Articulator muscles and Speech Language Disorders.

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Articulator muscles and Speech Language Disorders.

  1. 1. Articulator muscles of face andmouth.
  2. 2.  The presentation shows muscles of articulation of face and mouth and speech languge disorders.
  3. 3. :Contents:Articulator Muscles anatomy.Mouth cavity-.Muscles ¾ view-.Phonetic features and disorders.Lateral head and neck.Jaw internal musclesUpper face muscles.Palate-.Phonetic features and disorders.Nasal cavity-.Phonetic features and disorders.Lower face muscles.Tongue-.Phonetic features and disorders.Pharynx-.Larynx-.Phonetic features and disorders
  4. 4. Facial bone The hyoid bone is in the throat and supports the tongue. The hyoid muscles attach to this bone. The mandible or jaw bone is the largest and strongest facial bone and formsHyoid bone .the lower jaw Mandible or Jaw bone showing features
  5. 5. The palatine bones form part of the mouth and nasal cavities. The vomer bone is a single bone in center of the nasal .cavities Palatine bonesVomer bone in sectional view with other bones
  6. 6. Lacrimal boneThe lacrimal bone is a small and fragile bone atthe inner orbit of the eye through which thelacrimal duct runs. Other facial bones include theconcha in the nostril of the nose and the nasal ..bones that form the nasal bridge
  7. 7. Muscles view of the Face and Head, Superficial ¾.layers of muscles
  8. 8. Galea aponeurotica - tough tissue on the top of the skullFrontalis - pulls the eyebrows up .Auricularis anterior - may move the earsLigmentum palpebrale - a small muscle at the corner of the eyeOrbicularis oculi - squints the eyes, and the part that is labeled, or outer part.Quadratus labii superioris - a muscle in the medial cheek and nose are that has multiple strands, including:Levator labii superioris alaque nasi or Caput angulare - wrinkles the nose .Levator labii superioris or Caput infraobitalis - pulls the upper lip upwards.Caput zygomatic - more lateral strand often not separately distinguishedCaninus (Levator anguli oris) - elevates the lateral parts of the lips .Zygomatic - retracts and pulls the lip corners.
  9. 9. Fascia parotideomasseterica -covering the masseter muscleand parotid gland is a sheet of fascia tissueRisorius - retracts the lip corners .Quadratus (Depressor) labii inferioris- pulls the lower lip downDepressor anguli oris (Triangularis) - pulls the corners of the mouth downwards .Transversus menti (Mentalis) - pushes chin up and wrinkles chin boss .Trapezius - a large muscle in the area of the back shoulder, that has some fibers in the neckPlatysma - a large muscle that lies under the jaw and down the neck to the upper chest.Sternocleidomastoid - a ribbon-like muscle running along the side of the neck that tilts the head right or left
  10. 10. Phonetic features and speech disordersPhonetic features of - Bilabial (place) - both lips come together./p-b –m/ - -Labialized (manner) - any consonant sound produced with a concomitant rounding of the lips - Labio-dental (place) - the lower lip touches the upper teeth - Labiovelar (place) - simultaneous articulation of the lips and the tongue toward or at the velum -Lateral (manner) - air flows around one or both sides of the tongue -Stop (manner) - produced by a complete blockage of air flow through the oral cavity
  11. 11. Lateral Head & Neck : superficial musles of head,neck & face.
  12. 12.  Levator anguli oris -Levator labii superioris - pulls the upper lip upwards. Levator labii superioris alaque nasi - wrinkles the nose . Compressor naris -Masseter - a powerful muscle of mastication that closes the jaw Orbicularis oris - acts to constrict and deform the lips and mouth opening . Splenius - a muscle at the back of the neck with two parts, helps position the head Levator (anguli) scapulae - a muscle in the back of the neck that helps control head position Scalenus posticus - one of three scaleni, deep neck muscles that help position the head Sternocleidomastoid - a ribbon-like muscle running along the side of the neck that tilts the head right or left Risorius - retracts the lip corners. Depressor anguli oris (Triangularis) - pulls the corners of the mouth downwards. Depressor labii inferioris -Trapezius - a large muscle in the area of the back shoulder, that has some fibers in the neck. Platysma - a large muscle that lies under the jaw and down the neck to the upper chest.
  13. 13. facial muscles and bone cutaway to show deeperstructures.
