Obesity

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Obesity

  1. 1. Obesity
  2. 2. Definition of obesityObesity is defined by a body-mass index )weight divided by square of the height( of 30 kgm–2 or.greaterBMI is the weight in kilograms divided by the*.square of the height in metres
  3. 3. classification of overweightBMI* )kg m–2( WHO classification PopulardescriptionUnderweight Thin 18.5>‘Healthy‘, ‘normal‘, ‘acceptable‘ — 24.9–18.5Grade 1 overweight Overweight 29.9–25.0Grade 2 overweight Obesity 39.9–30.0Grade 3 overweight Morbid obesity 40.0≤
  4. 4. Factors influencing obesityGenetics-1Environmental factors It seems likely that-2 environmental influences actthrough increasing energy intake and/or decreasing energy expenditure
  5. 5. -3Energy expenditure. The most variablecomponent of energy expenditure is hysicalactivity, representing 20–50% of total energy.expenditure There is some evidence thatEnergy intake -4high-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of obesity within populations
  6. 6. Culture -5  -6Fetal nutrition. Evidence indicates that undernutrition of the fetus during intrauterinedevelopment may determine the later onset of obesity
  7. 7. Effect of obesity on the bodyObesity leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus -1 -2The effects of obesity Cardiovascular function The increase in circulatory preloadand afterload lead to left ventricular )LV( .dilatation and hypertrophy
  8. 8. Sleep-breathing abnormalities in obesity -3During sleep, there is alveolar hypoventilation andtransient episodes of apnea that are accompaniedby a fall in arterial oxygen saturation )hypoxia( anda rise in arterial carbon dioxide )hypercapnia(. Insome individuals, these factors lead to daytimesleepiness )hypersomnolence( with persistenthypoxia and hypercapnia accompanied by thedevelopment ofpulmonary hypertension, heart failure and eventually,.respiratory failure
  9. 9. Cerebrovascular disease -4Obesity is linked to an increased risk of stroke inboth men and womenGastrointestinal system gastroesophageal reflux -5
  10. 10. Hepatobiliary disease-Obesity is associated with cholelithiasis. In the  Nurses‘ Hekg/m2 had an incidence of symptomatic gallstones ofperson-years of follow-up. Women with BMI >45 kg/m gallstones
  11. 11. Osteoarthritis-Cancer-Psychosocial function--Gynaecological and obstetric complications-Surgical and anesthetic complications-
  12. 12. Management of obesityDieting-1Exercise-2Weight loss programs-3Medication -4Surgery-5

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