. <ul><li>Novice to Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Needs for orientation will vary </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics in clinical skills will be according to level of theory </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to education should be individualized </li></ul>
    25. 33. <ul><li>Novice – 0-6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Beginner 6 months to 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Competent 2-4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient – 4-5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Expert 5—7 years </li></ul>
    26. 34. <ul><li>Incidence of Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful of subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Reading OR Both? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Clues to Watch for </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized Tests </li></ul>
    27. 35. <ul><li>Use multiple teaching methods </li></ul><ul><li>Provide basic information </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learner to restate or demonstrate </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive feedback frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Use repetition when necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Ask individual how you can best help </li></ul>
    28. 36. <ul><li>Well established reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Available since the 1920s. </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion - Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing - Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking - Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment - Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 4 letter acronym to define personality type </li></ul><ul><li>Bastable, S. B. (2003). Nurse as Educator. Sudbury, MA. </li></ul>
    29. 37. <ul><li>Converger – prefers abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Detached, work with objects rather than with people. Practical problem solvers. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverger – prefers concrete experience and reflective observation. Generate ideas, displays emotions. Imaginative, and see big picture </li></ul>
    30. 38. <ul><li>Assimilator – prefers abstract conceptualization and reflective observation. Bring together diverse items into a whole, something into a whole, sometimes overlooking practical aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodator – prefer concrete experience and active experimentation. Intuitive, risk takers, trial and error problem solving. Carry out plans and adapt to change… </li></ul>
    31. 39. <ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul>
    32. 40. <ul><li>Appears to be in Broca’s area, on L side of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Highly developed auditory skills </li></ul><ul><li>Think in words, like to write, tell stories, spell accurately, enjoy reading, can recall dates, names, and places </li></ul>
    33. 41. <ul><li>Learn best by verbalizing, hearing, or seeing words </li></ul><ul><li>Word games/word associations are great tools to use </li></ul>
    34. 42. <ul><li>Involves both sides of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Right side deals with concepts; left side remembers symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Explore patterns, categories, have relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Can think logically with a high degree of abstraction </li></ul>
    35. 43. <ul><li>Question many things—ask where, what and when </li></ul><ul><li>Can compute in their heads, learn by computers, and do experiments to clarify things they don’t understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy strategy games such as chess or checkers </li></ul>
    36. 44. <ul><li>Related to the right side of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by images and pictures; enjoy things such as building blocks, jigsaw puzzles, and daydreaming </li></ul><ul><li>Like to draw or do other art-like activities </li></ul><ul><li>Can read charts and diagrams and may actually learn better with visual methods such as videos or photographs </li></ul>
    37. 45. <ul><li>Related to right side of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Can be found singing a tune, telling you when a note Is off-key, playing musical instruments; dancing, and keeping time rhythmically </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to sounds </li></ul><ul><li>May learn best with music playing in the background </li></ul>
    38. 46. <ul><li>Includes the basal ganglia and cerebellum of the brain structures </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by processing knowledge through bodily sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by moving or acting thing out </li></ul>
    39. 47. <ul><li>Have difficulty sitting for long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Good at athletic sports; great fine motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use of people’s behaviors or movements come easily for this group of learners </li></ul>
    40. 48. <ul><li>Involves prefrontal lobes of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Able to notice others’ feelings, tend to have many friends, and are gifted in the social skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learn best in groups and gravitate toward activities that involve others </li></ul>
    41. 49. <ul><li>Also involves prefrontal lobes of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Have strong personalities and tend to prefer an inner surrounding of emotions and are often alone, rather than being surrounded by individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Learn quietly and privately – even in an individual setting </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confident/self-directed; independent; self-paced with introduction </li></ul>
    42. 50. <ul><li>Learning need is the difference between what is known currently and what is needed to be known for optimal performance </li></ul>
    43. 51. <ul><li>Identified by Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Identified by Patients </li></ul><ul><li>Identified by “near miss” </li></ul><ul><li>New National Patient Safety Goals </li></ul>