  14. 14. The names of the muscles shown in the third diagram are: Temporalis - elevates the jaw and moves it forward Corrugator - lowers and pulls the eyebrows together . Auricularis posterioris - see above Compressor naris - constricts the nostrils Levator anguli oris (Caninus) - elevates the lateral parts of the lips . Depressor naris -lowers and may flare the alar pars of the nose Buccinator - acts to compress the cheek towards the teeth. Orbicularis oris - Masseter - Depressor labii inferioris - pulls the lower lip down.
  15. 15.  It’s oval shaped and is separated into the oral vestibule and the oral cavity proper. [2] It is bound by the lips anteriorly, the cheeks laterally, the floor of the mouth inferiorly, the oropharynx posteriorly, and the palate superiorly. - The oropharynx begins superiorly at the junction between the hard palate and the soft palate, and inferiorly behind the circumvallate papillae of the tongue. [3] The bony base of the oral cavity is represented by the maxillary and mandibular bones. [4 The oral cavity includes the lips, gingivae, retromolar trigone, teeth, hard palate, cheek mucosa, mobile tongue, and floor of the mouth. The major salivary glands are in close relation with oral cavity structures, although they are not part of the oral cavity. The tongue is part of the oral cavity. The palatine tonsils, soft palate, tongue base, and posterior pharyngeal walls are part of the oropharynx; the oropharynx is not part of the oral cavity.
  16. 16. Oral cavity `n floor of mouth.A: philtrum; B: upper labial frenulum; C: opening of Stensens duct; D: labial commissure; E: hard palate; F: soft palate; G: intermaxillary commissure; H: base of tongue; I: lateral border of tongue, dorsal view; J: tip of tongue, dorsal view; K: tip of tongue, ventral view; L: lateral border of tongue, ventral view; M: ventral surface of tongue; N: lingual frenulum; O: floor of mouth; P: opening of Whartons duct; Q: vestibular gingiva; R: vestibule. Teeth are numbered according to international classification.
  17. 17. Tongue is a mass of muscle that is almost completely covered by a mucous membrane. It occupies most of the oral cavity and oropharynx. It is known for its role in taste,it assists with mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), articulation (speech), and oral cleaning. Five cranial nerves contribute to the complex innervation of this multifunctional organ. The embryologic origins of the tongue first appear at 4 weeks gestation.- The body of the tongue forms from derivatives of the first branchial arch. This gives rise to 2 lateral lingual swellings and 1 median swelling (known as the tuberculum impar). The lateral lingual swellings slowly grow over the tuberculum impar and merge, forming the anterior two thirds of the tongue. Parts of the second, third, and fourth branchial arches give rise to the base of the tongue. Occipital somites give rise to myoblasts, which form the intrinsic tongue musculature.
  18. 18. Tongue
  19. 19. The diagram shows the tongue and muscles in the tongue,muscles of.facial expression but can make visible changes in facial appearanceThe tongue is composed of muscle tissue with a coating of sensors(dorsal surface) for taste, heat, pain, and tactile information. Theupper sensory surface of the tongue is shown on the upper rightside of the drawing, and the tip of the tongue is visible above thesectioned mandible. The side of the tongue is then peeled-away toshow the muscles. Some tongue muscles are inside the tongue,make up most of the mass of the tongue, and shape and move thetongue. These muscles include the Lingualis inferior (and superior,transverse, and vertical, not shown). Other tongue muscles beginoutside the tongue with only terminal fibers inside it, and controlits movement. These muscles include the Styloglossus, the.Hyoglossus, Palatoglossus, Pharyngoglossus, and Genioglossus.
  20. 20. Phonetic features of vowels: -Rounded (vowel) - articulated with concomitant rounding of the lips – -High (vowel) - articulated with the tongue raised above a neutral position -Tense (vowel) - articulated with tongue muscles tensed -Unrounded (vowel) - articulated without concomitant rounding of the lips -Back (vowel) - articulated with the tongue pulled toward the velum -Central (vowel) - articulated with the tongue in a neutral position, neither pushed forward nor pulled back -Front (vowel) - articulated with the tongue pushed forward -Lax (vowel) - articulated with the tongue muscles relaxed -Low (vowel) - articulated with the tongue and jaw lowered -Mid (vowel) - articulated with the tongue in mid, neutral position,neither high nor low .
  21. 21. Tie tongue: Tongue-tie or ankyloglossia (from the Greek for “crooked tongue”) is the condition where the lingual frenulum, the band of tissue that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth, restricts tongue movement. In tongue-tied infants, the frenulum is usually attached close to the tongue tip, leaving little or no “free tongue,” /r/ and /l/ become /j/.
