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DRUG PRESCRIPTION IN
        HEPATIC PATIENTS


Prof. Maamoun Ashour
DRUGS & LIVER



Hepatotoxicity   Interactions   Side effects



         Low efficacy     expensive
DRUG HEPATOTOXICITY



     Any drug can cause liver problems
THE LIVER AND DRUG



Metabolism is the enzymatic conversion of one
     chemical compound into another.

 Most drug metabolism occurs in the liver.
THE LIVER AND DRUG

   The liver is the principal organ that is capable
    of converting drugs into forms that can be
    readily eliminated from the body.
HEPATOTOXICITY



   More than 900 drugs have been implicated in
    causing liver injury and it is the most
    common reason for a drug to be withdrawn
    from the market.
THE LIVER AND DRUG
   The reactions range from mild and transient
    changes in the results of liver function tests to
    complete liver failure with death of the host.

   Drugs may affect the liver adversely in more
    than one way.

   The use of these drugs requires careful
    monitoring of their effects on the liver during the
    entire course of treatment
DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE


   ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT LIVER
    DAMAGE (resembling acute viral hepatitis)

   ACUTE DOSE-INDEPENDENT LIVER
    DAMAGE (resembling acute viral hepatitis)

   Drugs that may cause cholestatic jaundice
DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE


 Drugs that may cause acute fatty infiltration
  of the liver.
 Drugs that may cause liver granulomas
  (chronic inflammatory nodules

   Drugs that may cause active chronic
    hepatitis

   Drugs that may cause liver cirrhosis or
DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE


   Drugs that may cause chronic cholestasis
    (resembling primary biliary cirrhosis)

   Drugs that may cause damage to liver blood
    vessels.

   Drugs that may cause liver tumors (benign
    and malignant)
DRUG INDUCED LIVER PATHOLOGY

 acute hepatitis -         cholestatic jaundice
 acute fatty infiltration of the liver.

 liver granulomas - active chronic hepatitis

 liver cirrhosis or fibrosis

 chronic cholestasis -

 damage to liver blood vessels.

 liver tumors (benign and malignant)
ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE

   Drugs that may cause ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT
    LIVER DAMAGE


 acetaminophen
 salicylates (doses over 2 grams daily)
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE ACUTE DOSE-INDEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE


indomethacin      isoniazid       probenecid      Para-
piroxicam         pyrazinamide    halothane       aminosalicylic
diclofenac                                        acid
naproxen
ibuprofen


Acebutolol        quinine         Phenytoin       ketoconazole
atenolol          quinidine       valproic acid   sulindac
metoprolol                        phenobarbital

diltiazem         allopurinol     cimetidine      penicillins
verapamil                         ranitidine      sulfonamides

tricyclic         carbamazepine
antidepressants
ACUTE FATTY INFILTRATION OF THE LIVER

   adrenocortical steroids
   phenothiazines
   sulfonamides
   antithyroid drugs
   phenytoin
   tetracyclines
   isoniazid
   salicylates
   valproic acid
   methotrexate
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE

 oxacillin

 sulfonamides

 erythromycin

 amoxicillin/clavulanate

 Cloxacillin

 cephalosporins

 nitrofurantoin

 azathioprine
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE

 danazol
 griseofulvin

 enalapril

 captopril

 carbimazole
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE

 haloperidol
 ketoconazole
 mercaptopurine
 oral contraceptives
 tamoxifen
 methyltestosterone
 thiabendazole
 nifedipine
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE

 penicillamine
 phenothiazines

 tricyclic antidepressants

 cyclosporine

 anti-inflammatory drugs

 verapamil

 carbamazepine
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER GRANULOMAS (CHRONIC
               INFLAMMATORY NODULES

allopurinol   quinidine    tolbutamide    nitrofurantoi
gold          chlorpromazi                n
              ne                          sulfonamide
                                          s
                                          penicillin

