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By : Mahmoud Galal Zidanchemistry Department
INDEXIntroductionPhysical propertiesChemical ReactionsApplications
 Group 3A or called the boron group comprising :1- Boron (B)2- Aluminum (Al)3- Gallium (Ga)4- Indium (In)5- Thallium (Tl)...
PHYSICAL PROPERTIESMetallic propertiessoftnessIsotopes and ToxicityOxidation stateAbundance
 The metallic character increase down group 3A . Boron is metalloid (non-metal) and. Ununtrium has not yetbeen confirmed...
 The hardness decrease down the group and thesoftness increase down. All Elements of group 3A is soft except Boron Boro...
 All the elements in group 3A have a stable isotopes . Boron , Gallium and Thallium has a two stable isotopes . Alumini...
 The tri-oxidation state less stable down group 3A ,but themono-oxidation state more stable down the group . fagans rule...
 Boron is a relatively rare element in the Earthscrust, representing only 0.001% . Aluminium occurs widely on earth, and...
CHEMICAL REACTIONWith Oxygen (oxides andOxo compounds )With Hydrogen(Hydrides)With Halogens(Halides)With Air
Boron is strong oxophiles and It’s oxides is very important like1- Boron sesquioxides ,B2 O3(sesquioxides mean 1 and 0.5)...
Structure :(BO3--3) in boron sesquioxides ( Boric acid B2O3 )Each boron atom is bonded to three oxygen arranged at the cor...
 Ortho Borates: contains discrete BO3 ions like Mg3(BO3)2 Meta Borates : contains simple unites of BO3 but join in chain...
 2- Boric acid:It’s a very weak acid in aqueous solution and the complex forms withwater is the actual source of protons ...
REACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
 ALUMINIUM has a strong affinity for oxygen and the reaction isstrong exothermic.2AL+3/2O2  AL2O3The strong affinity for...
 The boron hydride is called boranes like alkanes there’realmost 20 boranes fall into series:BORON WITH HYDROGEN (HYDRIDE...
 Diborane :is considered the simplest member of boranes .It decomposesvery slowly at r.t forming higher boranes .Preparat...
 Reaction1- by hydrolysis :B2H6 + 6H2O  2B(0H)3 + 6H22- with ammonia :B2H6 + NH3  B2H6.2NH3 at law temperature (excess ...
 The hydride of indium and thallium are very unstable . The hydride of aluminium and gallium is much morelimited than th...
HALIDES
HALIDES
HALIDES
HALIDES
 Boron :- Pure crystalline B is very unreactive except at hightemperature by mixing conc.H2SO4 and conc.HNO3 .- Impure am...
 Glass and ceramics Detergent formulations and bleaching agents Insecticides Semiconductors Magnets High-hardness an...
 Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is used in petroleum refining and in theproduction of synthetic rubber and polymers. Although...
 Semiconductors Biomedical applications Magnesium gallate containing impurities (such as Mn2+), isbeginning to be used ...
 Electronics Very small amounts used in aluminium alloy sacrificial anodes(for salt water applications) to prevent passi...
 High-temperature superconductivity Medical Electronics Optics: Thallium(I) bromide and thallium(I) iodide crystals ha...
 It used in cooling the nuclear reactor as it’s better than CO2and H2O . It is an extremely radioactive synthetic elemen...
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Group 3 a element of periodic table

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Group 3 a element of periodic table

  1. 1. By : Mahmoud Galal Zidanchemistry Department
  2. 2. INDEXIntroductionPhysical propertiesChemical ReactionsApplications
  3. 3.  Group 3A or called the boron group comprising :1- Boron (B)2- Aluminum (Al)3- Gallium (Ga)4- Indium (In)5- Thallium (Tl)6- Ununtrium (Uut) The elements in the boron group are characterized byhaving three electrons in their outer energy levels(valence layers). These elements have also been referred to as earthmetals.INTRODUCTION OF GROUP 3A
  4. 4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIESMetallic propertiessoftnessIsotopes and ToxicityOxidation stateAbundance
  5. 5.  The metallic character increase down group 3A . Boron is metalloid (non-metal) and. Ununtrium has not yetbeen confirmed to be a poor metal one or not . Also they are metals they conduct electricity and heat verywell , but boron need a hightemperature to conductelectricity . The elements of group 3A arerelatively reactive at normaltemperature except boron isreactive at high temperature .METALLIC CHARACTER
  6. 6.  The hardness decrease down the group and thesoftness increase down. All Elements of group 3A is soft except Boron Boron is relatively hard . Ununtrium is the softest element in boron group butit’s not natural element so the softest element isThallium .SOFTNESS
