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Lecture 1 salivary glands


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chapter of salivary gland for dental students

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Lecture 1 salivary glands

  1. 1. Saliva & Salivary glands lecture 1 Dr: Mahmoud 3mmar Mobile: 0106 39 700 30 f.b:
  2. 2. Contents of chapter: 1. Definition of saliva, its contents. 2. Functions of saliva. 3. Classification of salivary glands. 4. Histological structure.
  3. 3. 1)Definition of saliva: its complex fluid (99%water , Ca , Po4 , F & protein , glycoprotein and enzymes) , produced by salivary glands , has important role in maintaining the well condition of the mouth. 2)Functions of saliva: 1- protection 2- buffering action. 3- maintenance tooth integrity. 4- digestion. 5- defense (antimicrobial action). 6- taste. 7- tissue repair.
  4. 4. active component. effect of this function Functions of saliva 1) Glycoprotein & mucins. 2) water. 3) Protein , Ca. 1) Lubrication & act as barrier to microbial products. 2) washing action: by removal of bacteria , its toxins and debris from the mouth & decrease the action of acido-genenic bacteria by clearance the sugar. 3) Salivary pellicle: its thin coat on the tooth surface formed by binding between Ca , protein . 1-protection Po4 , bicarbonate Maintain the natural PH of the oral cavity. .2-buffering action Calcium Ca, phosphate PO4 & flouride F 1) post-eruptive maturation of enamel. 2) Repair , remineralization . 3) Protection by washing action. 3- Tooth integrity
  5. 5. 1- lyso-somes. 2-lactoferin. 3- IGA 4- mucins 5- water 1- hydrolysis of the cell wall of some bacteria. 2- Binding of some elements which is essential for bacteria. 3- immune defense mechanism. 4- act as physical microbial barrier 5- mechanical effect by washing action. .5- defense -(bacterio static) 1) protein gustin. .2) water .1) maturation of taste buds .2) washing taste bud from debris 6- taste. Growth factors1) Epithelial regeneration 2) Wound healing 7- tissue repair. 1) water. 2) amylase 3) maltose , lipase .4) po4 , bicarbonate 1) bolus formation . 2) digest the starch into glucose. 3) digest triglyceride into mono , di- glycride 4) netralize esophageal contents 4- digestion.
  6. 6. Salivary glands: are compound , tubulo-acinar , merocrine , exocrine glands whose ducts open in oral cavity that produce , secrte saliva. ‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ 3) Classifications of salivary glands according to their:- 1- location. (oral vestibule & oral cavity proper) 2- size. (major & minor ) 3- nature of secretion. (pure serous & pure mucous & mixed) ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــ‬‫ـــــــــــــ‬
  7. 7. 1- According to their location. 1) glands of oral vestibule a- labilal G b- buccal G. c- parotid G. 2) glands of oral cavity proper: 1- G of the floor of the mouth. a. sub-mandibular glands. b. major , minor sub-lingual glands c. glosso-palatine glands. 2- G of tongue. a. anterior lingual glands (blandin nuhn) b. posterior lingual glands (vonebner , weber glands) 3- G of the palate a. postero-lateral of hard palate glands. b. soft palate glands. c. uvula glands.
  8. 8. 2- according to size 1) major < 3 pairs > a. parotid glands: oppen at buccal vstibule opposite to upper molars b. sub-lingual glands: open on each side of lingual frenum. c. sub-mandibular glands: open at posterior part of floor of mouth 2) minor: its separated small mucosal glands in different areas in the mouth. N.B: major salivary glands don’t act during sleep while minor glands act 24 h .
  9. 9. 3- according to nature of secretion 1) pure seous glands a. von-ebner salivary glands (post. lingual) b. Adult human parotid glands 2) pure mucous glands a. weber glands (post. lingual) b. anterior portion of ant. Lingual gland (blandin nuhn). c. minor sub-lingual glands. d. glosso-palatine glands. e. palatine glands. N.B: no major gland secrete pure mucous
  10. 10. 3) Mixed glands: A) mixed predominantly serous. 1- parotid of new born. 2- sub-mandibular glands 80% B) mixed predominently mucous. 1- major sub-lingual glands. 2- post. Portion of ante. Lingual glamds(blandin nuhn). 3- buccal glands. 4- labial glands.