Diltiazem   phenytoin      Aspirin        isoniazid
hydralazine carbamazepi    phenylbutazo
            ne             ne
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE ACTIVE CHRONIC HEPATITIS



 methyldopa
 isoniazid

 nitrofurantoin
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER CIRRHOSIS OR FIBROSIS


 methotrexate
 terbinafine HCI (Lamisil, Sporanox)

 nicotinic acid
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHRONIC CHOLESTASIS (RESEMBLING
             PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS)


 chlorpromazine/valproic acid
  (combination)
 imipramine

 thiabendazole

 phenothiazines

 phenytoin
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER TUMORS (BENIGN AND
                 MALIGNANT)



 anabolic steroids
 oral contraceptives

 thorotrast

 danazol

 testosterone
DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE DAMAGE TO LIVER BLOOD
VESSELS

   adriamycin
   mercaptopurine
   vincristine
   azathioprine
   methotrexate
   vitamin A (excessive doses)
   cyclophosphamide/cyclo-sporine (combination)
   oral contraceptives
   Anabolic steroids
HEPATOXICITY OF ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS

 Most of antituberculous drugs causes hepat-
  toxicity.
 Combination of rifampicin and isoniazid
  increases hepatotoxicity.

   Effect of silymarin when combined with
    antituberculous drugs.
WHAT WE SHOULD DO

   Drug history is mandatory in all hepatic
    patients.

   Monitoring of liver functions in patients
    receiving hepatotoxic drugs.

   Avoidance of unnecessary drugs and
    chemicals.
DRUG INTERACTIONS

with
 Anticoagulants & antiplatelet



 in hep. Patients with:
 Ischemic heart diseases

 Thrombotic manifestations

 Atrial fibrillations
PRESCRIPTION OF ANTIPLATLETS
 Clopedogril and aspirin are frequently
  prescribed in patients with ischemic heart
  diseases.
 Many    of these patients have liver
  diseases which may be associated with
  thrombocytopenia and manifestations of
  bleeding tendency.
 What is the decision of the hepatologist
  and the cardiologist.
ANTICOAGULANTS

     Many hepatic patients may need
 anticoagulants for their cardiac ( AF) or
       thrombotic manifestations.

   Bleeding is a risk in these patients.
ANTICOAGULANTS

   Budd – Chiari Syndrome
B- BLOCKERS

 B blockers is used to lower portal
  hypertension. In advanced cases of LCF
  when systemic blood pressure comes down:
 B- blockers become a problem.

      When to give sympathomimetics



   B blockers aggravate impotence in
    hepatic patients.
DIURETICS

 Are mandatory In ascitic patients
 Many complications may develop:



 Muscle cramps
 Hypotension

 Gynecomastia
EXPENSIVE DRUGS

   Expensive Drugs
EXPENSIVE DRUGS

 Many drugs are expensive on individual
  and national bases:
 Examples:

 Antivirals: Interferon, enticaver, gancyclovir.

 Vasopressors: Terlipressin, Somatostatin.

 Human albumin.

 Anti-tumors: Nexavar
ALTERNATIVES TO EXPENSIVE DRUGS

 We should search for and evaluate
  alternative cheap drugs.
 Examples:

 Human plasma as alternative to albumin in
  hypoalbuminea.
 Norepinephrine as alternative to glypressin
  HRS.
NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN IN PATIENTS WITH
             HEPATORENAL SYNDROME

 Treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is
  based on vasoconstrictors. Terlipressin is the
  one with the soundest evidence.
 Noradrenalin has been suggested as an
  effective alternative.
NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN

 Noradrenalin (0.1-0.7 microg/kg/min) and
  albumin.
 Treatment is administered until HRS reversal
  or for a maximum of two weeks.
NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN

 Reversal of HRS was observed in 7 out of 10
  patients (70%) treated with noradrenalin and
  in 10 of 12 patients (83%) treated with
  terlipressin, p=ns.
 Treatment led in both groups to a significant
  improvement in renal and circulatory
  function. No patient developed signs of
  myocardial ischemia.
NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN


Data   suggest that noradrenalin
 is as effective and safe as
 terlipressin in patients with HRS.
PLASMA VS ALBUMIN

