Integration of Loan words in Egyptian Arabic Language.


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Integration of Loan words in Egyptian Arabic Language.

  1. 1. Integration of loanwords in Egyptian Colloquial Arabic.
  2. 2. Methodology ː1- Analyses a corpus of loanwords in Arabic.2-Investigating the phonological and morphological adaptations that are applied to the incoming lexical items.3-Determine whether such changes are rule-governed in view of the canons of Arabic phonology and morphology.
  3. 3. Loanwords , Loan Borrowing Code SwitchingShifts, Loan Blends.Loan words are lexical Umbrella term, Alternating betweenitems borrowed from a refer to more-or-less different languages byforeign language into a spontaneously bilinguals (at any levelrecipient language. transferred lexical of competence in the items that show no FL),LW referred to morphemic“borrowing” and used substitution , may be The switches termedinterchangeably in adapted to the "nonce borrowings‟,other studies. phonological and integrated only morphological momentarily patterns of the ,infrequently and recipient language extending beyond the (RL). individual lexical item to longer stretches of talk.
  4. 4. Morphological Phonological Integration IntegrationDerivational Consonant and vowel Paradigm alternation Addition of vowel andVerbal nouns consonants. Gender Gemination Omission ( syllablePlural nouns omission) Shifting ( Stress ) Metathesis
  5. 5. - Morphological integrationloanword undergoes modification of morphological structure to achieve harmony with the established predominant pattern and root System (tri- and quadri-consonantal root System in Arabic), leading to internal pluralization , i.e. broken plural and similar derivations.Three areas of morphological integration will be studied:- Full derivation from LW.- Adding a feminine suffix to LW.- Plural inflection of nouns.
  6. 6. Derivational Paradigm Due to fully integration of loanwords ( mainly nouns )ː a fully derivational paradigm result according to ECA morphology such as verbs according to tri- and quadri-consonantal roots.“hydrogen” /hajedroğiin/ , verb root /hdrğ/, /hadrağ/ (perfective verb) /jehadrağ/ (imperfective verb) /hadrağa/ (verbal noun) /mehadrağ/ (passive participle) are generated. Every verb root generates the perfective  /katab/), imperfective /jekteb/, active participle /kaateb/, passive participle . /maktuub/ verbal noun /ketaaba/. root Perfecti Imperfective Active Passive Verbal noun. ve Participle participle/hajedroğiin hdrğ hadrağ jehadrağ Mehadrağ hadrağa ktb katab jekteb kaateb maktuub ketaaba
  7. 7.  All the verbs in the corpus generating full paradigms were found to follow three patterns, namely: CVVC, CaCCaC, and CaCCeC. Perfective = cvvc, verbal noun = cvvca Radical Perfective Imperfective Active Passive Verbal noun. Participle participle CvvC CaaC jeCuuC Caajec metCaac coocaShoot ʃoot ʃaːt Jeʃuːt ʃaajet Metʃaat ʃoota/ʃuːt/ː
  8. 8. Perfective = CaCCaC, verbal noun = CaCCaCa Radical Perfective Imperfective Active Passive Verbal noun. Participle participle CCCC CaCCaC jeCaCCaC meCaCCaC metCaCCaC CaCCaCa jetCaCCaCFormat frmt farmat Jefarmat mefarmat metfarmat farmata/ːfɔːmat Jetfarmat/ːFilter fltr faltar Jefaltar Mefaltar metfaltar faltara/ːfɪltə(r) Jetfaltar/ːCenter Sntr Santar Jesantar Mesantar metsantar Santara/ː sentə( Jetsantarr) Fn : sechoir ,
