THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA   and     PROFESSIONAL ETHICS CIP 81 EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 PART XVIII C lass # 1...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>EMERGENCY defined as: Event / circumstances which call for immediate action ...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.352: National Emergency:  </li></ul><ul><li>President only  after receiv...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Extra-ordinary Powers of Union  during National Emergency:   </li></ul><ul>...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Extra-ordinary Powers of Union  during National Emergency:   </li></ul><ul>...
Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule <ul><li>Art.355 obligates the Center to protect every State  </li></ul><ul><li>1...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions in ca...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>Parliame...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDE ...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDE ...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS  Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDEN...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.360: Financial Emergency: if president is satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.360: Financial Emergency: if president is satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>  ...
Effects of Proclamation of EMERGENCY   <ul><li>Art.353:  </li></ul><ul><li>When proclamation of emergency is in operation,...
Effects of Proclamation of EMERGENCY   <ul><li>During  emergency  Parliament can </li></ul><ul><li>levy tax, (of state lis...
Impact of EMERGENCY  on Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Suspension of Article 19:  (Right to Six Freedoms) </li></ul><ul><li>a)...
Impact of EMERGENCY  on Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Suspension of other Fundamental Rights </li></ul><ul><li>a) Impact  bef...
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Emergency Provisions

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Emergency Provisions

  1. 1. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA and PROFESSIONAL ETHICS CIP 81 EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 PART XVIII C lass # 16 Week :APR 08-12
  2. 2. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>EMERGENCY defined as: Event / circumstances which call for immediate action or remedy.  sudden, unforeseen or unexpected </li></ul><ul><li> EMERGENCY PROVISIONS-to maintain the security and integrity of the Nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Art.352: National Emergency: </li></ul><ul><li>President if satisfied can proclaim entire or part of India </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to the security of India </li></ul><ul><li>– War / External aggression </li></ul><ul><li>-- imminent danger of above two grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Or Armed rebellion </li></ul>
  3. 3. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.352: National Emergency: </li></ul><ul><li>President only after receiving a written recommendation from the CABINET. </li></ul><ul><li>Art.352(3) Defn of Cabinet: Council consisting of PM & other ministers of Cabinet Rank. </li></ul><ul><li>MUST be approved by Parliament within 1 month. </li></ul><ul><li>If approved shall continue for SIX months </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite period with approval every SIX months. </li></ul><ul><li>[1 st Emergency: Oct 1962 Chinese aggression </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Emergency: Dec 1971 – Indo-Pak War. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Emergency: Jun 1987 – (Internal Disturbance) Armed rebellion. Since after 44 th amendment 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be declared on Internal Disturbance.] </li></ul>
  4. 4. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Extra-ordinary Powers of Union during National Emergency: </li></ul><ul><li>President can give directions to any State </li></ul><ul><li>manner in which its executive power is exercised </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament can extend the normal tenure of LOK SABHA by ONE YEAR at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>President can modify pattern of distribution of FINANCIAL RESOURCES bet n Union & States </li></ul>
  5. 5. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Extra-ordinary Powers of Union during National Emergency: </li></ul><ul><li>President can suspend Fundamental rights of Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>[Art. 21: X pt the right to life and personal Liberty.] </li></ul><ul><li>Art. 20: Right to protection in respect of conviction for offences. </li></ul><ul><li>Art,19:Six Freedoms can be suspended only in case of External Emergency and not incase of Internal Emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament can make laws on State List items during National Emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Such laws become ineffective six months after emergency </li></ul>
  6. 6. Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule <ul><li>Art.355 obligates the Center to protect every State </li></ul><ul><li>1) Against external aggression </li></ul><ul><li>2) Internal disturbance, </li></ul><ul><li>3) ensure State Govt. function in accordance to Constitutional provision. </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------------------------------------------------ </li></ul>
  7. 7. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions in case of failure of Constitutional machinery in States </li></ul><ul><li>President is satisfied based either on Governors report or otherwise that Governance not possible per constitution </li></ul><ul><li>1. No majority party / coalition party in State LA </li></ul><ul><li>2. State Govt. looses majority & --- do ---- </li></ul><ul><li>3. State Govt. functions in a manner subversive of Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>4. State Govt. does not comply with directions issued by Central Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Security of the State—threat---Widespread law & order Breakdown. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament approval within 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>If approved, remains in force for SIX months. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended for max. period of 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond 1 year can be extended by 6 months at a time </li></ul><ul><li>only when the following two conditions are fulfilled. </li></ul><ul><li>A proclamation of national emergency should be in operation in the entire country or in the whole or any part of the concerned state and </li></ul><ul><li>The EC must certify that the General Elections to the concerned State Legislative Assembly cannot be held on account of difficulties . </li></ul>