 Fresh frozen plasma is superior as it
  contains coagulation factors.
 Controlled studies are required to clarify the
  advantages and disadvantages of both.
Drug   Abuse
ABUSE OF DRUGS

 Liver supports are widely prescribed in Egypt
  for many reasons:
 Failure   of antiviral drugs to achieve
  satisfactory cure.
 Contribution of non- specialized and non-
  medical persons in treatment of liver
  diseases.
 Influence of drug companies.
DISADVANTAGES OF DRUG ABUSE

 Possibility of hepatotoxicity
 Satisfaction of patients and doctors

 Financial burden on patients and
  government.
SILYMARIN
   RCT: Silymarin (Milk Thistle) does not affect hepatic
    disease in patients with hepatitis C unsuccessfully
    treated with interferon
   Reference: JAMA. 2012; 308(3):274-282
   Date published: 18/07/2012 16:50
   Summary
   by: Sheetal Ladva
   Despite, limited and conflicted evidence on silymarin,
    an extract of milk thistle, it is commonly used by
    patients to treat chronic hepatic disease.

STUDY DESIGN

 The  Silymarin in NASH and C Hepatitis
 (SyNCH) study was a randomised,
 double-blind,          placebo-controlled
 multicentre trial which evaluated the
 safety and efficacy of silymarin for
 treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)
 infection among patients previously
 unsuccessfully treated with interferon
 (IFN)–based                    treatment.
STUDY DESIGN
   A total of 154 subjects with serum alanine
    aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 65 U/L or
    greater were randomised to 420-mg silymarin,
    700-mg silymarin (both doses higher than
    normal doses used), or matching placebo
    administered three times per day for 24 weeks.
    The primary efficacy measure was serum ALT
    level of 45 U/L or less (normal range) or less
    than 65 U/L, provided this was at least a 50%
    reduction from baseline values.

RESULTS
   The following findings were reported:
   • Two subjects in each treatment group met the primary outcome
    measure
    (3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for placebo, 4.0% [95% CI, 0.5%
    to 13.7%] for 420-mg silymarin, and 3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to
    13.2%] for 700-mg silymarin; P ≥ 0.99).

   • There was no statistically significant difference in the mean
    decline in serum ALT activity at the end of treatment across the
    three groups
   (mean decline, −4.3 [95% CI, −17.3 to 8.7] U/L for placebo, −14.4
    [95% CI, −41.6 to 12.7] U/L for 420-mg silymarin, −11.3 [95% CI,
    −27.9 to 5.4] U/L for 700-mg silymarin; p=0.75)
RESULTS
  There were no statistically significant
  differences in HCV RNA levels
 (mean change, 0.07 [95% CI, −0.05 to 0.18]
  log10 IU/mL for placebo, −0.03 [95% CI, −0.18
  to 0.12] log10 IU/mL for 420-mg silymarin, 0.04
  [95% CI, −0.08 to 0.16] log10 IU/mL for 700-mg
  silymarin; P =0.54)

   or quality-of-life measures.

ADVERSE EVENTS

 The adverse event profile of silymarin was
  comparable with that of placebo.
 The most frequent adverse events were
  gastrointestinal symptoms, reported in 12%
  of participants receiving any silymarin dose
  compared with 5% receiving placebo.
SILYMARIN DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE ALT

   The authors concluded that higher doses of
    silymarin did not significantly reduce serum
    ALT levels more than placebo in participants
    with chronic HCV infection unsuccessfully
    treated with interferon-based therapy.
SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS

Side effects of drugs
SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS

 Many drugs used to treat liver diseases
  have side effects:
 Physicians should be aware of all
  possible side effects:
SIDE-EFFECTS OF DRUGS

 Diuretics
 Immunosuppressive

 Antivirals

 Vasopressors

 B- blockers
ANTIVIRALS

 Interferon and ribavirin have many side-
  effects especially on the hematological
  system. Depression and activation of auto
  immune diseases are among many other
  complications.
 Pregnancy should be postponed until 6
  months after end of tt.
VASOPRESSORS

 Ischemic manifestations are the most
  serious.
 Before administration:



 ECG, is mandatory.
 sublingual nitrates may be given.
DIURETICS

   Muscle cramps are common, gyncomastia is
    frequent but electrolyte disturbances and
    HRS are serious
   Follow up with:


   Na. K. and creatinine should be monitored.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE

 Corticosteroids when prescribed will be used
  for long time.
 Blood sugar and blood pressure should be
  controlled.
GLUCOCORTICOIDS

   Those receiving glucocorticoids were almost
    7 times more likely to commit or attempt
    suicide, more than 5 times more likely to
    develop delirium, more than 4 times more
    likely to develop mania, and almost twice as
    likely to develop depression than those with
    the same underlying conditions who did not
    receive the medications
GLUCOCORTICOIDS

 Steroid-treated   patients do not
  always       know       that    the
  neuropsychiatric symptoms that
  they are experiencing are induced
  by the treatment.
 They may, think that they are
  induced by the underlying disease.
UNCOMMON DRUGS


 Examples:
 D- pencilamine ( Artamine)
PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)

 Penicillamine is a chelating agent used in the
  treatment of Wilson's disease.
 Its use relies on its binding to accumulated
  copper and elimination through urine.
PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)


  It is also used to reduce cystine excretion in
  cystinuria
 Penicillamine    is used as a form of
  immunosuppression to treat rheumatoid
  arthritis unresponsive to conventional
  therapy.
PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)

 Artamine should be taken on an empty
  stomach at least one hour before meals and
  two hours after food has been eaten.
 Artamine has a high incidence of severe
  reactions therefore patients should be
  constantly monitored for any untoward
  reactions.
NEW ISSUES

   Interactions of new protease inhibitors:
STATINS AND HCV PROTEASE INHIBITORS

   When taken together with the affected
    statins, HIV and HCV protease inhibitors can
    boost the blood level of the statins, which in
    turn can lead to myopathy. One of the most
    serious      forms    of     myopathy       is
    rhabdomyolysis, which can damage the
    kidneys, possibly resulting in kidney failure
    and death.
ANTIPLATELET THERAPY

 Antiplatelet therapy is critical for the prevention
  of cardiovascular events in patients with or at
  risk for cardiovascular disease; however the
  reduction in thrombotic events comes at the
  price of bleeding, particularly upper
  gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.
 Therapies to minimize these risks include proton
  pump inhibitors (PPIs) but there is a lot of
  confusion around the impact of PPIs on the
  efficacy of various antiplatelet agents.

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Drug prescription in hepatic patients