  9. 9. Perfective = CaCCeC, verbal noun = CaCCaCa Radic Perfective Imperfective Active Passive Verbal noun. al Participle participle CCCC CaCCeC jeCaCCeC meCaCCeC metCaCCeC CaCCaCaCancel cnsl cansel jecansel mecansel metcansel cansala/ːkansl/ːHandle Hndl handel jehandel mehandel methandel handala/ːhandl/ːNervous nrvs narfez jenarfez menarfez metnarfez narfaza/ː əs nɜːv/ːTension tnʃn tanʃen jetanʃen metanʃen mettanʃen tanʃana/ːtenʃn/ːService srvs sarves jesarves mesarves metsarves sarvasa/ː ɪs/ sɜːvː
  10. 10. Perfective = CaCCa/eC, verbal noun = taCCiːC Radic Perfective Imperfective Active Passive Verbal noun. al Participle participle CCCC CaCCa‖eC jeCaCCaC meCaCCaC metCaCCaC taCCiːC cnsl cansel jecansel mecansel metcansel cansalaFinish fnnʃ Fanneʃ Jefanneʃ mefanneʃ metfannaʃ Tafnniːʃ/ːfɪnɪʃ/ːSave Sjjv sajjev Jesajjev mesajjev metsajjev Tasjjiːv/ːseɪv/Check ʃjjk ʃajjek Jeʃajjek meʃajjek Metʃajjek ʃajjaka/tʃek/
  11. 11. Some loanwords may some newly verbs with limited derivationalgenerate 2 sets of verbs. paradigm. Transitiveː /nebebsi/ (from “nervous”,  root “Pepsi”),/barseiti/ and “nrfz”, /narfez/, /tebarseli/ (from /jenarfez/, /menarfez/, “Persil”, & /narfaza/ . Intransitive: /talleɣrââf/ ->“telegraph” is difficult to reduce to four /?etnarfez/, consonants, /jebat /jetnarfez/, talleɣrââf/ ,*/jetalɣrâf/ /metnarfez/ LW ve some derivational &/narfaza/ capacity & limitations counters (A word is a loanword is that no other words can be derived from it ).
  12. 12. Gender• In EA, nouns .and adjectives are inflected for gender (feminine or masculine) as Shown in French language: “coiffeur” /kowafeer/ (m.) - /kowafeera/ (f.) , “cashier”/kašjeer/ (m.) -/kašjeera/ (f.);“docteur” /doktoor/ (m.) -/doktoorâ/ (f.) plural /dakatra/.“secrétaire” /sekerteer/ (m.) .and /sekerteera/ (f.) f.plural /sekerteraat/ no masculine plural generic noun /sekêrtarja/. Ex./gârsoon/ /tajbest/ /mekaniiki/• loanwords with inanimate  feminine suffix /a/.“jacket”  /ʒaketta/ „pjamas‟ /bæʒama /“shot”, /ʃoːta /“battery” /bâttârejjâ/ “bomb” /bomba/ “beer”/biira/
  13. 13. Two plural inflections Suffixes and Regular.Masculine Broken plural Do not accept plural /-i:n/- Feminine inflection. inflection at all, /ɨːl - / /-a:t/ (LW don‟t fit tri and /iːr / quadri- consonantal patterns, - /bankenoot/ː /mawatiːr /medaija:t/ Deletion-insertion- vowel change . /elkombjuutâr/ /ː ː /vâzâ:t/ː /balaliːn/ /bâsâ:t/ /banatiiːl / /taraames//takasi//ʔaflaam/ʔ edʃaaʃ/,/cæroːt analogy to / /helm/ /ʔahlaam/ː
  14. 14. Phonological Adaptation. A bilingual introduces a new word in a phonetic form close to the model.• An individual monolingual speakers hear the word, in their recognition each approximating the non-native sound patterns to native ones, then attempting a proximate pronunciation ,leading to different renditions of the same word.• With repeated use in the community, the word becomes loan exchanged by monolinguals, but varying from one dialect to another due to geographical separation , social level , education .• LW undergo processes of sound alteration, addition, omission ,shifting and metathesis .
  15. 15. Alternations : Consonant & Vowel .Consonant alternation• Speaker closest model ( phonological patterns aren‟t identical , they aren‟t phonemes in EA , have more allophones for sound ).• So speaker resort to closest native sound available in their repertoire . [p], an allophone of /b/, and [v], an allophone of /f/ , certain consonants do not exist in EA (e.g. /ø/, /ʒ/, / tʃ/ &/dʒ/).