  11. 11. Vestibular & Major & pure serous in adult , mixed predominantly mucous in new born Parotid glands Oral cavity proper & major & mixed predominantly serous Sub-mandibula glands Oral cavity proper & major & mixed predominantly mucous Major Sub-lingual glands Oral cavity proper & minor & pure-mucousMinor sub-lingual glands oral cavity proper & minor & pure mucousAnterior portion of blandin nuhn glands Oral cavity proper & minor & mixed predominantly mucous Posterior portion of blandin nuhn glands .Oral cavity proper & minor & pure serousVonebner glands Oral cavity proper & minor & pure mucous.Weber glands Oral cavity proper & minor & pure mucousPalatine glands Vestibular & minor & pure mucousGlosso-palatine glands
  12. 12. Parotid Gland Duct: Stenson’s duct Submandibular Gland Duct:Wharton’s duct Sublingual gland Ducts •Bartholin’s duct •Revinous ducts (8-20 in number) Major Salivary Glands
  13. 13. 4) Histological structure of salivary glands:- 1) frame work of C.T elements < stroma >: (cells , fibers , G.S , B.V , nerves) 2) parenchymal elements: 1- secretory cells (acini) : a. serous b.mucous. 2- Non-secretory cells : a. myo-epith b. oncocyte. 3- duct system a. secretory duct (intercallated . striated) b. Excretory duct. c. main duct.
  14. 14. 1) Frame work of connective tissue elements:-  Its capsule which surround , protect the gland .  Its septa extend to subdivide the glands into major lobes & lobes further subdivided into lobules.  C.T contains cells , fibers , G.S  C.T support the B.V , lymphatic & nerves that supply the gland
  15. 15. 2) Parenchymal elements they are composed of:- 1- secretory cells. (serous , mucous cells) 2- Non-secretory cells (myoepith. Cells , oncocyte) 3- duct system (secretory , excretory . Main ducts)
  16. 16. (secretory cells & Non-secretoty cells & duct system) ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ 1) secretory cells (acini): cluster of cells varies in shape , size that resemble a many-lobe berry , its either (serous or mucous or mixed)
  17. 17. Comparison :serous , mucous acini (histological structure) mucous aciniserous acini tubular long acini sphereShape of acini largesmallSize of acini largernarrowlumen short cuboidal or .flattened pyramidal , its apical .toward lumen Shape of cells 1 layer or more1 layerNumber of cells Flattened or angularsphereShape of nucleus compressed against basal cell membrane Basal thirdSite of nucleus
  18. 18. Comparison srous , mucous (ultra structure):- Serous cell with intercellular canaliculi Mucus cell
  19. 19. Mucous cellsSerous cells mucinProtein thus cell show all features of synthesis , storage , secretion of protein. Cell synthesis *By H,E its pale , vaculated. *Cells appear empty except numerous mucigen granules & thin film of cytoplasm forms trabecular network. By H,E its deeply stained basophilic. 1- apical cytoplasm: contain zymogen secretory granules. 2- basal cytoplasm: basal striation due to numerous arranged parallel RER. cytoplasm Compressed basallyrounded basallynucleus Few RER. 10:12 prominent Golgi complex Few mico-villi mitochondria *Large amount of RER &4:6 prominent.golgi Golgi omplex (basal . Lateral to nucleus) .*Mitochondria , lysosomes *Microfilaments, microtubules. organelles Very few inter-cellular canaliculi Junctional complex , desmosomes.Intercellular canaliculi ends in form of: Granules expelled with their membrane intact then it will lostoutside Granule unit with membrane of cells . Then ruptures , its contnts secreted to outside cells Exocytosis secretion
  20. 20. 2) Non-secretory cells:(myoepithelial. Cells & oncocyte) 1) myoepith. Cells (basket cells) : *its spindle shape cells has 4:8 process . *related to secretory cells , inter-callated duct . *attached to underlying cells by desmosomes . * contains many microfilaments which collect to form darkb odies. * cells organelles are peri-tubular. Myo- ePithelial cells.
  21. 21. Function : its has contractile function which is:- decrease luminal volume thus increase the secretory pressure thus accelerate the initial flow of saliva.
  22. 22. 2) oncocyte: its spherical large cells found mostly in ducts , represent an age changes . histologically: a. cells: spherical , large. b. nucleus: peknotic (shrinkage nucleus) , centrally placed in the cell. c. cytoplasm: strong esinophilic. loaded by mitochondria site: in ducts. age: old age
  23. 23. Thanks Dr: 3mmar