  • 1. DRUG PRESCRIPTION IN HEPATIC PATIENTS Prof. Maamoun Ashour
  • 2. DRUGS & LIVER Hepatotoxicity Interactions Side effects Low efficacy expensive
  • 3. DRUG HEPATOTOXICITY  Any drug can cause liver problems
  • 4. THE LIVER AND DRUG Metabolism is the enzymatic conversion of one chemical compound into another. Most drug metabolism occurs in the liver.
  • 5. THE LIVER AND DRUG  The liver is the principal organ that is capable of converting drugs into forms that can be readily eliminated from the body.
  • 6. HEPATOTOXICITY  More than 900 drugs have been implicated in causing liver injury and it is the most common reason for a drug to be withdrawn from the market.
  • 7. THE LIVER AND DRUG  The reactions range from mild and transient changes in the results of liver function tests to complete liver failure with death of the host.  Drugs may affect the liver adversely in more than one way.  The use of these drugs requires careful monitoring of their effects on the liver during the entire course of treatment
  • 8. DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE  ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE (resembling acute viral hepatitis)  ACUTE DOSE-INDEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE (resembling acute viral hepatitis)  Drugs that may cause cholestatic jaundice
  • 9. DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE  Drugs that may cause acute fatty infiltration of the liver.  Drugs that may cause liver granulomas (chronic inflammatory nodules  Drugs that may cause active chronic hepatitis  Drugs that may cause liver cirrhosis or
  • 10. DRUG INDUCED DISORDER CAN MIMIC ANY LIVER DISEASE  Drugs that may cause chronic cholestasis (resembling primary biliary cirrhosis)  Drugs that may cause damage to liver blood vessels.  Drugs that may cause liver tumors (benign and malignant)
  • 11. DRUG INDUCED LIVER PATHOLOGY  acute hepatitis - cholestatic jaundice  acute fatty infiltration of the liver.  liver granulomas - active chronic hepatitis  liver cirrhosis or fibrosis  chronic cholestasis -  damage to liver blood vessels.  liver tumors (benign and malignant)
  • 12. ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE  Drugs that may cause ACUTE DOSE-DEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE  acetaminophen  salicylates (doses over 2 grams daily)
  • 13. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE ACUTE DOSE-INDEPENDENT LIVER DAMAGE indomethacin isoniazid probenecid Para- piroxicam pyrazinamide halothane aminosalicylic diclofenac acid naproxen ibuprofen Acebutolol quinine Phenytoin ketoconazole atenolol quinidine valproic acid sulindac metoprolol phenobarbital diltiazem allopurinol cimetidine penicillins verapamil ranitidine sulfonamides tricyclic carbamazepine antidepressants
  • 14. ACUTE FATTY INFILTRATION OF THE LIVER  adrenocortical steroids  phenothiazines  sulfonamides  antithyroid drugs  phenytoin  tetracyclines  isoniazid  salicylates  valproic acid  methotrexate
  • 15. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE  oxacillin  sulfonamides  erythromycin  amoxicillin/clavulanate  Cloxacillin  cephalosporins  nitrofurantoin  azathioprine
  • 16. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE  danazol  griseofulvin  enalapril  captopril  carbimazole
  • 17. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE  haloperidol  ketoconazole  mercaptopurine  oral contraceptives  tamoxifen  methyltestosterone  thiabendazole  nifedipine
  • 18. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHOLESTATIC JAUNDICE  penicillamine  phenothiazines  tricyclic antidepressants  cyclosporine  anti-inflammatory drugs  verapamil  carbamazepine
  • 19. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER GRANULOMAS (CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY NODULES allopurinol quinidine tolbutamide nitrofurantoi gold chlorpromazi n ne sulfonamide s penicillin Diltiazem phenytoin Aspirin isoniazid hydralazine carbamazepi phenylbutazo ne ne
  • 20. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE ACTIVE CHRONIC HEPATITIS  methyldopa  isoniazid  nitrofurantoin
  • 21. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER CIRRHOSIS OR FIBROSIS  methotrexate  terbinafine HCI (Lamisil, Sporanox)  nicotinic acid
  • 22. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE CHRONIC CHOLESTASIS (RESEMBLING PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS)  chlorpromazine/valproic acid (combination)  imipramine  thiabendazole  phenothiazines  phenytoin
  • 23. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE LIVER TUMORS (BENIGN AND MALIGNANT)  anabolic steroids  oral contraceptives  thorotrast  danazol  testosterone
  • 24. DRUGS THAT MAY CAUSE DAMAGE TO LIVER BLOOD VESSELS  adriamycin  mercaptopurine  vincristine  azathioprine  methotrexate  vitamin A (excessive doses)  cyclophosphamide/cyclo-sporine (combination)  oral contraceptives  Anabolic steroids
