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Bahan kuliah Otomasi Manufaktur tentang Tinjauan Umum Proses Manufaktur

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overview of mfg

  1. 1. Part I OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURINGChapters:2. Manufacturing Operations a. Manufacturing Industries and Products b. Manufacturing Operations c. Production Facilities d. Product/Production Relationships e. Lean Production3. Manufacturing Models and Metrics ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  2. 2. Definisi Manufakturing Dari Tinjauan TeknologiPenerapan proses fisik dan kimia untuk mengubah geometri, sifat, dan tampilan dari sebuah bendakerja asal menjadi komponen atau produk. Manufakturing juga termasuk penyambungan terhadap banyak komponen menjadi produk rakitan Didukung oleh kombinasi mesin, perkakas, daya dan tenaga manusia Hampir selalu dilaksanakan sebagai rangkaian operasi ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  3. 3. Manufacturing Defined - Technological Definition ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  4. 4. Definisi Manufakturing Dari Tinjauan EkonomiPerubahan bahan menjadi komponen yang bernilai lebih tinggidengan melalui satu atau lebih pemrosesan atau perakitan Manufakturing menambah nilai terhadap bahan Contoh: Mengubah biji besi menjadi baja menambah nilai Mengubah pasir menjadi kaca menambah nilai Pemurnian minyak menjadi plastik menambah nilai ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  5. 5. Manufacturing Defined - Economic Definition ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  6. 6. Klasifikasi Industri1. Industri Primer – mengolah dan mengekploitasi bahan alam Contoh: pertanian, pertambangan, perikanan, perminyakan2. Industri Sekunder – mengubah luaran industri primer menjadi produk Contoh: manufakturing, pembangkit tenaga, konstruksi, otomotif, computer, kertas, pemurnian minyak, plastik, pemrosesan makanan, kayu dan furnitur, logam dasar’3. Industri Tersier – Sektor Jasa Contoh: perbankan, pendidikan, pemerintahan, jasa resmi, perdagangan, transportasi, turisme, grosir, hiburan ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  7. 7. Industri Manufakturing ISIC Code Food, beverages, tobacco 31 Textiles, apparel, leather and fur products 32 Wood and wood products, cork 33 Paper, printing, publishing, bookbinding 34 Chemicals, coal, petroleum, & their products 35 Ceramics, glass, mineral products 36 Basic metals, e.g., steel, aluminum 37 Fabricated products, e.g., cars, machines, etc. 38 Other products, e.g., jewelry, toys 39the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Used by the United Nations ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  8. 8. Klasifikasi Industri Selanjutnya Industri Proses, mis, kimia, petroleum, logam dasar, makanan dan minuman, pembangkit tenaga Produksi Kontinyu Produksi Batch (Kelompok) Produk diskret (dan komponen), mis. Mobil, pesawat terbang peralatan rumah tangga, permesinan, dan komponennya Produksi Kontinyu Produksi batch (kelompok)Produksi Kontinyu  jika peralatan hanya dikhususkan untukyang diberikan dan luaran produk tidak dapat diberhentikanProduksi Batch jika bahan diproses dalam jumlah terbatas.Jumlah kelompok tersebut disebut batch, baik pada proses diskretmaupun kontinyu
  9. 9. Industri Proses dan Industri Manufakturing Diskret ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  10. 10. Operasi Manufakturing Ada aktivitas dasar tertentu yang harus dilaksanakan pada sebuah pabrik untuk mengubah bahan mentah menjadi produk Untuk produk diskret: 1. Operasi pemrosesan dan perakitan 2. Pemindahan bahan 3. Inspeksi dan pengujian 4. Koordinasi dan kendali ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  11. 11. Klaisifikasiprosesmanufakturing ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  12. 12. Operasi Pemrosesan Operasi pengubahan bentuk 1. Proses pembekuan 2. Particulate processing 3. Proses Deformasi 4. Proses pembuangan bahan (tatal) Operasi perbaikan sifat- (perlakuan panas) Operasi pemrosesan permukaan Perlakuan dan pembersihan permukaan Pelapisan dan Deposisi lapisan film tipis ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  13. 13. Operasi Perakitan Proses penyambungan Pengelasan Brazing and soldering Adhesive bonding Penyambungan Mekanis Sambungann berulir (mur-baut, sekrup) Keling Interference fits (e.g., press fitting, shrink fits) Lainnya ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  14. 14. Operasi Pabrik lainnya Pemindahan bahan dan peryimpanan Inspeksi dan Pengujian Koordinasi dan kendali ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  15. 15. Material Handling Transport bahan Kendaraan, mis. forklift trucks, AGVs, monorails Conveyors Hoists and cranes Sistem penyimpanan Unitizing equipment (Peralatan Penakaran) Automatic identification and data capture Bar codes RFID (radio frequency identification) Other AIDC (automatic identification and data capture) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  16. 16. Waktu yang Dihabiskan untuk Material Handling ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  17. 17. Inspeksi (inspection) dan Pengujian (Testing)Inspeksi – pengujian produk dan komponennya untuk menentukan apakah mereka sesuai dengan spesifikasi desain Inspeksi untuk variabel - pengukuran Inspeksi untuk atribut – gaging (pembandingan)Pengujian – pengamatan produk (komponen, bahan, sub perakitan) selama operasi sesungguhnya atau keadaan yang mungkin terjadi selama operasi ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  18. 18. Koordinasi dan Pengendalian Aturan pemrosesan individu dan operasi perakitan Kendali Proses Kendali Mutu Manajemen aktivitas level pabrik Production planning and control (PPC) Kendali Mutu ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  19. 