    44. 52. <ul><li>Unit request related to new equipment, new procedure, change in practice </li></ul><ul><li>New nurse may need reinforcement in a particular area </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe new individual on unit – experienced nurse, but not experienced to our particular policy or procedure or with particular piece of equipment </li></ul>
    45. 53. <ul><li>To address unit needs </li></ul><ul><li>To improve benchmark scores </li></ul><ul><li>To make unit more cohesive or work better as a team </li></ul>
    46. 54. <ul><li>Possible performance improvement for individual </li></ul><ul><li>To improve certain scaled score such as Press Gainey </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly in response to an incident report </li></ul>
    47. 56. <ul><li>Receiving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings, Values, Attitudes </li></ul></ul>
    48. 57. <ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul></ul>
    49. 58. <ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Available time and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available </li></ul><ul><li>Size of group </li></ul><ul><li>Skills of group </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learning characteristics </li></ul>
    50. 59. <ul><li>Vary experiences for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences, however, must be consistent with learning </li></ul><ul><li>Must consider audience and learning styles </li></ul>
    51. 60. <ul><li>Critical thinking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher ordered intellectual activity that goes beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking skills: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting and analyzing information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generating new ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 61. <ul><li>Importance of reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directly correlated to changes in critical thinking and successful progression through nursing education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate and guide reading assignments </li></ul></ul>
    53. 62. <ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Concept mapping </li></ul>
    54. 63. <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work through problem situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss real life situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes reflection and dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical conferences with students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical discussions with Nurse interns and residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine with use of Facebook or Twitter </li></ul></ul>
    55. 64. <ul><li>Focus on the most important concepts to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Consider alternative responses </li></ul><ul><li>Learning environment needs to be open, safe and non-threatening </li></ul><ul><li>All students should be engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize key points </li></ul>
    56. 65. <ul><li>General guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning environment must be relaxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner should be encouraged to ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions need to be prepared ahead of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully word questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not praise answers too quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of non-verbal behavior </li></ul></ul>
    57. 66. <ul><li>Concrete : asks for recall of specific information. Lower level thinking required. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract : asks to classify and draw conclusions about information as they attempt the understand the area under consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative : demands reorganization of concepts into unique patterns. </li></ul>
    58. 67. <ul><li>Remembering: lowest level; simple recall of facts (who, what, define, describe, indicate) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding: explains an answer to demonstrate understanding (compare/contrast, illustrate, estimate) </li></ul><ul><li>Applying: asks for solutions and use of information (apply, test, consider, solve) </li></ul>
    59. 68. <ul><li>Analyzing: seek to apply the information to new setting by using induction, deduction and logic (support your statement, identify assumptions, supporting evidence) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating: includes valuing of the information; incorporate beliefs and opinions to make a judgment (defend, judge, evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>Creating: developing new ideas and creative thinking (propose a plan, formulate a method, develop a means) </li></ul>
    60. 69. <ul><li>“ When you first examined the situation, what data seemed significant and why?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If and how do these data relate to any prior knowledge or experience you have on the subject?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What are the major hypotheses regarding the larger nursing problems that you identified?” </li></ul>
    61. 70. <ul><li>Clinical Scenarios replicated in a lab-like situation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be costly </li></ul><ul><li>Safe environment; place where learners can practice over and over without patient harm </li></ul>
    62. 71. <ul><li>Used to bring out feelings and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Helps audience to understand how others may feel in a given situation </li></ul><ul><li>Develops interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Develops leadership skills </li></ul>
    63. 72. <ul><li>Sometimes, it may be difficult to get volunteers to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Not all will like this method of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used in conjunction with another method </li></ul><ul><li>Use of “scripts” can help </li></ul>
    64. 73. <ul><li>Technique of illustrating connections between ideas and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes reflective thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective thinking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating what was done during patient care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making decisions about what to do the same or differently the next time </li></ul></ul>