  • 25. HEPATOXICITY OF ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS  Most of antituberculous drugs causes hepat- toxicity.  Combination of rifampicin and isoniazid increases hepatotoxicity.  Effect of silymarin when combined with antituberculous drugs.
  • 26. WHAT WE SHOULD DO  Drug history is mandatory in all hepatic patients.  Monitoring of liver functions in patients receiving hepatotoxic drugs.  Avoidance of unnecessary drugs and chemicals.
  • 27. DRUG INTERACTIONS with  Anticoagulants & antiplatelet  in hep. Patients with:  Ischemic heart diseases  Thrombotic manifestations  Atrial fibrillations
  • 28. PRESCRIPTION OF ANTIPLATLETS  Clopedogril and aspirin are frequently prescribed in patients with ischemic heart diseases.  Many of these patients have liver diseases which may be associated with thrombocytopenia and manifestations of bleeding tendency.  What is the decision of the hepatologist and the cardiologist.
  • 29. ANTICOAGULANTS Many hepatic patients may need anticoagulants for their cardiac ( AF) or thrombotic manifestations. Bleeding is a risk in these patients.
  • 30. ANTICOAGULANTS  Budd – Chiari Syndrome
  • 31. B- BLOCKERS  B blockers is used to lower portal hypertension. In advanced cases of LCF when systemic blood pressure comes down:  B- blockers become a problem.  When to give sympathomimetics  B blockers aggravate impotence in hepatic patients.
  • 32. DIURETICS  Are mandatory In ascitic patients  Many complications may develop:  Muscle cramps  Hypotension  Gynecomastia
  • 33. EXPENSIVE DRUGS  Expensive Drugs
  • 34. EXPENSIVE DRUGS  Many drugs are expensive on individual and national bases:  Examples:  Antivirals: Interferon, enticaver, gancyclovir.  Vasopressors: Terlipressin, Somatostatin.  Human albumin.  Anti-tumors: Nexavar
  • 35. ALTERNATIVES TO EXPENSIVE DRUGS  We should search for and evaluate alternative cheap drugs.  Examples:  Human plasma as alternative to albumin in hypoalbuminea.  Norepinephrine as alternative to glypressin HRS.
  • 36. NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN IN PATIENTS WITH HEPATORENAL SYNDROME  Treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is based on vasoconstrictors. Terlipressin is the one with the soundest evidence.  Noradrenalin has been suggested as an effective alternative.
  • 37. NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN  Noradrenalin (0.1-0.7 microg/kg/min) and albumin.  Treatment is administered until HRS reversal or for a maximum of two weeks.
  • 38. NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN  Reversal of HRS was observed in 7 out of 10 patients (70%) treated with noradrenalin and in 10 of 12 patients (83%) treated with terlipressin, p=ns.  Treatment led in both groups to a significant improvement in renal and circulatory function. No patient developed signs of myocardial ischemia.
  • 39. NORADRENALIN VS TERLIPRESSIN Data suggest that noradrenalin is as effective and safe as terlipressin in patients with HRS.
  • 40. PLASMA VS ALBUMIN  Fresh frozen plasma is superior as it contains coagulation factors.  Controlled studies are required to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of both.
  • 41. Drug Abuse
  • 42. ABUSE OF DRUGS  Liver supports are widely prescribed in Egypt for many reasons:  Failure of antiviral drugs to achieve satisfactory cure.  Contribution of non- specialized and non- medical persons in treatment of liver diseases.  Influence of drug companies.
  • 43. DISADVANTAGES OF DRUG ABUSE  Possibility of hepatotoxicity  Satisfaction of patients and doctors  Financial burden on patients and government.
  • 44. SILYMARIN  RCT: Silymarin (Milk Thistle) does not affect hepatic disease in patients with hepatitis C unsuccessfully treated with interferon  Reference: JAMA. 2012; 308(3):274-282  Date published: 18/07/2012 16:50  Summary  by: Sheetal Ladva  Despite, limited and conflicted evidence on silymarin, an extract of milk thistle, it is commonly used by patients to treat chronic hepatic disease. 
  • 45. STUDY DESIGN  The Silymarin in NASH and C Hepatitis (SyNCH) study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial which evaluated the safety and efficacy of silymarin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients previously unsuccessfully treated with interferon (IFN)–based treatment.
  • 46. STUDY DESIGN  A total of 154 subjects with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of 65 U/L or greater were randomised to 420-mg silymarin, 700-mg silymarin (both doses higher than normal doses used), or matching placebo administered three times per day for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was serum ALT level of 45 U/L or less (normal range) or less than 65 U/L, provided this was at least a 50% reduction from baseline values. 
