Kidney infection or pyelonephritis


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Kidney infection or pyelonephritis

  1. 1. Kidney infection or pyelonephritis:Definition Pyelonephritis is an infection of the . kidney and the urethresCauses 1- urinary tract infection, in the presence of occasional orpersistent back flowurine from the bladder into the-2 ureters or kidney pelvis(. (vesicoureteric reflux
  2. 2. Classification of pyelonephritisAcute uncomplicatedpyelonephritis suddendevelopment of kidney(.inflammationChronic pyelonephritis (a long-standing infection that does notclear
  3. 3. Causes incidence, and risk factorsThe risk is increased if there is a history of cystitis, renal papillary necrosis,kidney stones, vesicoureteric reflux, or. obstructive uropathyAcute pyelonephritis can be severe in the elderly and in people who areimmunosuppressed (for example, those(.with cancer or AIDS
  4. 4. . :Symptoms or back pain- Flank painSevere abdominal pain-.high fever and persists for more than 2 days - Chills with shaking.Warm, flushed, moist - . skin. Vomiting, nausea - . Fatigue and general ill feeling - Painful urination, urinary frequency or urgency -., nocturiaCloudy or abnormal urine color, foul or - . strong urine odor, and hematuria may occur Mental changes of confusion - 
  5. 5. Diagnostic studies A urinalysis commonly reveals white- blood cells (WBCs) or red blood cells(. (RBCsA urine culture may reveal bacteria in- . the urine. A blood culture may show an infection- An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) or CT- scan of the abdomen may showenlarged kidneys with poor flow of dye. through the kidneys
  6. 6. TreatmentThe goals of treatment are control of the infection and reduction of. symptomsAcute symptoms usually resolve within 48 to . 72 after appropriate treatmentDue to the high mortality rate in the elderly population and the risk of permanent kidney. damage prompt treatment is recommended
  7. 7. antibiotics are selected to treat the .infectionIntravenous (IV) antibiotics may be used initially to control the bacterial infection ifinfection is severe a 10- to 14 day course ofantibiotics chronic pyelonephritisKidney damage can result from these infections. The elederly, infants, and peoplewith a compromised immune system so receive frequent monitoring for potential problems and to receive IV antibiotics,additional IV fluids and other medications asnecessary
  8. 8. :Complications . Recurrence of pyelonephritis Perinephric abscess (infection (. around the kidney . Sepsis . Acute renal failure . Chronic renal failure  
  9. 9. preventionPrompt and complete treatment of cystitis pyelonephritis. Chronic or recurrent.urinary tract infection of the kidneys Preventive measures may reduce symptoms and prevent recurrence ofinfection. Keeping the genital area clean andremembering to from front to backUrinating immediately after sexual intercourse may help eliminate any bacteria
  10. 10. PreventionIncreasing the intake of fluids to encourage frequent urination that. flushes bacteria from the bladderDrinking cranberry juice prevents certain types ofbacteria from attaching to the wallof the bladder
  11. 11. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney’s filtering. mechanisms, called the glomeruliGlomerulonephritis can be acute , ,which means it occurs suddenlyor chronic , meaning symptoms develop gradually and continue over a number of years
  12. 12. common in children between the ages .of 2 and 12, particularly boysChildren with frequent streptococcal  infectionspeople with diseases such as hepatitis,, or .diabetes What causes it occurs after a streptococcal infection, such as strep throat-certain toxins, such as paints. its cause is not known 
  13. 13. What are the signs &  symptoms? often flu-like, such as general fatigue, ,nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fever and abdominal and joint pain. These types of general symptoms can continue for up to one month before symptoms of kidney failure appear
  14. 14. swelling. They can progress to high blood pressure, visual disturbances,shortness of breath, blood in theurine, and a reduction in urine.production Chronic glomerulonephritis develops so gradually that it is often not discovered until. a routine physical examAs this condition progresses, it causes high blood pressure, swelling, and other.symptoms of kidney failure
  15. 15. How is it diagnosed complete medical history, physical - . examination, and laboratory testscheck a urine sample for blood and - high levels of proteincheck for high levels of the waste . products creatinine and urea in bloodIf a streptococcal infection is suspected, throat culture, will reveal this bacteria.a biopsy, to study under amicroscope. An eye exam may showsigns of vascular changes in people .with chronic glomerulonephritis
  16. 16. the treatment  bedrest and medications to cure any infection, increase urine-1 , output, and lower blood pressureto relieve any strain on the kidneys so- 2  they can recover full functiondiet control to your intake of sodium, protein, and fluids. Most children recover, fully
  17. 17. no treatment to stop the progression of chronicglomerulonephritis. Once kidney, failure has occurredwaste products must be removed from the bloodstream for thekidneys through a process called. dialysisA kidney transplant may also .be an option
  18. 18. You can help prevent acute glomerulonephritis by treatingstreptococcal infections following thefull course of medicationNursing intervention reliefe symtoms &prevention -1 complicationDiatery intake :protein restriction –-2 .increase choMonitor I &O -vital signs-activity -3  level-edema-hypertentio Proternurea &hematuria Patient education (medication -4 ,diet,avoidance of trams ,infection&follow -up
  19. 19. Nephrotic syndromeIS condition marked by very high levels of protein in the urine; low levels of protein inthe blood; swellingof Nephrotic syndrome  Symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome  Frothy urine  Proteinuria  Low serum protein  Lipiduria  Swelling around the eyes 
  20. 20. it results from a specific glomerular defectand indicates renal damage. The prognosisis highly variable, depending on theunderlying cause. Some forms may. progress to end-stage renal failureCauses About 75% of nephrotic syndrome cases result from primary (idiopathic)glomerulonephritisSome tubules may contain increased lipid -1deposits . lesion in patients with adult idiopathic-2 
  21. 21. Other causes of nephrotic metabolic diseases such as -1 ; diabetes mellituscollagen-vascular disorders, such as 2 -systemic lupus erythematosus and polyarteritiscirculatory diseases, such as -3 heart failure and sickle cellanemia; 4- nephrotoxins, such asmercury, gold, and nonsteroidal 5-anti-inflammatories; allergicreactions; infections, such as
  22. 22. Diagnosis Consistent proteinuria in excess of 3.5 ; g/24 hours strongly suggests syndromeexamination of urine reveals an increased number of granular, and waxy,. fatty casts, and oval fat bodiesSerum values that support the diagnosis are increased cholesterol, phospholipid, andtriglyceride levels and decreased albumin. levelsHistologic identification of the lesion requires a kidney biopsy
  23. 23. Treatment .correction of the underlying cause- 1 Supportive treatment consists of-2 protein replacement with a nutritional diet of1 g protein/kg of body weight, with restricted.sodium intakea diuretic for edema; and an antibiotic-3 . for infectionImmunosuppressants ,-4 . antihypertensives, and diureticsAngiotension-converting enzyme -5 inhibitors can decrease protein loss in urine
  24. 24. Nursing intervention