The mechanics of formal writing


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The mechanics of formal writing

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The mechanics of formal writing

  1. 1. Manuel V. Gallego Foundation Colleges, Inc. The Mechanics of Formal Writing Prepared by: Maricar Guarin & Rhod Carlo Duldulao B.S.E.D. III
  2. 2. 1. Each of the following expressions should be written as separate words, not as one word: Any day In front of Any more In spite of Any time In order All right (alright has not yet been accepted in good usage) *
  3. 3. NOTE: the following expressions may be written as one word or as separate words: Insofar as In so far as Someway Some way Percent Per cent *
  4. 4. 2. Each of the following expressions should be written as one word, not as separate words: Hereabout Hereinbefore Hereafter Hereinto Hereat Hereof Inasmuch (to be followed by as) Insomuch (to be followed by that or as) *
  5. 5. 3. When written in words, numbers 21 to 99 should be hyphenated, as hereunder shown: Twenty-one Twenty-nine Thirty-one Thirty-nine Forty-one Forty-nine *
  6. 6. 4. When used in modifiers, compound words are hyphenated: An up-to-date report Beginning-of-theschool-yearmeetings Four-footed animals * (Up-to-date modifies report) (Beginning-of-theschool-year modifies meetings) (Four-footed modifies animals)
  7. 7. 5. When used in modifiers, fractions written in words should be hyphenated, viz: One-half size One-third portion Two-thirds novtes * (one-half modifies size_ (one-third mdifies portion) (two-thirds modifies votes)
  8. 8. 6. When used as nouns, fractions written in words need not be hyphenated. They are just written as separate words, viz: One half of the audience I obtained one third of the votes Two thirds of the delegates * (one half, a noun, is used as a subject) (one third, a noun, used s the direct object of the verb obtained) (two-thirds a noun, is used as a subject)
  9. 9. 7. The prefix-rootword combination should be hyphenated: Re-cover Re-release Re-tire * Please, recover the book. I have to re-lease our house. To be safe, re-tire your car.
  10. 10. NOTE: if the combination without hyphen has a different meaning: Recover Release Retire * He recovered from his illness. An early release of her grades is requested. I retired last year from my profession
  11. 11. 8. In the combination of a prefix ending with a vowel with a rootword the begins also with a vowel, should better be hyphenated: Re-arm Re-ink Re-insure * There’s a need to rearm the school guards. To re-ink the contract today is impossible. We have to re-insure the safety of the students.
  12. 12. 9. A hyphen should be used to set off a prefix placed before a proper noun, viz: Anti-American Pro-American Anti-Filipino Pro-Catholic Non-Moslem Pre-Spanish *
  13. 13. 10. By reason of usage, it is better to hyphenate the following designations: Ambassador-at-Large Editor-in-Chief Attorney-at-Law Vice-Chairman Commander-in-Chief Officer-in-Carge *
  14. 14. Note: The following are may be with or without hyphen: Chairman of the Board Officer of the Day Executive Director Vicar General Judge Advocate General * Officer of the Guard
  15. 15. 11. If attached to an official designation, the prefix ex should be set off by a hyphen: Ex-president Ex-mayor Ex-senator Ex-vice mayor Ex-congressman Ex-councilor *
  16. 16. 12. I attached to notable era, period or event, the prefix pre or post should be set off by a hyphen: Pre-election period Pre-war days Pre-Spanish times * Post-liberation period Post-election campaign Post-war
  17. 17. 13. Words cannot be made plural by adding s or es. To pluralize, make use of pharases indicative of their units of measurement: Baggage Blood Chalk * Pieces, bundles, or bunches of baggage Bottles, cups, or drops of blood pieces or boxes of chalk
  18. 18. 14. If s or es is added to any of the following nouns, the meaning of each noun is changed: Cloth Clothes Fish Fishes Glass Glasses * -A fabric material -Garments; dresses -Any cold-blooded animal adapted for aquatic life -fish of different species A hard, brittle and transparent substance -eyeglasses; spectacles
  19. 19. 15. Reflexive pronouns like, myself, yourself, herself, oneself, himself, and themselves are not hyphenated; however, self must be set off by a hyphen if used as combining form: self-made man self-serving self-praises self-explanatory Self-sacrifice Self-service *
  20. 20. 16. If used as an adverb in the sentence, each of the following terms should be written as one word: Anyhow - By any means Anywhere -at any place Sometime at a time in the past or in the future *
