Reactive Powder Concrete , as high strength and high performance concrete
REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE (RPC)
ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH
HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE
BY: Mahesh Raj Bhatt
ME in Structural Engineering Kathmandu University
• Composite material /artificially built up stone
III. water (hydration)
(chemical/minerals) fig: composition of concrete
• High compressive strength but weak in tensile.
2:CLASSIFICATION BASED ON STRENGTH:
– Low Strength (<2000psi), 20Mpa
– Normal strength (2000-6000psi),20-60 Mpa
– High Strength (HPC) (>6000psi), >60 Mpa
– Ultra High Strength (UHPC/RPC) ,>200 Mpa
• High strength concrete(HSC)
Lower w/c ratio (<=0.35)
Silica fume is added(to prevent CaOH2 formation)
Less workable? BUT super plasticizers are added
Methods of production (HSC)
a. High speed slurry mixing
-cement water paste + then aggregate added
b. Use of cementitious aggregates
-high strength aggregate
-1% porosity reduce = 5% strength gain
d. Use of admixtures/to reduce w/c ratio
e. Sulphur filling or impregnation/increase
f. Preventations of cracks/inhibition.
•High performance concrete(HPC)
HIGH : strength/workability/imperm-ability/elasticity/
chemical attack resistance/dimensional stability
• Ultra high strength/ultra high performance concrete
a. Compaction by pressure
b. Helical binding
d. Reactive powder concrete (RPC)(FURTHER……..)
3: REACTIVE POWDER CPNCRETE (RPC)
• Need of High Strength /durability and ductility concrete.
• Eliminated flaws of other types of concrete and use of
• Consists of very fine powders of Cement, Micro Silica Sand,
Quartz Powder, Minimum Water and Steel fibers for
• Ultra high strength range in compression: 200-800 Mpa.
• Developed by P Richards and M Cheyrezy
Bouygues, construction, in the early 1990s. (Paris)
• w/c ratio 0.16-0.24 (sometime 0.13 too)
3.1: Ingredients of RPC
Components parameters function Particle
Sand Good hardness
available at low cost
Gives strength 150-600 Natural crushed
Cement C3S 60%,C2S22%
1-100 OPC fineness
Quartz powder Fineness Maximum reactivity
during Heat treating
Silica fumes Very low impurities Fills voids, produces
0.1 – 1
Steel fibers Good aspect ratio Improves ductility L: 13-25
Dia: 0.15 –
Less retarding Nature Reduce W/C ratio Polyacrylate
3.2:RPC MIX and PLACING
• Can be mixed and produced in a ready-mix truck and still
have similar strengths to those made in a central mixer.
• Self-placing, requires no internal vibration.
• Despite its composition, the large amount of super plasticizer
still makes it workable.
• Give strength to aggregate
• Binding material
• Maximum reactivity during heat-treating
• Filling the voids
• Improve ductility
• Reduce water binding
Chard and Cheyrezy gave following principles for
1. Elimination of coarse aggregates for enhancement of
2. Utilization of the pozzolanic properties of silica fume
3. Optimization of the granular mixture for the
enhancement of compacted density
4. The optimal usage of super plasticizer to reduce w/c and
5. Application of pressure (before and during setting) to
6. Post-set heat-treatment for the enhancement of the
7. Addition of small-sized steel fibers to improve ductility
3.4: PROPERTIES OF RPC
• Compressive strength(>100 Mpa in 24 hours of initial set)
• Flexural strength
• Water absorption
• Water permeability
• Resistance to chloride ion penetration
• Material ductility
• Almost no shrinkage or creep
• Light weight
• Long life
• Aesthetic possibilities
a. compressive strength
• Higher compressive (200-800MPa)
b. Flexural Strength
• Plane RPC possess high flexural strength than HPC
(Up to 100mpa)
• By introducing steel fibers, RPC can achieve high
c. Water Absorption
-less than 7-10 times of HPC
d. Water permeability
-28th day water permeability of RPC is negligible.
-7 times less than HPC
-fiber increase surface water permeability
e..Resistance to chloride ion penetration
• Increases when heat curing is done in concrete
• Heat cured RPC show higher value than normal cured RPC.
• This property of RPC enhances its suitability for use in nuclear
waste containment structures.
• Improved by eliminating all coarse aggregates
• Dry components for use in RPC is less than 600 micro meter.
• Application of pressure before and during concrete setting
• Microstructure of the cement hydrate can be changed by
applying heat treatment during curing.
i. material ductility:
• Material ductility can be improved through the addition of
short steel fibers.
3.5: RPC APPLICATIONS
Light weight ,high span bridges, multi story
buildings, high strength and in seismic region,
inside water structures etc.
Real structures: First bridge in Sherbrook, Quebec, Canada. (230MPa)
• Portugal has used it for seawall anchors.
• Australia has used it in a vehicular bridge.
• France has used it in building power plants.
• Qinghai-Tibet Railway Bridge.
• Shawnee's Light Rail Transit Station.
Basically, structures needing
- light and thin components,
-things like roofs for stadiums,
-long bridge spans,
extra safety or security such as blast resistant structures.
• It has the potential to structurally compete with
• Superior strength combined with higher shear
capacity result in significant dead load reduction.
• RPC can be used to resist all but direct primary
tensile stress. Tensile strength up to 50 MPa
• Improved seismic performance by reducing inertia
load with lighter member.
• Low &non-interconnected porosity diminishes
mass transfer, making penetration of liquid/gas non-
• RPC mixture design, the components are more
• No code ( no any formal worldwide documents
but is under research )
• The fine sand used in RPC becomes equivalent to
the coarse aggregate of conventional concrete, the
Portland cement plays the role of the fine
aggregate and the silica fume(lack) that of the
• The mineral component causes cost (5 to 10 times
higher than HPC).
• Owing to its high durability, RPC can even replace
steel in compression members where durability
issues are at stake (e.g. in marine condition).
• Since RPC is in its developing stage, the long-term
properties are not known.
• It would be under research what if using other ashes
rather than silica fume e.g. Pulverized fly ash etc.
1. Concrete technology B.L Gupta & Amit Gupta
2. Concrete technology M.S.Shetty .
3. Objective guides for civil engineers D. Prasad
4. Properties of Concrete, A.M. Neville
Shawnessy Light Rail Transit
Station in Iowa (2004) First
UHPC Bridge in U.S.
Sherbrooke pedestrian bridge, in Canada.
WE ARE WAITING SUCH CONCRETES!!!!!!!