  16. 16. /p/ { vls } /b/ {vd } its counter part in EA in all positions..- “police” /pəːliːs  /boliis/ , “protein” / ː / prəʊtiːn  /borotiin/ / , “passport” / ːpɑːsp /  /bâsboor/ or /bâzboor/ , ɔːt- “diplôme” /diplom/  /debloom/, /dabloom/, or /dabloon/, “pipe” /paɪp  /bajeb//v/ {vls}  /f/ {vd} or /v/ kept the same due to social & educational factors . ( no integration )- “villa” / ːvɪlə/  /vella/ or /fella/,- “Victoria” /vɪkːt ɪə/ː  /fektorja/, ɔːr- “vitamin” /ː vɪtəmɪn, ː vʌɪt-/ː /vetamiin/ or /fetamiin/,- “Mervat” /mervat/ or “television” /ː telɪvɪʒn/ː/telivizjoon/, /telefezjoon/- “seven up” / ː sevn ʌp/  /sevenâbb/ or /sefen/./v/ integrated /w/ or /b/ “couverture” /kuvɛʀtyʀ/  /koverta/, /koberta/, or /kaberta/;“vapeur” /vapœʀ/  /wâbuur/, /bâbuur/ , /bâguur/;“veranda (h)” /vəːrænd  /vârândâ/ or /bârândâ/; ə/ “valve” /vælv/  /balf/, no integration “veto” / ː əʊ/  /viitu/ & “visa” / ː viːt viːz /viiza/ ə/
  17. 17. /ø/ vls dental fricative  /s/ alveolar counterpart or /t/ dental plosive ( less educated speakers). “thermos” /ːθɜːm əs/ː  /tormos/,“thermometer” /θəːm ɒmɪtə(r)/ː  /termometr/,“thermostat” /ːθəːm əstat/ː /termostaat/ (or /sermostaat/)./dʒ/ and /tʃ/ {affricate sounds}  /ʒ/./ɡ/ and /ʃ/ {fricative }/dʒ/ /ʒ/ː/ / ɡ “garage” /ː garɑː(d) , -ɪdʒ, gəːr ʒ/ː  /garaaʒ/ː/ ʒ ɑː garaaʃ/; “débrayage” /debʀɛjaʒ/ /debrejaaʒ / or /debrejaaʃ /, “jacket” or “jaquette”  /ʒaketta/ ,/ʃaketta/, /daketta/ ,/zaketta/ “Jeep” /dğiip/, /ʒebb/./dʒ/ /ɡ/ “jeans” /ʤiːnz /ː /gens/, , “journal” / ːdʒɜːnl  /gornâân – l/. //tʃ/  / the fricative /ʃ/“chips” /tʃɪps/ː /ʃebs/ , /ʃibs/, “winch” /wɪntʃ/ː /wenʃ/,“march” /mɑːt ʃ/ː /marʃ/, “concerto” /kənːtʃeətəʊ/ /konʃertu/.
  18. 18. More phonemic realizations for /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /q/ and /X/ can be emphasized and produced in loanwords replacing other available sounds./t/,/d/,/s/,/z/,/k/{ alveolar }+/a/,/u/ {back V.} /t /,/d/,/s/,/z/,/q/ {velorized }./b/+/a//b/, “battery” / ːbætərɪ/ /bâttârejjâ/, “point”  /bont/, “captain” / ːkæptɪn/  /qobtâân/, “pantalon” / /bântâloon//d/ + /a/  /d/ “moda” /məʊd/  /moodâ/./s/+ /a//s/ “salon” /  /sâloon/ , “salle” /sal/,  /sââlâ//z/ + /a/  /z/ , “vase” /vɑːz , US /veɪs/ , /veɪz/ /vââzâ/ //k/ +/a/ /q/ “commission” /kəːm ɪʃn/  /qomisjoon/, “captain” / ːkæptɪn/  /qobtâân/.
  19. 19. No obvious reason for sound alternationsː due to idiosyncratic mispronunciation of LW and diffusion and standardization of such pronunciation. -/z/ /s/ , “jeans” /ʤiːnzː /gens/, /- /k//g/, “cravate” /kʀavat/  /gârâfâttâ/;- /m/ /n/,“album” /albɔm/  /?albuum/, /?alboom/, or /?alboon/, “diplôme” as /debloom/, /dabloom/ or /dabloon/,- /n/  /m/ “piston” /  /bestem/.- /t/  /d/ , “pizza” / ː ə/  /betsa/ or /bedza/ piːts /dz/ are either both voiceless or both voiced. - /s//z/,/p/ voiceless /b/“passport” / ː ɔ / pɑːspːt , US / ːpæs-/ /basboor/, /bazboor/ or /bazabort/,- /n//l/ , “journal” / ːdʒɜːnl  /gornâân/ ,/gornââl/, /duplicating the same consonant for ease of pronunciation./g/ /ɣ/ ː “telegraph” / ːtelɪɡrɑːf , US /-ɡræf/ /talleɣrââf/, /“phonograph”  /fonoɣrââf/, “magnet” / ː mæɡnɪt/  /mâɣnâtiis/.