  22. 22. So if you have any weakness in these areas , so speech disorders results,result organically or functionally. we focus on organic reason for example /l/ /j/ due to tie tongue.
  23. 23.  Oral Peripheral Examination (Observation) 1. Lips: ___ Symmetry (smile) ___ pucker ____ closure (p,b) ___ movement (pa,pa,pa) 2. Teeth: ___ any missing ___ oral hygiene adequate ___ inadequate 3. Tongue: A. Structure ___ normal ___ large ___ thick ___ small B. Function ___ elevate ___ retract ___ protrude ___ lateralize 4. Hard and Soft palate: ___ adequate ___ inadequate Function during phonation: ___ adequate ___ inadequate 5. Uvula: ___ normal ___ absent ___ long ___ short ___ slit
  24. 24.  6. Drooling: ___ yes ___ no 7. Respiration: A. Type of breathing: ___ abdominal ___ other (explain) ______ B. Shortness of breath: ___ yes ___ no C. Loud or audible breathing: ___ yes ___ no D. Able to sustain “ah” for more than 5 seconds: ___ yes ___ no 8. Tension sites: ___ none observed ___ face ___ mandible ___ neck Voice (Conversational Speech): ___ within normal limits ___ inadequate (explain) _______ Fluency (Conversational Speech): ___ within normal limits ___ inadequate (explain) __
  25. 25. Jaws internal muscle
  26. 26. The diagrams above show muscles in the mouth area that are not strictly speaking muscles of facial expression. There are more muscles in these areas than illustrated here. Top:Pterygoids and Hyoids. 2nd: Pterygoids. 3rd: Pterygoids from .inside jaw. Last: Hyoids and hyoid bone The Pterygoid muscles, internal and external, are muscles of mastication and function to position the jaw. The Mylohyoidand Geniohyoid help position the hyoid bone and larynx, and .are important in swallowing
  27. 27. Lower Face Muscles
  28. 28.  Superficial muscles in the lower face - Top: lower face superficial muscles; Middle: muscles of the lips; Bottom: sectional view of muscles in the area of the lips, cheeks, and jaw/tongue. These muscle include:
  29. 29. Deep muscles in the lower face include:
  30. 30. lisping  Lisps that we DO see in typical speech development:  Interdental/frontal lisp: A person is referred to as having an interdental or frontal lisp when he/she is producing the /s/ and /z/ sounds with his/her tongue protruding out through the teeth. The /s/ and /z/ sounds will then sound more like a “th” sound: swim=thwim, spoon=thpoon soup=thoup. Producing the /s/ and /z/ (and sometimes the sh, ch, and j) sounds like this is very common in young children and is considered developmentally appropriate until a certain age.  Dentalized lisp: This is when the /s/ and /z/ sounds are produced with the tongue actually touching or pushing up against the front teeth. Just like the interdental/frontal lisp, this error pattern is also age appropriate until a certain age.
  31. 31.  Lisps we DO NOT see in typical speech development: Lateral lisp: This lisp is often referred to as “slushy” or “messy” or “spitty.”  a lateral lisp occurs when the tongue tip is in a similar position to make the /l/ sound, but the air flow, instead of being directed forward and out of the oral cavity, escapes out and over the sides of the tongue. Unlike the interdental/frontal and dentalized lisps, a lateral lisp is never “normal” in speech development and will most likely require speech therapy intervention. Palatal lisp: A palatal lisp results when “the mid section of the tongue comes in contact with the soft palate, quite far back. If you try to produce…an “h” closely followed by a “y” and prolong it, you more or less have the sound” (Caroline Bowen’s website http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/lisping.htm) Like a lateral lisp, a palatal lisp is never normal in development and most likely will require speech therapy intervention.
  32. 32. Upper face muscle
  33. 33. The muscles of the upper face include the following:Frontalis - pulls the eyebrows up .Procerus or Pyramidalis - pulls the glabella down .Orbicularis oculi - squints the eyes, and consists of two major parts an outer part.Zygomatic - retracts and pulls the lip corners upwardsNasalis (transverse or compressor part) - compresses the nostrilsQuadratus labii superioris - a muscle in the medial cheek and noseare that has multiple strands, including:Levator labii superioris alaque nasi or Caput angulare - wrinkles thenose.Levator labii superioris or Caput infraobitalis - pulls the upper lipupwards.Caput zygomatic - more lateral strand often not separatelydistinguished.
