Heart sounds

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تم العمل بوساطة محمود جمعه

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Heart sounds

  1. 1. Heart sounds
  2. 2. First heart sounds <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Valvular </li></ul><ul><li>2.Vascular </li></ul><ul><li>3.Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in Character: soft low pitched </li></ul>
  3. 3. Second heart sound <ul><li>Occur at the end and beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Cause valvular </li></ul><ul><li>character </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3 rd heart sound <ul><li>Occur in maximum filling </li></ul><ul><li>Not heared except </li></ul><ul><li>Cause vascular </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4 th heart sound <ul><li>Occur inAS </li></ul><ul><li>Not heared </li></ul><ul><li>Cause mascular </li></ul>
  6. 6. Radial pulse <ul><li>significanse </li></ul>
  7. 7. Heart rate <ul><li>Innervation of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>1.Cardioinhibitory centre </li></ul><ul><li>2.Cardioacceleratory centre </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors regulating the heart rate <ul><li>1.Afferent impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>2.Effect of other centres </li></ul><ul><li>a.CC </li></ul><ul><li>b.RC </li></ul><ul><li>c.hypothalamus </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3.change in chemical composition </li></ul><ul><li>a.O2 lack,CO2 excess,H+excess </li></ul><ul><li>b.Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>4.Physical regulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. COP <ul><li>Stroke volume </li></ul><ul><li>Minute volume </li></ul><ul><li>COP=SV / HR </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac index </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors affecting COP <ul><li>1.Venous return: influenced by </li></ul><ul><li>a.Pressure gradient </li></ul><ul><li>b.Respiratory movement </li></ul><ul><li>c.Sk ms contraction </li></ul><ul><li>d.Diameter of 1.arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>2.cap </li></ul><ul><li>3.veins </li></ul><ul><li>e.Cont of blood reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>f.Arterial pulsation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2.Heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>a.Moderate changes </li></ul><ul><li>b.Sever changes </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>ABP </li></ul><ul><li>Increase result in decrease SV only for few beats </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden decrease result in increase SV only for few beats </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Strenght of myocardium </li></ul>

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