  20. 20. Vowel Alternation: substitution ,lengthening & duplication.5 long vowel ː /iː/ /oː/ /eː/ /uː/ /aː/3 short vowel ː /a/ /u/ /i/French vowel/eu/  /e:/ , “coiffeur” /kwafœʀ/  /kwafe:r/ ː“chauffeur” /ʃofœʀ/  /ʃofe:r//eu/  /oː/ “docteur” /dɔktœʀ/  /dokto:r/ ː“moteur” /mɔtœʀ/  /moto:r/ ː/ mâto:r//u/  /uː/ ː /eː/ ː/ iː/ “pendule” dyl/  /bandu:l/“caricature” /kaʀikatyʀ/  /karikate:r/ː “pedicure”  /badike:r/ “manucure” / ː mænɪkjʊə(r)/  /monoki:r/ or /maniki:r/“jupe” /ʒyp/  /ɡiːba /
  21. 21. In unstressed syllables, /a/ /o/“moteur” /mɔtœʀ/ /mâto:r/ ː “docteur” /dɔktœʀ/  /dâkto:r/En. /a/ /o/“manifesto” / ːmænɪːfest əʊ/  /manafesto/ /i/  /e/ː/æ/“villa” / ːvɪlə/  /vella/ or /fella/ “wing” /wɪŋ/ /w æ ng/“switch” /swɪtʃ/  /sewetch/ ː “zigzag” / ː zɪɡzæɡ/ /zegzaːg/“télévision” / ː telɪvɪʒn/  /telefezjo:n/ “jeans” /ʤiːnz  /gens/ ː /Fn ː “litre” //litʀ/  /letr/
  22. 22. Duplication : of the same vowel in adjacent syllables, to avoid variation and create harmony within a word & simplifying its pronunciation, “aluminium” / ː æljʊːm ɪnɪəm/ /ʔalamonjom/,Duplication of 1st V. in 2nd syllable & other one in the last syllable. “chiffonier” /ː ʃɪfəːn ɪə/ː /šofoni:ra/. fn :chiffonnier /ʃifɔnje/lengthening :basic to stressed syllables in EA as it is a syllable-timed language.Stress following EA patterns rather than following the model pronunciation of LW. /o/ /o:/ , “gallon” / ː ɡælən/  /galoon/ ,“salon” ː/səːl n/  /sa-loon/ ɒ/u/ /u:/ lorry / ː lɒrɪ/ , US / ːlɔːr  / /Iu:-ri/ ɪ//a/ /a:/ “cutout” / ː kʌtaʊt/  /kata:wet/ , “madame”, /madaam//i/ /i:/ “sweater” /sewiitâr/ /e/ dentelle” tɛl/  /dânte:l/, “etiquette” /etikɛt/ /?etikee:/CCC tri-consonantal words , CCCC & five C have their stressed vowels lengthened,
  23. 23. Addition ː Intrusive vowels and consonantsloanword models beginning with a vowel are usually integrated by adding an intrusive glottal stop, /ʔ/,Ice cream /aɪs kriːm/ / /ʔajskæræm(“album” /albɔm/  /ʔalbu:m/ “accessoire” /akseswaʀ/  /ʔekseswââr/,“autobus” /otɔbys/  /ʔotobiis/,“hotel” /həʊːtel/ ː hôtel /otɛl/  /ʔoteel/“élastique” /elastik/  /ʔastek/.No initial clusters, only clusters of two are allowed in syllable- final position (CVCC) .Initial clusters of two in LW are broken by adding a syllable starting with a glottal stop followed by a vowel and ending in the originally initial consonant, thus breaking the cluster (?eC-C...).ːstretchː /stretʃ/ /ʔes-te-retʃ/. “sprite” /spraɪt/  /ʔez-be- râjt/, “spray” /ʔezbereej/, “classeur” /klasœʀ/  /ʔak-la- seer/.
