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Concepts as Action-Oriented as 'Search' <ul><ul><li>Muhammad Aurangzeb Ahmad Department of Computer Science and Engineerin...
Outline <ul><li>Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Clark-Prinz Contra Fodor </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts, Actions and ...
Background <ul><li>Major Issues  (SEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology of Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of ...
Major Theories about Structure <ul><li>Prototype Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts have a probabilistic structure and ...
Clark-Prinz Contra Fodor <ul><li>Fodor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To possess a concepts is &quot;about being able to think abou...
The Frame Problem <ul><li>Given a massive reservoir of data how does one find “the right stuff (information, data) to cons...
Search Engines <ul><li>The Problem Faced by Search Engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive repository of data and a query. T...
Search Engines: Google et al. <ul><li>Information about information is still information. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of loo...
Example: Simplified PageRank <ul><li>Assume a Uniform Distribution of Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Pages: a, b, c, d </li></ul>...
Clark's Approach <ul><li>The Human Cognitive System is doing something similar when its solving the frame problem. </li></...
Beyond AC: More on Concepts and Search <ul><li>In the case of the webpages there is content but we choose to (mostly) igno...
Concepts and Search <ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul>
Similarities with other theories <ul><li>Theory-Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are defined by their role  in a lar...
Issues: Representation & Prop. Attitudes <ul><li>Why are certain objects considered to be more representative of a categor...
Miscellaneous Issues <ul><li>Problem of Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the concepts that people have do not always...
Issues: Problem of Composability <ul><li>Some concepts are not simply sum of their parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Peopl...
Issues: Problem of Composability (ii) <ul><li>Pet Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Common Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Pet Fish </li></ul>
Criticism <ul><li>How do we deal with cases that involve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract Knowledge - Numbers </li></ul></u...
Conclusion <ul><li>A complementary theory of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Pl...
Thank You !  Questions
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Concepts as Action-Oriented as 'Search'

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Concepts as Action-Oriented as 'Search'

  1. 1. Concepts as Action-Oriented as 'Search' <ul><ul><li>Muhammad Aurangzeb Ahmad Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] http://www.tc.umn.edu/~ahma0089/ </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Clark-Prinz Contra Fodor </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts, Actions and Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Networks and Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts: Networks of Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Putting it all together </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Major Issues (SEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontology of Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism and Nativism about Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation between Concepts and Natural Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts and Conceptual Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major Theories / Paradigms about Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts have a definitional structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Atomism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No semantic structure </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Major Theories about Structure <ul><li>Prototype Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts have a probabilistic structure and have to satisfy a sufficient number of conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are like scientific theories and are defined in terms of one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exemplar Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are represented as examples of categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxytype Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are copies of perceptual representations in long term memory and can be activated in working memory </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Clark-Prinz Contra Fodor <ul><li>Fodor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To possess a concepts is &quot;about being able to think about the things or states of affairs in question.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clark & Prinz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are (mostly) for acting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We have representations in order to act, and the way we act, on the basis of our representations, may have some impact on what they mean.” (Prinz, Clark 2004) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Frame Problem <ul><li>Given a massive reservoir of data how does one find “the right stuff (information, data) to consider (update, or use in reasoning) at the right time.” (Andy Clark 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Given that one's knowledge base is potentially immense how does one determine which features of the world to attend to. </li></ul><ul><li>Even the features of relevance will bring up another problem. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Search Engines <ul><li>The Problem Faced by Search Engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive repository of data and a query. The set of documents that are superficially relevant to the query are literally in tens of millions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntactical approaches work for small databases but not for global search in large databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the large database into smaller units but this assumes that one already knows what the boundaries of the sub-domains are. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Search Engines: Google et al. <ul><li>Information about information is still information. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of looking at the content look at the links between the pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Search based on links instead of purely on the content is immensely more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do a dumb syntactical search – k pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the links and get the linked pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compute the rank of the pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ones with the higher rank are more relevant </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Example: Simplified PageRank <ul><li>Assume a Uniform Distribution of Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Pages: a, b, c, d </li></ul><ul><li>Assume uniform distribution initially </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PR(a) = PR(b) + PR(c) + PR(d) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After reassignment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PR(a) = PR(b)/2 + PR(c)/1 + PR(d)/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PR(u) = Σ PR(v)/N, v in B </li></ul></ul>b c d a b c d a
  10. 10. Clark's Approach <ul><li>The Human Cognitive System is doing something similar when its solving the frame problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Second Order Information </li></ul><ul><li>Objections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isn't this circular? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed vs. Central </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Beyond AC: More on Concepts and Search <ul><li>In the case of the webpages there is content but we choose to (mostly) ignore it. </li></ul><ul><li>What does content constitute when one is discussing human cognition? </li></ul><ul><li>Why stop at second order information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you have a set of returned features you look at not just the returned features and their rankings but the 'links' between the features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The result you get can be thought of as one mechanism about how agents like us would possess concepts </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Concepts and Search <ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul>
  13. 13. Similarities with other theories <ul><li>Theory-Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are defined by their role in a larger 'theory' of things. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototype Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts have a probabilistic structure and have to satisfy a sufficient number of conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of Conditions now you have graph similarity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exemplar Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplars are just the representations (graphs) which are most likely to be returned by the query about the category. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Issues: Representation & Prop. Attitudes <ul><li>Why are certain objects considered to be more representative of a category as compared to others? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we have certain propositional attitudes without having relevant mental representations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Drunk pink elephants don't fly in space shuttles. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Miscellaneous Issues <ul><li>Problem of Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the concepts that people have do not always correspond with one another then: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can people possible communicate with one another? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does it even make sense to say that they have the same  concept? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept Pragmatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What matters that people are able to act? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient similarity between their respective 'concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How to deal with Concept Hierarchies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcategories are not necessarily subgraphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of these as collapsing Nodes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Issues: Problem of Composability <ul><li>Some concepts are not simply sum of their parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: People associate certain traits with fish and other traits with pets. However pet fish conjures up an different image such that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet Fish ≠ Pet + Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When dealing with concepts which appear to be composed of other concepts people use other background knowledge to make sense of the concept. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Issues: Problem of Composability (ii) <ul><li>Pet Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Common Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Pet Fish </li></ul>
  18. 18. Criticism <ul><li>How do we deal with cases that involve: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract Knowledge - Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Operatives </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>A complementary theory of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Concept deployment is an online process </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You ! Questions

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