  7. 7.  All the elements in group 3A have a stable isotopes . Boron , Gallium and Thallium has a two stable isotopes . Aluminium and Indium are a mono isotopes ( they have a one stableisotope ) . All compound of group 3A are toxic but some compounds are toxic forplants , some only toxic for animals and some toxic for both .ISOTOPES AND TOXICITY
  8. 8.  The tri-oxidation state less stable down group 3A ,but themono-oxidation state more stable down the group . fagans rule: the small size atoms form covalent bonds andthe large size ones form ionic bonds . Boron has only a tri oxidation state. Aluminium always trivalent but rarely univalent and unstable . Gallium the compounds of a monoxidation (+I) is less stablethan the compounds of (+III) ,there’re not pure Ga (+I) and(+III) . Indium the compounds of a monoxidation (+I) is less stablethan the compounds of (+III) . Thallium The compound (+I) more stable than (+III)compounds .OXIDATION STATE
  9. 9.  Boron is a relatively rare element in the Earthscrust, representing only 0.001% . Aluminium occurs widely on earth, and indeed is the thirdmost abundant element in the Earths crust (8.3%). Gallium is found in the earth with an abundance of 13 ppm. Indium is the 61 st most abundant element in the earthscrust, thallium is found in moderate amounts throughout the planet. Ununtrium is never found in nature and therefore is termed asynthetic element.ABUNDANCE
  10. 10. CHEMICAL REACTIONWith Oxygen (oxides andOxo compounds )With Hydrogen(Hydrides)With Halogens(Halides)With Air
  11. 11. Boron is strong oxophiles and It’s oxides is very important like1- Boron sesquioxides ,B2 O3(sesquioxides mean 1 and 0.5).Preparation :-- By heating the element of boron in oxygen4B+3O2 2B2O3- By dehydrating the boric acid2H3BO3 2HBO2 B2O3Properties :- the unhydride form of ortho boric acid has acidity andmetallic oxides properties :B2O3+3MgOMg3 (BO3 )2Acid + strong base  saltAnd when it reacts with strongly acidic oxide it behaves as a basicoxideP2O3+B2O3  2BPO4REACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
  12. 12. Structure :(BO3--3) in boron sesquioxides ( Boric acid B2O3 )Each boron atom is bonded to three oxygen arranged at the cornersof an equilateral triangle .REACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
  13. 13.  Ortho Borates: contains discrete BO3 ions like Mg3(BO3)2 Meta Borates : contains simple unites of BO3 but join in chainor ring (means has a polymeric structure )REACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
  14. 14.  2- Boric acid:It’s a very weak acid in aqueous solution and the complex forms withwater is the actual source of protons so it acts as a weak monobasic acid . The solid of orthoboric acid contains triangular HOH3 units which arebonded together through hydrogen bond into 2D sheet with hexagonalsymmetry . Orthoboric acid has in liquid state a plane triangular but when soluble inwater it donates protons and accept (OH-)B(OH)3 +2H2O  B(OH)4 + H3OREACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
  15. 15. REACTION OF BORON WITH OXYGEN
  16. 16.  ALUMINIUM has a strong affinity for oxygen and the reaction isstrong exothermic.2AL+3/2O2  AL2O3The strong affinity for oxygen is used in the extraction of othermetals from their oxides8AL+3Mn3O4  4Al2O3+9Mn2Al+Cr2O3 Al2O3 +2Cr Gallium , like aluminium , forms an amphoteric oxide andhydroxide . Thallium and Indium sesquioxides are completely basic wherethallous hydroxide TlOH is a strong base and soluble in water . Ununtrium is a radioactive element that never react withoxygenREACTION OF ALUMINIUM AND OTHERMETALS WITH OXYGEN
  17. 17.  The boron hydride is called boranes like alkanes there’realmost 20 boranes fall into series:BORON WITH HYDROGEN (HYDRIDES )Aracho - BnHn+6Nido - BnHn+4Closo - BnHn-2B4H10 tetraboraneB2H6 diboraneCloso - B6H6-2B5H11 petaboraneB5H9 pentaboraneCloso - B12H12-2B6H10 HexaboraneB10H14 decaborane
  18. 18.  Diborane :is considered the simplest member of boranes .It decomposesvery slowly at r.t forming higher boranes .Preparation1- Mg3B2 + H3PO4  Mixture of boranes  B2O32- 2BF3 + 6NaH  B2H6 + 6NaF3- 4BCl3+3Li(AlH4) 2 B2H6 + 3 LiAlCl4Structuresp3 hybridizationBORON WITH HYDROGEN (HYDRIDES )
  19. 19.  Reaction1- by hydrolysis :B2H6 + 6H2O  2B(0H)3 + 6H22- with ammonia :B2H6 + NH3  B2H6.2NH3 at law temperature (excess of NH3)B2H6 + NH3  (BN)x at High temperature (excess of NH3)B2H6 + NH3  (B3N3) at High temperature (excess ofB2H6.2NH3) .3- with air :Diborane reacts spontaneously with air ,often with explosive violence and a green flash .B2H6 + 3O2  2B(0H)BORON WITH HYDROGEN (HYDRIDES )