  24. 24. Vowels break up clusters not only before the cluster but also in the middle of it, after the first consonant, to preserve the maximal syllabic length CVCC.“princess”/prɪnːses/  /be-ren-si:-sa/,“crème”, /kʀɛm/  /ke-ree- ma/“half time” / ːhɑːfːtam/  /haf-ta-jem/ , “sandwich” /san-da- ɪ wetʃ/,“croissant” /  /korwâso:n/ , “balcon” /  /ba-la-koo-na/, “offside” /ːɒfːsaɪd/ /ʔof-sâ-jed/ . “protein” ːpr əʊtiːn/  /bo-ro- tiin/.No two vowels can occur in succession without being separated by an intrusive consonant .“battery”  /bâttârejjâ/ (isolated) , /bâttârejjet elârâbejjâ/,„flanelle  /fanella/,  /fanellet ennaadi/,“jacket”  /gaketta/  /gakettet elbadia/.
  25. 25. GerminationSome loanwords undergo gemination to approximate EA patterns. One such pattern is /CVCVCVCCV/“caramel”/kârâmellâ/ , “cravate”, /gârâfâttâ/ː fn “flannel” /fanella/ , “battery” /bâttârejjâ/ “dentelle”/dântellâ/ .Gemination be accounted for orthographic doubling ,in which pronunciation is influenced by the spelling.“villa”/vella/or /fella/, “battery” /bâttârejjâ/ , “dentelle”/dântellâ/
  26. 26. Omission:a-Syllable omission.To facilitate pronunciation or in the direction of the Arabic tri- or quadri- consonantal root structure, “trimming away consonants and syllables but a representative portion of the original term is left”“training suit”/t(e)reng/,“automatic” /tomatiiki/ ,“automobile”/tombiil/or/?otombiil/,“cinéma” /si:ma/Italian “alfino”  /fino/ ,“élastique” /?astek/, /el-/ been omitted due to its homonymy definite article /el-/in EA.b-Multi-word expression :Omission of one of the words & sometimes simplification occur in the another).power steering“/bâwâr/,“answering machine” /ʔânsâr/“missed call” /mizd/
  27. 27. Shiftinɡ :• a- Stress Loanwords follow the same stress patterns of Arabic.• Di-syllabic , , stress on the last syllable( long vowel).“radar” / ːreɪdɑː(r)/ /râ-dââr/“dollar” / ːdɒlə(r)/ /do-lââr/• Tri-syllabic LW “pantalon” / /bân-tâ-loon/ ,“telephone” / ːtel fəʊn/  /te-li-foon/ , ɪ“overall” / ːəʊvərɔːl/  /?â-vâ-rool/ Stress on the last syllable , short vowel followed by two consonants, CVCC“ketchup” /ːket ʃəp/ /kat-sabb/,“thermometer” /θəːm ɒmɪtə(r)/ /ter-mo-metr/ “Seven Up”/ ːsevn ʌp/ /se-ven-?âbb/
  28. 28. • Stress falls on the penultimate syllable if the penultimate vowel is long and the last one short .“cutout”,  /ka-taa-wet/“balloon” /bal-loo-na/ .• Stress fall on penultimate syllable if both penultimate and final vowels are of medium length,-Bisyllabic words “cassette” /kəːset//ka-set/ , “shampoo” /ʃæmːpuː/ / ʃam-bu/  “radio” / ːredɪəʊ/  /rad-ju/ . ɪ ʒ-Tri-syllabic words “jacket” / ːdækɪt/ /ga-ket-ta/ “medal” / ːmedl/ /me-dal-ja/ or /ma-del-ja/ -Quadri-syllabic words “battery” / ːbæt ərɪ/ /bât-tâ-rej-ja/.
  29. 29. Metathesis:• “pullover” /boroovâl/ , /boroovâr/ & /boloovâr/• “litre” /retl/• “flannel” /fanella/• “penalty”  /belenti/, /belentaat/• Production of the transposed version of a loanword could be a marker of little education and lower social class.
  30. 30. Thank you.Mai Dewedar