  9. 9. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDE NT acquires extra-ordinary Powers; </li></ul><ul><li>Can assign himself </li></ul><ul><li>all or any of the the functions of the state government </li></ul><ul><li>All or any of the powers vested in the Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Or any body or authority in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>Can declare that </li></ul><ul><li>The powers of the State Legislature shall be exercisable by </li></ul><ul><li>Or under the authority of the Parliament </li></ul>
  10. 10. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDE NT acquires extra-ordinary Powers; </li></ul><ul><li>Can authorise when the Lok Sabha is not in session </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of the state, pending Parliamentary sanction </li></ul><ul><li>Can promulgate ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>For the administration of the state when the Parliament is not in session. </li></ul><ul><li>[ means dissolves the state council of ministers headed by CM and the state legislature.] </li></ul>
  11. 11. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.356: State Emergency: Presidents Rule …contd </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT acquires extra-ordinary Powers; </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament passes the state budget and legislation bills </li></ul><ul><li>State Governor on behalf of the President carries on the State Administration with the help of advisors appointed by the President or the Chief Secretary of the State. </li></ul><ul><li>High Court Constitutional status, position, powers & functions are not affected </li></ul><ul><li>President cannot interfere with HC Jurisdiction. </li></ul>
  12. 12. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.360: Financial Emergency: if president is satisfied </li></ul><ul><li> Financial instability or credit of India or any part is Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Such proclamation MUST be approved by Parliament within 2 months. The PRESIDENT can </li></ul><ul><li>Give directions to the states </li></ul><ul><li>to observe the canons of financial propriety </li></ul><ul><li>Issue directions </li></ul><ul><li>for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Require that all money bills and other financial bills </li></ul><ul><li>passed the state legislature be reserved for his consideration. </li></ul>
  13. 13. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Art.352- art.360 <ul><li>Art.360: Financial Emergency: if president is satisfied </li></ul><ul><li> The PRESIDENT can </li></ul><ul><li>Issue directions </li></ul><ul><li>for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in connection with the affaires of the union , including the judges of the Supreme Court and High Court . </li></ul><ul><li>This type of Emergency has not been declared so far. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects of Proclamation of EMERGENCY <ul><li>Art.353: </li></ul><ul><li>When proclamation of emergency is in operation, the Power of President shall extend to give directions to any State as to the manner in which its executive power has to be exercised. </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament is empowered to make any law w.r.t any subject in the State List (exclusive domain of State LA in normalcy) </li></ul><ul><li>Such laws will be alive for six months after closure or withdrawal of emergency </li></ul><ul><li>If the emergency is declared only in a part of India, the above power can extend to (security of India) the part, threatened by activities in or in relation to the part. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effects of Proclamation of EMERGENCY <ul><li>During emergency Parliament can </li></ul><ul><li>levy tax, (of state list) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive, Legislative, and distribution of revenue between centre and state will remain in hands of Central Govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Art.172 empowers the Parliament (discretionary powers) to extend the life of the State Legislature by one year each time during the emergency, subject to a maximum period of SIX months after emergency ceases to operate. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Impact of EMERGENCY on Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Suspension of Article 19: (Right to Six Freedoms) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Impact before 44 th amendment,1978. </li></ul><ul><li>As per Art.358: automatic suspension of Art.19 war or exrernal aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Effect was to remove the limitation imposed by art.19 on the legislature and executive. </li></ul><ul><li>If Legislative makes a law or executive commits an act which were inconsistent with Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Art.19 , their validity can not be questioned or challenged either during or after such emergency ceases to exist. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Impact after 44 th amendment,1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Armed Rebellion- Art.19 can not be suspended </li></ul><ul><li>Security of India or any part thereof is threatened by war or external aggression . Then Art 19 is suspended. </li></ul><ul><li>Restored / revived automatically as soon as Proclamation of emergency is withdrawn. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Impact of EMERGENCY on Fundamental Rights <ul><li>Suspension of other Fundamental Rights </li></ul><ul><li>a) Impact before 44 th amendment,1978. </li></ul><ul><li>As per Art.359: suspension of all Fundamental Rights other than Art.19 during emergency under Art.352. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Art 359, Fundamental Rights as such are not suspended; what is suspended is their enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Not automatic but by an executive order by President. Can not move any court for enforcement of Fundamental Rights for the period in the order. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Impact after 44 th amendment,1978 </li></ul><ul><li>restricts scope of Art359 . No longer possible to suspend Art 20 &21 </li></ul>

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