  20. 20.  The hydride of indium and thallium are very unstable . The hydride of aluminium and gallium is much morelimited than that of boron . Like AlH3 exists as a solid but not available , it available as(AlH3)n .Gallium : (Ga2H6) prepared in 1994 . Lithium tetrahydroaluminate LiAlH4 and Lithiumtetrahydrogallate LiGaH4 are much more hydridic than [BH4]-due to the high electronegativity of boron compared with Aland Ga , and LiAlH4 is widely used as a reducing agent .OTHER ELEMENTS OF GROUP 3A WITHHYDROGEN (HYDRIDES )
  21. 21. HALIDES
  22. 22. HALIDES
  23. 23. HALIDES
  24. 24. HALIDES
  25. 25.  Boron :- Pure crystalline B is very unreactive except at hightemperature by mixing conc.H2SO4 and conc.HNO3 .- Impure amorphous ,burns in air to form oxide andnitride . Aluminium : Al is stable at air and water due to heavy thinlayer of oxide on surface of metal which protects the metalfurther attack . Gallium and Indium : Ga and In are stable in air and notattacked by water. Thallium : Tl is little more active and form superoxide in airWITH AIR
  26. 26.  Glass and ceramics Detergent formulations and bleaching agents Insecticides Semiconductors Magnets High-hardness and abrasive compounds Boron carbideOther super hard boron compounds Shielding in nuclear reactors Pharmaceutical and biological applications Research areasAPPLICATION OF BORON
  27. 27.  Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is used in petroleum refining and in theproduction of synthetic rubber and polymers. Although it has asimilar name, aluminium chlorohydrate has fewer and very differentapplications. Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks, railway cars, marinevessels, bicycles, etc.) as sheet, tube, castings . Packaging (cans, foil .) Construction (windows, doors, siding, building wire.) A wide range of household items, from cooking utensils to baseballbats, watches. Street lighting poles, sailing ship masts, walking poles. Outer shells of consumer electronics, also cases for equipment e.g.photographic equipment. Electrical transmission lines for power distribution MKM steel andAlnico magnets Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to 99.999%Al), used in electronics and CDs.APPLICATION OF ALUMINIUM
  28. 28.  Semiconductors Biomedical applications Magnesium gallate containing impurities (such as Mn2+), isbeginning to be used in ultraviolet-activated phosphor powder. As a liquid metal ion source for a focused ion beam In a classic prank, scientists would fashion gallium spoonsand serve tea to unsuspecting guests. The spoons melt in thehot tea. As an additive in glide wax for skiis, and other low frictionsurface materials. US 5069803, Sugimura, Kentaro; ShojiHasimoto & Takayuki Ono, "Use of a synthetic resincomposition containing gallium particles in the glidesurfacing material of skis and other applications", issued1995APPLICATION OF GALLIUM
  29. 29.  Electronics Very small amounts used in aluminium alloy sacrificial anodes(for salt water applications) to prevent passivation of thealuminium. To bond gold electrical test leads to superconductors, indium isused as a conducting adhesive and applied under a microscopewith precision tweezers. In the form of a wire it is used as a vacuum seal and a thermalconductor in cryogenics and ultra-high vacuum applications. Forexample, in manufacturing gaskets which deform to fill gaps. Used as a calibration material for Differential scanningcalorimetry. It is an ingredient in the gallium-indium-tin alloyGalinstan, which is liquid at room temperature while not beingtoxic like mercury.APPLICATION OF INDIUM
  30. 30.  High-temperature superconductivity Medical Electronics Optics: Thallium(I) bromide and thallium(I) iodide crystals havebeen used as infrared optical materials, because they are harderthan other common infrared optics, and because they havetransmission at significantly longer wavelengths. The trade nameKRS-5 refers to this material. Thallium(I) oxide has been used tomanufacture glasses that have a high index of refraction.Combined with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, thallium has beenused in the production of high-density glasses that have lowmelting points in the range of 125 and 150 °C. These glasseshave room temperature properties that are similar to ordinaryglasses and are durable, insoluble in water and have uniquerefractive indices.[APPLICATION OF THALLIUM
  31. 31.  It used in cooling the nuclear reactor as it’s better than CO2and H2O . It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an elementthat can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature);the most stable known isotope, ununtrium-286, has a half-lifeof 20 seconds.APPLICATION OF UNUNTRIUM

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