  34. 34. Galea aponeurotica - tough tissue on the top of the skullSulcus nasolabialis - nasolabial furrow that runs from the nasalwing to the corner of the mouth. Muscles of the right eyelid Muscles of the right eyelid looking from inside the eye
  35. 35. Nasal cavity
  36. 36. Cleft palate .Cleft lip
  37. 37. Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD) can be due to a variety of causes. Velopharyngeal insufficiency : is when there is an anatomical or structural defect, such as a short velum following cleft palate repair, a submucous cleft, or a deep pharynx secondary to cranial base anomalies.  Velo-pharyngeal insufficiency occur following an adenoidectomy in rare cases, but most commonly if there is a pre-existing submucous cleft.  when there is a poor velopharyngeal movement due to a physiological cause. Velopharyngeal incompetence may be due to poor muscle function, pharyngeal hypotonia, velar paralysis or paresis, dysarthria, or even apraxia.  Velopharyngeal mis-learning is when there is hyper-nasality or nasal emission due to faulty articulation. This can occur due to pharyngeal or nasal articulation of certain sounds. Abnormal articulation can cause phoneme-specific nasal emission, usually on sibilant sounds.
  38. 38. Mouth , pharynx and larynx
  39. 39. larynx
  40. 40.  Vocal cords as visualized through laryngoscope
  41. 41. Laryngoctomy.
  42. 42. Voice disorder: We have all experienced problems with our voices, times when the voice is hoarse or when sound will not come out at all! Colds, allergies, bronchitis, exposure to irritants such as ammonia, or cheering for your favorite sports team can result in a loss of voice. Learn more about different types of voice disorders. Vocal Cord Nodules and Polyps Vocal Cord Paralysis Spasmodic Dysphonia. Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM)Paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM) is a voice disorder. The vocal folds (cords) behave in a normal fashion almost all of the time, but, when an episode occurs, the vocal cords close when they should open, such as when breathing.
  43. 43. Fricative (manner) - produced with articulators close enough -.to create turbulence in the airflow-Click (manner) - an oral ingressive sound produced with theback of the tongue against the velum while the primary.articulators close, then open to produce suctionEjective (manner) - simultaneous closure of the glottis and -primary articulators with air from lungs pushing up on theglottis increasing pressure in the oral cavityFlap (manner) - posterior of the apex of the tense tongue -rapidly touches the palate, alveolar ridge, or other articulator
  44. 44. Implosive (manner) - complete closure of the vocal tract combined with -lowering of vibrating vocal cords producing lower air pressure in oral cavityPlosive (manner) - produced by the release of complete closure of the vocal -. tractPrenasalized (manner) - typically a voiced plosive immediately preceded by -.a lowering of the velumNasal (manner) - velum is pulled down and slightly forward allowing.airflow to the nasal cavity as well as into the closed oral cavity
  45. 45. Nasalized (manner) - any sound produced with concomitant -.lowering of the velumNon-lateral (manner) - any sound not produced with airflow -. around the side of the tongueNon-nasalized (manner) - any sound produce without concomitant -.lowering of the velumNon-prenasalized (manner) - any sound articulated without an -. immediately preceding lowering of the velumNon-retroflex (manner) - any sound produced without the apex of -.the tongue being curled back toward the velum
  46. 46. .Retroflex (manner) - the apex of the tongue is curled back toward the velum -Tap (manner) - apex of the tense tongue rapidly touches the palate, alveolar -.ridge, or other articulator.Trill (manner) - a tensed active articulator vibrates against another -Unaspirated (manner) - any sound produced without delayed onset of -.voicingUnlabialized (manner) - any sound produced without concomitant -.involvement of the lips
  47. 47. . Glottal (place) - sound articulated at the glottis --Uvular (place) - aqarticulated with the back of the tongue against the uvula .-Velar (place) - articulated with the back of the tongue against the soft palate .-Palatal (place) - the tongue touches the hard palate..Dental (place) - the tongue touches the front teeth --Palatoalveolar (place) - tip or blade of the tonguearticulates against the forward part of the palatebehind the alveolar ridge.
  48. 48. -Pharyngeal (place) - produced with constricted pharynx.Laryngealized (phonation) - cricoid cartilage in the larynx tilted forward -. thickening the vocal cords to produce creaky vibrationMurmured (phonation) - vocal cords are close and vibrating as for voiced -. (q.v.) but spread arytenoid cartilages allow for breathinessVoiced (phonation) - vocal cords are close, tense and vibrating and -. arytentoids are together. Voiceless (phonation) - vocal cords are apart and not vibrating -

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