  21. 21. 17. If any, every or some is used as (an adjective) a modifier of thing, body, one, day, or way, each pairing must be written separately: Any thing of value - Any modifies thing Every body of matter - Every modifies bidy Some things are weightless - Some modifies things *
  22. 22. 18. If any, every, some or no, is combined with either body, one, or thing to form a pronoun, each pair should be written as word: Anybody Anyone Anything * The gift may be given to anybody Can anyone identify the offender? Anything can be given as a symbol of recognition
  23. 23. 19. Designations of relationship by affinity are usually set off by hepphens: Father-in-law Mother-in-law Brother-in-law Sister-in-law Son-in-law Daughter-in-law *
  24. 24. 20. Designations of relationship by previous marriage of a parent or spouse, not by blood, are written as one word, not hyphenated: Stepbrother Stepmother Stepchild Stepparent Stepson stepfather *
  25. 25. 21. The area of spelling also covers to a certain extent the requirements of proper capitalization and abbreviation. What words then should be capitalized? *
  26. 26. Proper Nouns: Referring to particular persons: Common Nouns Referring to persons in general: Jose dela Cruz man, father or uncle Maria or Ana daughter, girl or child Jose Rizal hero, author or writer *
  27. 27. Proper Nouns: Referring to particular places: Common Nouns Referring to common places: San Fernando barangay Calamba towns Nueva Ecija province *
  28. 28. Proper Nouns: Referring to particular things/events: Common Nouns Referring common things: Folk Arts Theater building or theater Independence Day event/holidays October month *
  29. 29. 22. Always capitalize proper adjectives. Filipino culture Chinese food American influence Japanese ingenuity Russian government German invention Spanish style British accent Korean products European doctrine *
  30. 30. 23. If used before the name of the holder, designation, position, title should be capitalized: Governor Oyie Umali Secretary Jessie Robredo Judge Lauro Esteban Mayor Jay Vergara Manager Jose Cruz * Dean Manuel Guerroro
  31. 31. 24. If not placed before the holder, it shoul not be capitalized: governor of Nueva Ecija appointed judge secretary of KC Council mayor of the city manager of the bank President of PAFTE III *
  32. 32. 25. Formal writing prescribes that when used before the full names of the holders, designations are better abbreviated: Gov. Oyie Umali Sec. Jessie Robredo Atty. Lauro Esteban Dr. Jay Gomez Engr. Jose Cruz Gen. Manuel Guerroro *
  33. 33. 26. When used before the holder’s family name only, the designation should be spelled out in full: Governor Umali Secretary Robredo Attorney Tolentino Doctor Bernardez Engineer Cruz Architect Willford *
  34. 34. 27. The following should not be abbreviated: Accountant Director Ambassador Editor-in-Chief Bishop Judge *
  35. 35. 28. If used after a pronoun in an address, street, avenue, boulevard, road and drive are better abbreviated: Del Pilar St. Kennon Rd. Burgos Ave. Bonifacio Dr. Quezon Blvd. Rizal Ave. *
  36. 36. 29. If used before proper nouns, saint, santo, santa, fort and mount are better abbreviated: St. Martin Ft. Magsaysay Sto. Tomas Mt. Pinatubo Sta. Maria St. Joseph *
  37. 37. 30. In whatever manner they may be used, the following names of months will conform better with formal communication if they are not abbreviated: March May June July August September *
  38. 38. 31. In the abbreviation of offices, schools, organizations or countries, omit the period after each letter: DOLE DOH UP * (Department of Labor and Employment ) (Department of Health) (University of the Philippines)
  39. 39. 32. If placed immediately following the holder’s name, academic degrees are abbreviated and a dot or period is set after each letter-abbreviated: A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) B.E.E.D (Bachelor of Elementary Education) (Doctor of Dental Medicine) D.M.D *
  40. 40. 33. Accepted abbreviations used in literary works or in some form of communication require that a dot or period is set after each letter : a.C A.D. a.m/A.M. * (ante cibum) before meals (Anno Domini) in the year of the Lord (ante meridian) before noon
  41. 41. 34. Propriety in formal writing or communication requires that numbers should be spelled out in words whenever they are used in any o the following instances: * When a number is used to begin a sentence *When a number is used in reference to decades or centuries *When a number is used to indicate ordinal numbers *
  42. 42. Thank you! 