    65. 74. <ul><li>Analysis of the patient database – identification of relevant variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate basic knowledge, past experiences, patterns seen in similar situations, institutional policies – preliminary plan of care </li></ul><ul><li>Individualizing a plan of care </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate published guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate nursing and interdisciplinary research </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnecting lines show relationships </li></ul>
    66. 75. <ul><li>Role-modeling is a powerful tool the preceptor can utilize in assisting the novice nurse to critically think </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue enhances critical thinking – preceptors need to be taught how to ask higher level questions </li></ul><ul><li>The preceptor needs to help the novice nurse “think out loud.” </li></ul>
    67. 76. <ul><li>Effective for large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Can be effective for any type of learner </li></ul><ul><li>Need classroom </li></ul><ul><li>May use pretest and post-test to determine if learning has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Organized and stepwise </li></ul><ul><li>Effective for those who are better listeners </li></ul>
    68. 77. <ul><li>Evaluation may be based on lecturer rather than content </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual aids are important to consider as adjuncts to teaching – be careful not to overuse </li></ul><ul><li>Discourages interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Can “lose” audience if not done effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Need many breaks </li></ul>
    69. 78. <ul><li>Can be very effective </li></ul><ul><li>Need effective facilitator to keep everyone on track </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion offers the best opportunity for everyone to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to learn from each other </li></ul>
    70. 79. <ul><li>Needs to be managed </li></ul><ul><li>Can overwhelm someone who is shy </li></ul><ul><li>Can become “one sided” if not everyone participates </li></ul><ul><li>Can bring out some unintended emotions </li></ul>
    71. 80. <ul><li>Works well when content is not new </li></ul><ul><li>Allows focus on areas of challenge </li></ul><ul><li>The more discussion that can be generated, the better. </li></ul><ul><li>Can increase learner participation </li></ul>
    72. 81. <ul><li>Unclear questions may be confusing to participant </li></ul><ul><li>Can stimulate discussion, but can also get off track easily </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize technology (Turning Point with “clickers” </li></ul>
    73. 82. <ul><li>With return demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure objective is clear </li></ul><ul><li>May take some participants longer than others to complete objective; which may cause some frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups are best to observe return demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>May take longer time periods for completion of objective </li></ul>
    74. 83. <ul><li>Small groups are best to observe return demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>May take longer time periods for completion of objective </li></ul><ul><li>Could have participants check each other off </li></ul>
    75. 84. <ul><li>Requires pre-test and post-test typically, as well as evaluation of content </li></ul><ul><li>May isolate learner </li></ul><ul><li>Is not conducive to all learning styles or abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Requires certain literacy level </li></ul>
    76. 85. <ul><li>Learner is able to do packet of information on his/her own time. </li></ul><ul><li>Information must be well-organized, thorough, worthwhile, and comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>May be time consuming to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Educator should provide feedback to learner </li></ul>
    77. 86. <ul><li>Allows more learners from a variety of settings </li></ul><ul><li>Provides learner with more freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Removes some “barriers to learning” for learner </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies vary depending on software used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webinars offer ability to interact with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webcast offers ability to view a recording of lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcast offers audio recording of lecture </li></ul></ul>
    78. 87. <ul><li>Can be used for affective or cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><li>May be rather time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for graduate and undergraduate levels </li></ul><ul><li>May be time-consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Requires clear objectives learning goals </li></ul>
    79. 88. <ul><li>Preparation is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Always have a back-up plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of aids, depending on objectives and audience </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure aid is appropriate for audience size </li></ul>
    80. 89. <ul><li>Relatively inexpensive and not used as frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to make, easy to reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Can be made during presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be sent through copy machine </li></ul>
    81. 90. <ul><li>Series of images </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to make and store </li></ul><ul><li>Show procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Check knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to rearrange </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul>
    82. 91. <ul><li>Readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mounted or portable </li></ul><ul><li>Works well with small group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize a “scribe” </li></ul>
