Introduction to Anatomy (Anatomical Terms)

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An introductory lecture to anatomical terms

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Introduction to Anatomy (Anatomical Terms)

  1. 1. For the students of Gulf Medical University, Ajman, MBBS Dr. Seyed Morteza Mahmoudi, MBBS Gulf Medical University, Ajman
  2. 2.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  3. 3.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  4. 4. The anatomical Planes Coronal (frontal) plane Divides the body into front and back halves (also any plane parallel to this). Sagittal plane Divides the body into right and left halves (also any plane or section parallel to this). The term, parasagittal plane, is sometimes used for the parallel planes. Horizontal/ transverse/ axial plane Any section across the long axis of the body or across the long axis of a part or an organ.
  5. 5.  Axillary lines. • Midaxillary line, a line running vertically down the surface of the body passing through the apex of the axilla (armpit). • Anterior axillary line, passes through the anterior axillary skinfold, • Posterior axillary line, passes through the posterior axillary skinfold. Mid-clavicular line, vertical line passing through the midpoint of the clavicle and mid-inguinal point.  Intercristal line, a transverse line passing across the lumbar spine between the superior aspects of the iliac crests.  In addition, reference may be made to structures at specific spinal levels (e.g. the 4th cervical vertebra, "C4"), or intercostal spaces. 
  6. 6.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  7. 7. • Superior/ Cranial vs. Inferior/ Caudal • Anterior/ Ventral vs. Posterior/ Dorsal • Medial vs. Lateral • Radial vs. Ulnar • Fibular vs. Tibial • Median • Proximal vs. Distal • Superficial vs. Deep/ Profundus • Interior/ Internal vs. Exterior/ External • Combined terms: eg. superolateral, posteromedial, anterolateral, etc.
  8. 8. Terms of Direction 2
  9. 9.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  10. 10.  Flexion vs. Extension  Abduction vs. Adduction  Circumduction  Dorsiflexion vs. Plantar flexion  Eversion vs. Inversion  External rotation vs. Internal rotation  Lateral flexion  Pronation vs. Supination  Radial deviation vs. Ulnar deviation
  11. 11. Movements Flexion: Generally the bending of two surfaces toward each other. Extension: Generally the bending of two surfaces away from each other. When there might be confusion the term dorsiflexion is used.
  12. 12. Movements cont. Abduction: Any movement away from the midline Adduction: Any movement toward the midline
  13. 13. Movements cont. External (lateral) rotation: Turning a part of the body to face outward Internal (medial) rotation: Turning a part of the body to face inward Circumduction: Sometimes used to describe a circular movement, as when swinging one's arm around in a circle.
  14. 14. Movements cont. Special movements of the forearm Supination: turning the palms to face upward Pronation: turning the palms to face downward Special movements of the foot Eversion: turning the soles of the feet outward Inversion: turning the soles of the feet inward to face each other Note: When describing movement, always refer to the joint involved, e.g.. flexion of elbow rather than flexion of forearm. This will avoid much confusion.
  15. 15.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  16. 16. Parts and Regions of the Body Head and neck •Head = cephalus; adjective - cephalic (cranial is sometimes used as a synonym) •Neck = cervix; adjective - cervical Upper limb •Anterior shoulder = pectoral area •Arm or brachium = portion between shoulder and elbow (this is not a synonym for upper limb.) •Forearm or antebrachium = portion between elbow and wrist •The hand has a dorsal and a palmar (or volar) surface. Lower limb •Buttock = gluteal region •Thigh = portion from hip to knee. •Leg = portion from knee to ankle •The foot has a dorsal and a plantar surface.
  17. 17. Parts and Regions of the Body cont. Trunk or torso is an anatomical term for the central part of body from which extend the neck and limbs. The trunk includes the thorax and abdomen. Thorax or chest •Adjective - thoracic •Anterior surface = sternal or pectoral area •Ribs = costa; adjective - costal Abdomen •The anterior wall has several regions which will be encountered later. e.g. umbilical= around navel, lumbar = flank region, gastric = stomach Pelvis •This is actually the inferior continuation of the abdomen. •The posterior area is called the sacral area because of its relationship to the sacrum bone. •Perineum is the area enclosing the external genitalia and anus
  18. 18.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  19. 19.  Cranial regions • • • •  Parietal Frontal Temporal Occipital Facial regions • • • • • • • • • • Auricular Buccal Orbital Mastoid Nasal Mental Submental Maxillary Mandibular Zygomatic
  20. 20.  Cervical  Larynx  Tracheal  Nuchal
  21. 21.  Axillary  Clavicular  Sternal  Pectoral  Mammary  Costal  Scapular
  22. 22.  Hypochondriac  Epigastric  Umbilical  Hypogastric  Inguinal/  Lumbar iliac
  23. 23.  Deltoid  Acromial  Brachial  Antebrachial  Antecubital  Olecranon  Carpal  Palmar  Digital  Phalangeal  Pollex
  24. 24.  Femoral  Patellar  Crural  Popliteal  Sural  Tarsal  Pedal  Calcaneal
  25. 25. Posterior Body Regions •Occipital •Deltoid •Popliteal •Gluteal •Scapular •Lumbar •Vertebral •Sacral
  26. 26.  Anatomical Position  Orientation Planes and Lines  Terms of Direction  Terms of Movement  Parts and Regions of the Body  Body Cavities
  27. 27. Pleural Pericardial
  28. 28. Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavity Ventral Body Cavity •Cranial Cavity •Thoracic Cavity •Spinal Cavity •Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal & Pelvic

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