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Collocation by mahmoud abu qarmoul


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presentation for a semantic course MA level

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Collocation by mahmoud abu qarmoul

  2. 2. Firth introduced the notion of collocations by :his statement You shall know a word“ ”by the company it keeps
  3. 3. This is a heavy bag rain smoker heavy traffic
  4. 4. Collocates are lexemes that co-occur with each other in natural .texts ( )
  5. 5. collocation )n.( A term used in lexicology by • some linguists )especially Firthian( to refer to the habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items (. )Crystal 6 edn
  6. 6. ,For example ,auspicious collocates with : occasion, event letter collocates with alphabet, graphic
  7. 7. Collocations and idioms we have to differentiate between collocations and . idioms Idiom : a term used in grammar and lexicology to refer to a sequence of words which is semantically and often syntactically restricted, so that they function as a single unit. From a semantic viewpoint, the meanings of the individual words cannot be summed to produce the meaning of the idiomatic expression as a whole. From a syntactic viewpoint, the words often do not permit the usual variability they display in other contexts, e.g. it’s raining cats .and dogs does not permit *it’s raining a cat and a dog/dogs and cats, etc .
  8. 8. Idioms to kick the bucket give up Collocations heavy rain make a mistake
  9. 9. Collocates may be characterized as : follows Syntactically and semantically permissible. 1
  10. 10. :Example There was green grass growing everywhere
  11. 11. Syntactically permissible. 2 but semantically impermissible
  12. 12. :Example There were green ideas growing everywhere
  13. 13. 3. Syntactically and semantically impermissible
  14. 14. 'There was green ideas grows everywhere
  15. 15. :Collocate may also be characterized as follow Syntactically and semantically permissible , but incidental, as in live metaphor Example The barn was painted red like a tomato
  16. 16. ‘ Syntactically and semantically permissible, but fixed in usage, as in dead metaphors dead metaphor :a word or phrase that has lost its force through common usage / Webster ) (11 edn red as a beet' He turned as
  17. 17. Collocation is not simply a matter of“ association of ideas. For, although milk is white we should not say white milk ,though the expression white paint is ”common enough (Palmer(1976: p.76
  18. 18. Although collocation is very largely determined by meaning, it can not easily be predicted in terms of the meaning of associated words Example: blond with hair We should not talk about a blond door or a blond dress Also : rancid with bacon and butter milk never collocates with rancid but ) (with sour
  19. 19. Pretty child and buxom neighbor normally refer to females Not pretty boy or buxom man :This is found in the collective words ((denoting a number of persons or things considered as one group or whole Folk of sheep Herd of cows School of whales
  20. 20. Words may have more specific meanings in particular collocations example: abnormal or exceptional weather but an exceptional child is not an abnormal child
  21. 21. It would be a mistake to attempt to draw a clear distinguishing line between those collocations that are predictable from the meanings of the words that co-occur and those that are not
  22. 22. One can with, varying degrees of plausibility ,provide a semantic explanation by assigning very particular meanings to the individual words rancid : unpleasant taste associated with butter
  23. 23. There is some plausibility in accounting for dogs bark, cats mew in terms of the kind of noise made ,since bark can be used of ( other animals (squirrels
  24. 24. Not only is some of the semantic explanation a little implausible, but there are other examples where it would seem totally inappropriate (herd of cows flock of sheep( the only difference between herd and flock is that one is used with cows and the other with sheep
  25. 25. a word will often collocate with a number of other words that have some thing in common semantically
  26. 26. Palmer individual words or sequences of“ words will not collocate with certain groups of words. Thus, though we may say The rhododendron died, we shall not say The rhododendron passed away, in spite of the fact that pass away seems to mean ‘die’.” (1986:78). This is caused by the restriction on the use of a particular word with a group of . words that are semantically related
  27. 27. Cruse explains the problem by saying that pass away requires the grammatical subject to be human and that’s why it cannot be used with a shrub
  28. 28. Cruse emphasises the semantic arbitrariness of the restriction and calls it collocational restriction. He defines it as “co-occurrence restrictions that are irrelevant to truth-conditions
  29. 29. Cruse maintains that collocational restrictions are not logically necessary; they are not primarily there to encode part of the message. This fact was already discussed by Firth who says that “meaning by collocation is an abstraction at the syntagmatic level and is not directly concerned with the conceptual or idea approach to the ”meaning of words
  30. 30. In relation to synonymy, we must not forget about collocational range and collocational restriction. Lyons (1995) speaks about collocational range of an expression, i.e. the set of contexts in which it can occur He relates it to the condition that two expressions are absolutely synonymous when “they are synonymous in all contexts” (1995: 61). Lyons exemplifies his thesis by big and large. There are many contexts in which these two expressions cannot be substituted without violating the collocational restrictions of one or the other .You are making a big mistake You are making a large mistake
  31. 31. Palmer (1986) sees three kinds of : collocations some are based wholly on the meaning. 1 of the item as in the unlikely green cow. )semantics some are based on range – a word. 2 may be used with a whole set of words that have some semantic features in common.” This accounts for the unlikeliness of pretty boy ) pretty is used to denote females (
  32. 32. some restrictions are. 3 collocational in the strictest sense, involving neither meaning, nor range” (1986), as .for example addled eggs
  33. 33. Adjective + noun verb + noun verb + adverb Adverb + adjective noun + noun Verbs + preposition a major problem set the table struggle desperately sound asleep a surge of anger Filled with horror