    83. 92. <ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use; easy to transport </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for students to use in presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Writing space may be limited </li></ul><ul><li>Can use only with small groups </li></ul>
    84. 93. <ul><li>Limited durability </li></ul><ul><li>Writing may be illegible </li></ul><ul><li>Comes in a variety of sizes </li></ul><ul><li>For presentations, get professionally made </li></ul>
    85. 94. <ul><li>Number of uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record previous live events for later viewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of learner or instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augment another strategy (e.g. lecture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple copies easily made </li></ul><ul><li>Should offer opportunities for feedback </li></ul>
    86. 95. <ul><li>Provides other references </li></ul><ul><li>Learner can maintain self-pace </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are easy to produce and revise </li></ul><ul><li>Must consider the variety of reading levels of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Consider electronic communication to participants </li></ul>
    87. 96. <ul><li>Wide selection of backgrounds, graphics, and colors </li></ul><ul><li>Information easily updated </li></ul><ul><li>Easily stored </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for more consistency among different groups of learners </li></ul>
    88. 97. <ul><li>Some learners today have been overtaxed with PowerPoint ® </li></ul><ul><li>Death by PowerPoint! Never rely on only 1 type of strategy </li></ul>
    89. 98. <ul><li>Veracity – pertains to truth telling; provides the basis for trust in any relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Malfeasance – not doing harm or evil </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence – the state of doing or producing good </li></ul>
    90. 99. <ul><li>RN and LPN practice acts </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to articulate differences and explain clearly, although each individual should also know their limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Must be up to date on latest changes </li></ul><ul><li>National Patient Safety Goals… </li></ul>
    91. 100. <ul><li>Must keep these documents in locked area </li></ul><ul><li>Specific time frames to keep certain specific documents </li></ul><ul><li>In-services </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Probationary time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging orientation </li></ul>
    92. 101. <ul><li>Scope and Standards for Nursing Professional Development Governed by the National Nursing Staff Development Organization (NNSDO): www.nnsdo.org </li></ul><ul><li>Certified in Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>National League for Nursing (NLN) governs those standards for all schools of nursing, including RN and LPN: www.nln.org </li></ul>
    93. 102. <ul><li>American Association of Colleges (AACN) is the “national association for baccalaureate and higher degree nursing education institutions” (AACN, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Offers resources such as white papers, news releases, and a connection to obtain certification. </li></ul><ul><li>The website is www.aacn.nche.org </li></ul>
    94. 103. <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging in gossip </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Records </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul>
    95. 104. <ul><li>Since you are using material for education, you may make a many copies of anything that you want without permission…. </li></ul><ul><li>You need permission to use music to assist with the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>If you have written an article for a journal, you may make as many copies as you want, since it is your article. </li></ul>
    96. 105. <ul><li>The use of another’s original words or ideas as though they were your own </li></ul><ul><li>Can you use someone else’s works who may have died without permission? </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>How to get permission </li></ul>
    97. 106. <ul><li>Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of some object </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.htm </li></ul>
    98. 107. <ul><li>Ongoing evaluation as education process occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Education can improve as it is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Allows immediate feedback from learner </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation can address objectives, physical facilities, teaching and learning methods and/or overall experience </li></ul>
    99. 108. <ul><li>This evaluation occurs directly after educational activity </li></ul><ul><li>The learner must consider whether or not specifically stated objectives were met </li></ul><ul><li>Limited specifically to the objectives and directly to the content that was provided </li></ul>
    100. 109. <ul><li>Simply asked…. Did behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be immediately assessed </li></ul><ul><li>More labor intensive to measure data </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation occurs in the future </li></ul>
    101. 110. <ul><li>Overall impact of education on institution as whole or on community </li></ul><ul><li>ROI </li></ul><ul><li>May use extensive resources, especially beyond those of a “nurse educator” </li></ul>
    102. 111. <ul><li>Must reflect evaluation that is intended </li></ul><ul><li>Keep simple </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Use previously designed model/method if applicable </li></ul>
    103. 112. <ul><li>Literature search may be helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument must reflect that which is being measured </li></ul><ul><li>Impacted by type of evaluation, resources </li></ul>
    104. 113. Level 1: Reaction Level 2: Learning Level 3: Behavior Level 4: Results
    105. 115. <ul><li>Gail M. Maier, Ph.D., R.N. </li></ul><ul><li>614.293.6236 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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