19. Fasilitas Produksi Sebuah perusahaan manufakturing mencoba untuk menata fasilitas dengan cara yang paling efisien untuk mencapai misi perusahaan. Tipe perusahaan tertentu dikenali sebagai memiliki cara yang paling sesuai untuk mengelola tipe manufakturing tertentu. Tipe yang paling sesuai bergantung pada: Tipe produk yang dibuat Jumlah produksi Varitas Produk ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  20. 20. Kuantitas ProduksiJumlah unit komponen atau produk yang mampu dibuat oleh pabrik setiap tahunTiga batas jumlah: 1. Produksi Rendah: 1 sd.100 unit 2. Produksi Medium: 100 sd. 10,000 unit 3. Produksi Tinggi: 10,000 - jutaan unit ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  21. 21. Varitas ProdukMerujuk ke jumlah produk atau komponen yang berbeda yang didesain atau dibuat pada sebuah pabrik. Hubungan terbalik antara jumlah dan varitas produk pada operasi pabrik Varitas produk lebih rumit daripada jumlah produk Hard product variety – produk sangat berbeda Komponen yang tidak umum pada perakitan Soft product variety – sedikit perbedaan antar produk Kebanyakan komponen yang umum pada perakitan ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  22. 22. Varitas Produk vs. Kuantitas Produk ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  23. 23. Kuantitas Produk RendahJob shop – membuat produk dengan jumlah sedikit dengan kekhususan dan penyesuaian terhadap pesanan. Produk biasanya kompleks (mis. mesin-mesin khusus, prototip, kapsul untuk ruang angkasa (space capsules) Peralatan untuk keperluan umum Tata letak pabrik: Posisi tetap (Fixed position) Tata letak proses (Process layout) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  24. 24. Fixed-Position Layout ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  25. 25. Process Layout ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  26. 26. Kuantitas Produksi Menengah1. Batch production – sebuah kelompok (batch) dari produk tertentu dibuat, kemudian fasilitas diubah jika hendak mengganti dengan produk lain. Pengubahan memakan waktu – set-up time (waktu persiapan) Tata letak yang umum – process layout Hard product variety2. Cellular manufacturing – produk-produk campuran dibuat tanpa perubahan yang signifikan di antara pergantian produk Tata letak yang umum – cellular layout Soft product variety ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  27. 27. Cellular Layout ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  28. 28. Produksi Tinggi1. Kuantitas Produksi – Peralatan dipersiapkan untuk membuat produk tunggal Mesin Standar dilengkapi perkakas untuk produksi tinggi (mis. stamping presses, molding machines) Tata letaknya – process layout2. Flow line production – Multiple workstations disusun secara berurutan Produk memerlukan langkah yang panjang pemrosesan atau perakitan Tata letak produk yang paling umum dipakai ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  29. 29. Tata Letak Produk (Product Lay out) ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  30. 30. Hubungan antara Tata Letak dan Tipe Fasilitas Produk ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  31. 31. Hubungan Produk/Produksi P Jumlah Total Unit Produk = Qf = ∑Qj j =1 Qf=jumlah tahunan model j, Qi= jumlah total komponen atau produk dibuat di pabrik Contoh 2.1 Varitas Produk Hard product variety = beda antar produk Soft product variety = beda model di antara produk Kompleksitas Produk dan Komponen Kompleksitas produk np = jumlah komponen dalam produk Kompleksitas Komponen no = jumlah operasi per komponen ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  32. 32. Model Operasi PabrikPenyederhanaan untuk tujuan konseptualisasi: Jumlah total unit produk Qf = PQ Jumlah total komponen yang diproduksi npf = PQnp Jumlah operasi total nof = PQnpno Contoh 2.2 ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  33. 33. Keterbatasan dan Kemampuan Sebuah Pabrik ManufakturingKapabilitas manufakturing – keterbatasan dari segi teknik dan fisik dari sebuah pabrik manufakturing dan masing-masing bagiannya Tiga dimensi kapabilitas manufakturing: 1. Kapabilitas Pemrosesan scr Teknologi – ketersediaan rangkaian proses manufakturing 2. Ukuran fisik dan bobot produk 3. Kapasitas produksi (kapasitas pabrik) – jumlah produksi yang dapat dibuat pada waktu tertentu ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  34. 34. Lean ProductionPengoperasian pabrik dengan sumber daya yang minimum namun tetap mendapatkan jumlah pekerjaan yang dapat dicakup secara maksimum. Sumber daya meliputi: buruh, peralatan, waktu, ruang dan bahan Juga bermakna penyelesaian produk dengan waktu sesingkat mungkin untuk mendapatkan tingkat mutu yang memuaskan konsumen . Ringkasnya, lean production bermakna bekerja lebih dengan sesuatu yang terbatas untuk namun hasil dengan mutu tinggi. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  35. 35. Lean Production dan Aktivitas ManufakturingAktivitas manufakturing dapat dibagi menjadi tiga kategori:1. Value-adding activities – kontribusi nilai terhadap unit kerja2. Auxiliary activities – mendukung aktivitas penambahan nilai3. Wasteful activities – tidak menambah nilai dan juga tidak mendukung aktivitas penambahan nilai. Jika tidak dibuat, tidak akan mengurangi nilai produk ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  36. 36. Program yang dikaitkan dengan Lean Production Just-in-time delivery of parts Worker involvement Continuous improvement Reduced setup times Stop the process when something is wrong Error prevention Total productive maintenance ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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