  • 47. RESULTS  The following findings were reported:  • Two subjects in each treatment group met the primary outcome measure  (3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for placebo, 4.0% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.7%] for 420-mg silymarin, and 3.8% [95% CI, 0.5% to 13.2%] for 700-mg silymarin; P ≥ 0.99).   • There was no statistically significant difference in the mean decline in serum ALT activity at the end of treatment across the three groups  (mean decline, −4.3 [95% CI, −17.3 to 8.7] U/L for placebo, −14.4 [95% CI, −41.6 to 12.7] U/L for 420-mg silymarin, −11.3 [95% CI, −27.9 to 5.4] U/L for 700-mg silymarin; p=0.75)
  • 48. RESULTS  There were no statistically significant differences in HCV RNA levels  (mean change, 0.07 [95% CI, −0.05 to 0.18] log10 IU/mL for placebo, −0.03 [95% CI, −0.18 to 0.12] log10 IU/mL for 420-mg silymarin, 0.04 [95% CI, −0.08 to 0.16] log10 IU/mL for 700-mg silymarin; P =0.54)  or quality-of-life measures. 
  • 49. ADVERSE EVENTS  The adverse event profile of silymarin was comparable with that of placebo.  The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms, reported in 12% of participants receiving any silymarin dose compared with 5% receiving placebo.
  • 50. SILYMARIN DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE ALT  The authors concluded that higher doses of silymarin did not significantly reduce serum ALT levels more than placebo in participants with chronic HCV infection unsuccessfully treated with interferon-based therapy.
  • 51. SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS Side effects of drugs
  • 52. SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUGS  Many drugs used to treat liver diseases have side effects:  Physicians should be aware of all possible side effects:
  • 53. SIDE-EFFECTS OF DRUGS  Diuretics  Immunosuppressive  Antivirals  Vasopressors  B- blockers
  • 54. ANTIVIRALS  Interferon and ribavirin have many side- effects especially on the hematological system. Depression and activation of auto immune diseases are among many other complications.  Pregnancy should be postponed until 6 months after end of tt.
  • 55. VASOPRESSORS  Ischemic manifestations are the most serious.  Before administration:  ECG, is mandatory.  sublingual nitrates may be given.
  • 56. DIURETICS  Muscle cramps are common, gyncomastia is frequent but electrolyte disturbances and HRS are serious  Follow up with:  Na. K. and creatinine should be monitored.
  • 57. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE  Corticosteroids when prescribed will be used for long time.  Blood sugar and blood pressure should be controlled.
  • 58. GLUCOCORTICOIDS  Those receiving glucocorticoids were almost 7 times more likely to commit or attempt suicide, more than 5 times more likely to develop delirium, more than 4 times more likely to develop mania, and almost twice as likely to develop depression than those with the same underlying conditions who did not receive the medications
  • 59. GLUCOCORTICOIDS  Steroid-treated patients do not always know that the neuropsychiatric symptoms that they are experiencing are induced by the treatment.  They may, think that they are induced by the underlying disease.
  • 60. UNCOMMON DRUGS  Examples:  D- pencilamine ( Artamine)
  • 61. PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)  Penicillamine is a chelating agent used in the treatment of Wilson's disease.  Its use relies on its binding to accumulated copper and elimination through urine.
  • 62. PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)  It is also used to reduce cystine excretion in cystinuria  Penicillamine is used as a form of immunosuppression to treat rheumatoid arthritis unresponsive to conventional therapy.
  • 63. PENICILLAMINE ( ARTAMINE)  Artamine should be taken on an empty stomach at least one hour before meals and two hours after food has been eaten.  Artamine has a high incidence of severe reactions therefore patients should be constantly monitored for any untoward reactions.
  • 64. NEW ISSUES  Interactions of new protease inhibitors:
  • 65. STATINS AND HCV PROTEASE INHIBITORS  When taken together with the affected statins, HIV and HCV protease inhibitors can boost the blood level of the statins, which in turn can lead to myopathy. One of the most serious forms of myopathy is rhabdomyolysis, which can damage the kidneys, possibly resulting in kidney failure and death.
  • 66. ANTIPLATELET THERAPY  Antiplatelet therapy is critical for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease; however the reduction in thrombotic events comes at the price of bleeding, particularly upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.  Therapies to minimize these risks include proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) but there is a lot of confusion around the impact of PPIs on the efficacy of various antiplatelet agents.